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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5): 171-176, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675341

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have higher prevalences of health conditions associated with severe COVID-19 illness compared with non-LGBT populations (1). The potential for low vaccine confidence and coverage among LGBT populations is of concern because these persons historically experience challenges accessing, trusting, and receiving health care services (2). Data on COVID-19 vaccination among LGBT persons are limited, in part because of the lack of routine data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity at the national and state levels. During August 29-October 30, 2021, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines among LGBT adults aged ≥18 years. By sexual orientation, gay or lesbian adults reported higher vaccination coverage overall (85.4%) than did heterosexual adults (76.3%). By race/ethnicity, adult gay or lesbian non-Hispanic White men (94.1%) and women (88.5%), and Hispanic men (82.5%) reported higher vaccination coverage than that reported by non-Hispanic White heterosexual men (74.2%) and women (78. 6%). Among non-Hispanic Black adults, vaccination coverage was lower among gay or lesbian women (57.9%) and bisexual women (62.1%) than among heterosexual women (75.6%). Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Among gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults, vaccination coverage was lower among women (80.5% and 74.2%, respectively) than among men (88.9% and 81.7%, respectively). By gender identity, similar percentages of adults who identified as transgender or nonbinary and those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary were vaccinated. Gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults were more confident than were heterosexual adults in COVID-19 vaccine safety and protection; transgender or nonbinary adults were more confident in COVID-19 vaccine protection, but not safety, than were adults who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. To prevent serious illness and death, it is important that all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gender Identity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
2.
Psychol Assess ; 33(4): 338-355, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217670

ABSTRACT

Perceived partner responsiveness (PPR; Reis & Shaver, Handbook of personal relationships, 1988, Wiley)-the belief that one's partner will attend to core concerns-is a construct in basic relationship research that can help evaluate intimacy in couple therapy. However, research into PPR is hampered by a lack of standardized measurement. Three studies were undertaken to develop and evaluate an optimized self-report PPR measure. In Study 1, n = 2,334 respondents completed 246 candidate items derived from 19 PPR measures. Exploratory factor analyses identified two underlying dimensions, Responsiveness and Insensitivity. Item response theory was used to develop two 8-item subscales for the Perceived Responsiveness and Insensitivity scale (PRI), both of which showed incremental prediction over global satisfaction. In Study 2, n = 173 respondents completed the brief PRI along with measures of global relationship evaluations and concrete relationship behaviors every other week for 8 weeks. Random intercept cross-lagged panel models found the PRI subscales were more sensitive than global evaluations to fluctuations in support and conflict. In Study 3, n = 161 heterosexual couples completed the brief PRI along with self-reports of responsive and insensitive behaviors. Actor-partner interdependence models demonstrated the PRI subscales were associated with partners' self-reported behaviors even after controlling for own behaviors. Thus, the PRI offers a PPR measure that demonstrates desirable properties for treatment research including (a) incremental validity over global satisfaction, (b) ability to detect meaningful change over time, and (c) sensitivity to partners' behaviors in the relationship. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Interpersonal Relations , Sexual Partners/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Couples Therapy , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Heterosexuality/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report
3.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(2): 270-276, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065260

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to document young adults' perceived stress and anxiety in a diverse sample of college students across the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We recruited, via Instagram, a sample of full-time college students aged 18-22 from across the U.S. We surveyed them in April (baseline; N = 707; mean age = 20.0, SD = 1.3) and July (follow-up) 2020. This study presents overall levels of perceived stress and general anxiety symptoms and inequalities across each of these outcomes by gender, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, and household income. We also explore potential explanations for these health issues by analyzing baseline qualitative data. RESULTS: All students, on average, were suffering from perceived stress and anxiety, with especially high levels in April. We also identified inequalities in college student mental well-being, particularly by gender identity and sexual orientation. Women reported worse well-being compared with men; transgender and gender diverse and sexual minority youths reported worse outcomes than their cisgender, heterosexual peers at both time points. Qualitative data illustrate how the COVID-19 pandemic has generated educational, economic, and environmental stressors that are affecting college students' well-being. CONCLUSIONS: As colleges and universities think about how to manage and mitigate the infectious disease dimensions of COVID-19 among their student populations, they must also consider who is most at risk for increased stress and anxiety during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Heterosexuality/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Qualitative Research , Sex Factors , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Universities , Young Adult
4.
J Homosex ; 68(4): 673-691, 2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057752

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had far-reaching effects on people's lives, with evidence of a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups. Given existing health disparities and research on minority stress, COVID-19 may have uniquely impacted psychological well-being among sexual minorities. In an online survey of adults in the U.S. (N = 1,007) conducted in April 2020, we examined differences between sexual minority and heterosexual participants in psychological well-being, social distancing, computer-mediated communication, and COVID-19-related worry and experiences. Sexual minorities reported lower thriving and greater psychological distress, social distancing, computer-mediated communication, and COVID-19 worry and experiences than heterosexual participants. Social distancing and distress were positively correlated among sexual minorities and more frequent computer-mediated communication predicted greater thriving across groups. Path analyses showed sexual minorities' poorer psychological well-being was mediated by their greater COVID-19 worry and social distancing, in particular. These findings shed light on the distinct impact of COVID-19 on sexual minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Heterosexuality , Internet , Physical Distancing , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
J Homosex ; 68(4): 577-591, 2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007473

ABSTRACT

Deaths from COVID-19 continue to rise, and this virus has asymmetric impacts on marginalized communities though specific impacts on sexual and gender minority communities are not well understood. From March 23 to June 20, 2020, in an online cross-sectional survey among 1380 US adults, we assessed physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, rumination, and perceived social support in order to describe differences between sexual and gender minority (n = 290) and cisgender heterosexual (n = 1090) respondents. Sexual and gender minority respondents had more frequent COVID-19-associated physical symptoms and depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual and gender minorities had a significantly higher proportion of depression and anxiety scores exceeding the clinical concern threshold. Longitudinal studies on the physical and psychological impacts of COVID-19 among sexual and gender minority communities are needed to inform interventions to eliminate these disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598708

ABSTRACT

This online survey study aimed to compare the cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs of health beliefs related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals in Taiwan. In total, 533 sexual minority and 1421 heterosexual participants were recruited through a Facebook advertisement. The constructs pertaining to cognition (perceived relative susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived COVID-19 severity, having sufficient knowledge and information on COVID-19, and confidence in coping with COVID-19), affect (worry toward COVID-19), and behavior (adoption of health-protective behaviors) in relation to health beliefs about COVID-19 were compared between sexual minority and heterosexual participants. The results indicated that sexual minority participants had lower perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, greater self-confidence in coping with COVID-19, and lower worry about COVID-19 and were less likely to maintain good indoor ventilation and disinfect their household than heterosexual individuals. Sexual orientation is the modifying factor for the Health Belief Model in the COVID-19 pandemic and should be taken into consideration when medical professionals establish prevention programs for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Affect , Cognition , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Behavior , Heterosexuality/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan
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