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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 61, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization classified Covid-19 as a pandemic during the first months of 2020 as lockdown measures were implemented globally to mitigate the increasing incidence of Covid-19-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of national lockdown measures on proximal femur fracture epidemiology. Our hypothesis was that due to the prolonged period of stay-at-home orders, we would observe a decrease in the incidence of proximal femur fractures during the years 2020-21. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 2784 hip fractures admitted to the emergency department at one hospital between January 1, 2010, and March 31, 2021, was conducted. Cases were stratified weekly, and an analysis was conducted comparing cases occurring during government-imposed lockdown periods of 2020-21 to corresponding periods during 2010-2019. Furthermore, the trend of cases throughout the year of 2020 was observed. RESULTS: Of all proximal femur fracture cases included, 2522 occurred between 2010-2019 and 261 during the Covid-19 period. There was no significant difference in age (81.95 vs. 82.09; P = 0.78) or gender (P = 0.12). There was a total decrease of 21.64% in proximal femur fracture per week during the entirety of the Covid-19 pandemic period compared to the previous years (3.64 ± 1.99 vs. 4.76 ± 0.83; P = 0.001). During all three lockdown periods, there was a significant decrease in proximal femur fracture cases per week (3.55 ± 2.60 vs. 4.87 ± 0.95; P = 0.04), and the most pronounced decrease occurred during the third lockdown period (2.89 ± 1.96 vs. 5.23 ± 1.18; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: We observed a total decrease in the number of proximal femur fractures occurring during the Covid-19 era compared to previous years and specifically a decrease of cases occurring during the government-imposed lockdown periods. The decrease in cases was more pronounced during the second and third lockdown periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Femur , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 537, 2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hip fracture and depression are less likely to recover functional ability. This review sought to identify prognostic factors of depression or depressive symptoms up to 1 year after hip fracture surgery in adults. This review also sought to describe proposed underlying mechanisms for their association with depression or depressive symptoms. METHODS: We searched for published (MEDLINE, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL and Web of Science Core Collection) and unpublished (OpenGrey, Greynet, BASE, conference proceedings) studies. We did not impose any date, geographical, or language limitations. Screening (Covidence), extraction (Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies, adapted for use with prognostic factors studies Checklist), and quality appraisal (Quality in Prognosis Studies tool) were completed in duplicate. Results were summarised narratively. RESULTS: In total, 37 prognostic factors were identified from 12 studies included in this review. The quality of the underlying evidence was poor, with all studies at high risk of bias in at least one domain. Most factors did not have a proposed mechanism for the association. Where factors were investigated by more than one study, the evidence was often conflicting. CONCLUSION: Due to conflicting and low quality of available evidence it is not possible to make clinical recommendations based on factors prognostic of depression or depressive symptoms after hip fracture. Further high-quality research investigating prognostic factors is warranted to inform future intervention and/or stratified approaches to care after hip fracture. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospero registration: CRD42019138690 .


Subject(s)
Depression , Hip Fractures , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Prognosis , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While potentially timesaving, there is no program to automatically transform diagnosis codes of the ICD-10 German modification (ICD-10-GM) into the injury severity score (ISS). OBJECTIVE: To develop a mapping method from ICD-10-GM into ICD-10 clinical modification (ICD-10-CM) to calculate the abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and ISS of each patient using the ICDPIC-R and to compare the manually and automatically calculated scores. METHODS: Between January 2019 and June 2021, the most severe AIS of each body region and the ISS were manually calculated using medical documentation and radiology reports of all major trauma patients of a German level I trauma centre. The ICD-10-GM codes of these patients were exported from the electronic medical data system SAP, and a Java program was written to transform these into ICD-10-CM codes. Afterwards, the ICDPIC-R was used to automatically generate the most severe AIS of each body region and the ISS. The automatically and manually determined ISS and AIS scores were then tested for equivalence. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed that the manually and automatically calculated ISS were significantly equivalent over the entire patient cohort. Further sub-group analysis, however, showed that equivalence could only be demonstrated for patients with an ISS between 16 and 24. Likewise, the highest AIS scores of each body region were not equal in the manually and automatically calculated group. CONCLUSION: Though achieving mapping results highly comparable to previous mapping methods of ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes, it is not unrestrictedly possible to automatically calculate the AIS and ISS using ICD-10-GM codes.


Subject(s)
Injury Severity Score , International Classification of Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Young Adult
4.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 782-787, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215141

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, incidence of hip fracture has not changed. Evidence has shown increased mortality rates associated with COVID-19 infection. However, little is known about the outcomes of COVID-19 negative patients in a pandemic environment. In addition, the impact of vitamin D levels on mortality in COVID-19 hip fracture patients has yet to be determined. METHODS: This multicentre observational study included 1,633 patients who sustained a hip fracture across nine hospital trusts in North West England. Data were collected for three months from March 2020 and for the same period in 2019. Patients were matched by Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), hospital, and fracture type. We looked at the mortality outcomes of COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative patients sustaining a hip fracture. We also looked to see if vitamin D levels had an impact on mortality. RESULTS: The demographics of the 2019 and 2020 groups were similar, with a slight increase in proportion of male patients in the 2020 group. The 30-day mortality was 35.6% in COVID-19 positive patients and 7.8% in the COVID-19 negative patients. There was a potential association of decreasing vitamin D levels and increasing mortality rates for COVID-19 positive patients although our findings did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: In 2020 there was a significant increase in 30-day mortality rates of patients who were COVID-19 positive but not of patients who were COVID-19 negative. Low levels of vitamin D may be associated with high mortality rates in COVID-19 positive patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):782-787.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hip Fractures/etiology , Hip Fractures/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Matched-Pair Analysis , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 104: 106356, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 75% of hip fracture patients never recover to their pre-fracture functional status. Supervised exercise that includes strength training can improve functional recovery after hip fracture. The role of testosterone replacement for augmenting the effects of exercise in older women after hip fracture is unknown. METHODS: The Starting Testosterone and Exercise after Hip Injury (STEP-HI) Study is a 6-month Phase 3 multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to compare supervised exercise (EX) plus 1% testosterone topical gel, with EX plus placebo gel, and with enhanced usual care (EUC). Female hip fracture patients age ≥ 65 years are being recruited from clinical centers across the United States. Participants are community dwelling and enrolled within 24 weeks after surgical repair of the fracture. The EX intervention is a center-based program of progressive resistance training. The EUC group receives a home exercise program and health education. Participants receive dietary counseling, calcium and vitamin D. The primary outcome is the Six Minute Walk Distance. Secondary outcomes include physical performance measures, self-reported function and quality of life, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measures of body composition and bone mineral density. RESULTS: Enrollment, interventions, and follow-up are ongoing. We describe the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the trial, including modifications made to allow continuation of the interventions and outcome data collection using remote video and audio technology. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the STEP-HI study are expected to have important clinical and public health implications for management of the growing population of hip fracture patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Functional Status , Hip Fractures/rehabilitation , Resistance Training/methods , Testosterone , Walk Test/methods , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Administration, Topical , Aged , Androgens/administration & dosage , Androgens/adverse effects , Bone Density , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/metabolism , Hip Fractures/psychology , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Patient Participation/methods , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Testosterone/adverse effects
6.
Surgeon ; 19(5): e318-e324, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study reviewed whether the response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic affected the care for hip fracture patients at a major trauma centre in Scotland during the first-wave lock-down period. METHODS: All patients referred to Orthopaedics with a hip fracture in a major trauma centre in Scotland were captured between 14 th March and 28 th May (11 weeks) in 2020 and 2019. Patients were identified using electronic patient records. The primary outcomes are time to theatre, length of admission and 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes are COVID-19 prevalence, duration of surgery, proportion of patients to theatre within 36 hours and COVID-19 positive 30-day mortality from time of surgery. 225 patients were included: 108 from 2019 and 117 from 2020. THE MAIN FINDINGS: 30-day mortality was 3.7% (n=4) in 2019 and 8.5% (n=10) in 2020 (p=0.142). There was no statistical difference with time to theatre (p=0.150) nor duration of theatre (p=0.450). Duration of admission was reduced from 12 days to 6.5 days (p=<0.005). 4 patients tested positive for COVID-19 during admission, one 5 days after discharge, all underwent surgical management. 30-day mortality for COVID-19 positive patients during admission was 40%. COVID-19 prevalence of patients that were tested (n=89) was 5.62%. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown the care of hip fracture patients has been maintained during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is no statistically significant change in mortality, time to theatre, and duration of surgery, however, the patient's admission duration was significantly less than the 2019 cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Fracture Fixation/statistics & numerical data , Hip Fractures/surgery , Trauma Centers , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Scotland , Treatment Outcome
7.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 782-787, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052425

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, incidence of hip fracture has not changed. Evidence has shown increased mortality rates associated with COVID-19 infection. However, little is known about the outcomes of COVID-19 negative patients in a pandemic environment. In addition, the impact of vitamin D levels on mortality in COVID-19 hip fracture patients has yet to be determined. METHODS: This multicentre observational study included 1,633 patients who sustained a hip fracture across nine hospital trusts in North West England. Data were collected for three months from March 2020 and for the same period in 2019. Patients were matched by Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), hospital, and fracture type. We looked at the mortality outcomes of COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative patients sustaining a hip fracture. We also looked to see if vitamin D levels had an impact on mortality. RESULTS: The demographics of the 2019 and 2020 groups were similar, with a slight increase in proportion of male patients in the 2020 group. The 30-day mortality was 35.6% in COVID-19 positive patients and 7.8% in the COVID-19 negative patients. There was a potential association of decreasing vitamin D levels and increasing mortality rates for COVID-19 positive patients although our findings did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: In 2020 there was a significant increase in 30-day mortality rates of patients who were COVID-19 positive but not of patients who were COVID-19 negative. Low levels of vitamin D may be associated with high mortality rates in COVID-19 positive patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):782-787.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hip Fractures/etiology , Hip Fractures/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Matched-Pair Analysis , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
8.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1219-1228, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844187

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to assess the independent influence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on 30-day mortality for patients with a hip fracture. The secondary aims were to determine whether: 1) there were clinical predictors of COVID-19 status; and 2) whether social lockdown influenced the incidence and epidemiology of hip fractures. METHODS: A national multicentre retrospective study was conducted of all patients presenting to six trauma centres or units with a hip fracture over a 46-day period (23 days pre- and 23 days post-lockdown). Patient demographics, type of residence, place of injury, presentation blood tests, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, time to surgery, operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, anaesthetic, length of stay, COVID-19 status, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Of 317 patients with acute hip fracture, 27 (8.5%) had a positive COVID-19 test. Only seven (26%) had suggestive symptoms on admission. COVID-19-positive patients had a significantly lower 30-day survival compared to those without COVID-19 (64.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 45.7 to 83.3 vs 91.7%, 95% CI 88.2 to 94.8; p < 0.001). COVID-19 was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality risk adjusting for: 1) age, sex, type of residence (hazard ratio (HR) 2.93; p = 0.008); 2) Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (HR 3.52; p = 0.001); and 3) ASA (HR 3.45; p = 0.004). Presentation platelet count predicted subsequent COVID-19 status; a value of < 217 × 109/l was associated with 68% area under the curve (95% CI 58 to 77; p = 0.002) and a sensitivity and specificity of 63%. A similar number of patients presented with hip fracture in the 23 days pre-lockdown (n = 160) and 23 days post-lockdown (n = 157) with no significant (all p ≥ 0.130) difference in patient demographics, residence, place of injury, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, time to surgery, ASA, or management. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with an increased 30-day mortality rate for patients with a hip fracture. Notably, most patients with hip fracture and COVID-19 lacked suggestive symptoms at presentation. Platelet count was an indicator of risk of COVID-19 infection. These findings have implications for the management of hip fractures, in particular the need for COVID-19 testing. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1219-1228.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Proportional Hazards Models , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Survival Rate , Trauma Centers
10.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34(8): 395-402, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-480996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine one health system's response to the essential care of its hip fracture population during the COVID-19 pandemic and report on its effect on patient outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Seven musculoskeletal care centers within New York City and Long Island. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-eight recent and 115 historical hip fracture patients. INTERVENTION: Patients with hip fractures occurring between February 1, 2020, and April 15, 2020, or between February 1, 2019, and April 15, 2019, were prospectively enrolled in an orthopaedic trauma registry and chart reviewed for demographic and hospital quality measures. Patients with recent hip fractures were identified as COVID positive (C+), COVID suspected (Cs), or COVID negative (C-). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Hospital quality measures, inpatient complications, and mortality rates. RESULTS: Seventeen (12.2%) patients were confirmed C+ by testing, and another 14 (10.1%) were suspected (Cs) of having had the virus but were never tested. The C+ cohort, when compared with Cs and C- cohorts, had an increased mortality rate (35.3% vs. 7.1% vs. 0.9%), increased length of hospital stay, a greater major complication rate, and a greater incidence of ventilator need postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a devastating effect on the care of patients with hip fracture during the pandemic. Although practice patterns generally remained unchanged, treating physicians need to understand the increased morbidity and mortality in patients with hip fracture complicated by COVID-19. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of Levels of Evidence.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cause of Death , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Male , New York City , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Trauma Centers
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