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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 969370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163169

ABSTRACT

A critical step to reduce the spread of COVID-19 is vaccination. We conducted a mixed methods project that used online surveys and focus groups with 64 Community Health Workers and Promotor/as (CHW/Ps) located near the U.S.-Mexico border to identify barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination among Latino communities that have been historically underrepresented and medically underserved. Overall, personal barriers to vaccination included mistrust of manufacturers and administrators as well as fear of: becoming infected from the vaccine, discrimination/stigmatization from healthcare professionals administering the vaccine, exploitation/manipulation by the government or health authorities, and having personal information mishandled. Environmental and community barriers included being undocumented and fear-inducing myths and beliefs. Additional barriers included limited information and logistics pertaining to vaccination access. Targeted efforts are needed to overcome barriers in a culturally and contextually sensitive manner to prevent harm and reduce risk of infection among communities that have been historically underrepresented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , United States , Humans , Community Health Workers , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Hispanic or Latino
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110113

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic placed the United States of America (U.S.) under enormous strain, leaving it with higher deaths during the first wave of the outbreak compared to all other advanced economies. Blacks and Hispanics were among those hardest hit by the virus-a fact attributed to enduring problems related to the social determinants of health adversely affecting Communities of Color (CoC). In this study, we ask which distinct factors relating to policy stringency and community vulnerability influenced COVID-19 mortality among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics during the first year of the pandemic. To address this question, we utilized a mix of correlational and regression analyses. Findings point to the highly divergent impact of public policy and vulnerability on COVID-19 mortality. Specifically, we observed that state-led measures aimed at controlling the spread of the virus only improved mortality for Whites. However, pre-existing social determinants of health (i.e., population density, epidemiological and healthcare system factors) played a significant role in determining COVID-19 outcomes for CoC, even in the face of stringent containment measures by states. This suggests that state-led policy to address present and/or future public health crises need to account for the particular nature of vulnerability affecting Blacks and Hispanics in the U.S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Whites , Hispanic or Latino , Socioeconomic Factors , Public Policy , Health Policy
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066585, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our community-based participatory research partnership aims to expand understanding of the social, ethical and behavioural implications of COVID-19 testing and vaccination to inform the development of an integrated intervention that harnesses community-based peer navigation and mHealth strategies to improve COVID-19 testing and vaccination; test the intervention; and develop and disseminate practice, research and policy recommendations to further increase COVID-19 testing and vaccination among Spanish-speaking Latine communities in the USA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct 50 individual in-depth interviews with health providers, who have conducted COVID-19 testing and/or vaccination activities within Spanish-speaking communities, and with representatives from Latine-serving community-based organisations. We will also conduct six focus groups with 8-12 Spanish-speaking Latine community member participants each for a total number of about 60 focus group participants. Next, we will develop the Nuestra Comunidad Saludable intervention based on findings from interviews and focus groups and use a longitudinal group-randomised trial design with two arms (intervention and delayed intervention) to evaluate the impact of the intervention. We will recruit, enrol and collect baseline data from 20 community-based peer navigators (Navegantes) and their social network members (n=8 unique social network members per Navegante). Navegantes (coupled with their social networks) will be randomised to intervention or delayed intervention groups (10 Navegantes and 80 social network members per group). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for data collection was granted by the Wake Forest University School of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Following the description of study procedures, we will obtain consent from all study participants. Study findings will be disseminated through an empowerment theory-based community forum, peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific meetings, and reports and briefs for lay, community and practitioner audiences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05302908.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , United States , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hispanic or Latino , Vaccination , Social Networking , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0272627, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic among Latino communities, with an emphasis on understanding barriers and facilitators to vaccine intention prior to the development of the vaccine. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected between April and June 2020 from 3 focus groups with Latino adults (n = 21) and interviews with administrators of community-based organizations serving Latino communities (n = 12) in urban (Los Angeles) and rural (Fresno) California, supplemented by Community Advisory Board input in May 2021to elucidate the findings. Data were analyzed with deductive content analysis. RESULTS: We have identified four main themes that are barriers to vaccinating against COVID-19: 1) concerns about accessing appropriate healthcare services, 2) financial issues and 3) immigration matters, as well as 4) misinformation. CONCLUSIONS: Findings illustrate the pervasive role of addressable social determinants of health in the intention of rural and urban Latino communities in being vaccinated, which is a pressing public health issue. Policy implications: Findings provide evidence for a systemic shift to prioritize equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines to Latino communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hispanic or Latino
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277005, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117231

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic resulted in a dramatic contraction in employment in the U.S., but the effects of this contraction have been unevenly distributed. We examine differences in employment among foreign- and native-born workers by race/ethnicity during the course of the epidemic. We test individual fixed-effects models based on data from the monthly CPS panel from January 2020 to December 2021 adjusting for seasonality. Immigrant men and women experienced greater declines in employment than non-immigrants of the same race/ethnicity when both compared to native-born Whites, but their disadvantage were limited to the initial months of the epidemic. Ethnoracial and immigrant status disparities were substantially reduced by the fall of 2020, except for Hispanic immigrant men and women, who still experienced substantial employment gaps with their native-born White counterparts. Differences in family characteristics account for Hispanic immigrant women's lower employment rates during the epidemic but do not appear to account for differences between Black and Asian women and native-born Whites. Observed disparities in employment by race/ethnicity and immigrant status cannot be fully explained by differences in education, the concentration of minority and immigrant workers in industries and occupations that suffered steeper employment declines, or regional differences in the intensity of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Male , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hispanic or Latino , Employment
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19156, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106477

ABSTRACT

Movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We report changes in and factors that influenced movement behaviors during COVID-19 among Latin American/Latino children aged 1 to 5 years in Chile, Mexico, and the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study between April and August 2020. Caregivers of 4,136 children (mean age [SD], 3.1 [1.4] years; 51% boys) reported family and household characteristics and changes in their child's movement behaviors. The proportion of children who met the WHO Guidelines decreased significantly in all countries, with the largest declines in meeting the physical activity and screen time guidelines. Factors associated with negative changes in movement behaviors were being an older child, unable to attend an early childhood education and care service, higher parental education levels, not having the opportunity to play with someone, and not having access to spaces to play. The findings highlight the need to minimize disparities faced by families by providing access to early childhood education and care and safe places for children to play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Infant , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Latin America , Sleep , Hispanic or Latino
7.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276257, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate implementation of a community-engaged approach to scale up COVID-19 mass testing in low-income, majority-Latino communities. METHODS: In January 2021, we formed a community-academic "Latino COVID-19 Collaborative" with residents, leaders, and community-based organizations (CBOs) from majority-Latinx, low-income communities in three California counties (Marin/Merced/San Francisco). The collaborative met monthly to discuss barriers/facilitators for COVID-19 testing, and plan mass testing events informed by San Francisco's Unidos en Salud "test and respond" model, offering community-based COVID-19 testing and post-test support in two US-census tracts: Canal (Marin) and Planada (Merced). We evaluated implementation using the RE-AIM framework. To further assess testing barriers, we surveyed a random sample of residents who did not attend the events. RESULTS: Fifty-five residents and CBO staff participated in the Latino collaborative. Leading facilitators identified to increase testing were extended hours of community-based testing and financial support during isolation. In March-April 2021, 1,217 people attended mass-testing events over 13 days: COVID-19 positivity was 3% and 1% in Canal and Planada, respectively. The RE-AIM evaluation found: census tract testing coverage of 4.2% and 6.3%, respectively; 90% of event attendees were Latino, 89% had household income <$50,000/year, and 44% first-time testers (reach), effectiveness in diagnosing symptomatic cases early (median isolation time: 7 days) and asymptomatic COVID-19 (41% at diagnosis), high adoption by CBOs in both counties, implementation of rapid testing (median: 17.5 minutes) and disclosure, and post-event maintenance of community-based testing. Among 265 non-attendees surveyed, 114 (43%) reported they were aware of the event: reasons for non-attendance among the 114 were insufficient time (32%), inability to leave work (24%), and perceptions that testing was unnecessary post-vaccination (24%) or when asymptomatic (25%). CONCLUSION: Community-engaged mass "test and respond" events offer a reproducible approach to rapidly increase COVID-19 testing access in low-income, Latinx communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Participation , COVID-19 Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Stakeholder Participation , Hispanic or Latino , San Francisco/epidemiology
9.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(10): 821-829, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077568

ABSTRACT

Objective: A few mindfulness-based interventions have been developed for Latina immigrant populations. We describe the feasibility and acceptability of Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma (ALMA), a culturally grounded intervention developed to prevent and reduce depression and anxiety among Latina immigrants. We also compare participation in the intervention in-person with an online adaptation developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: ALMA was developed through several years of formative research in collaboration with community organizations serving Latino immigrants. The curriculum integrates mindfulness-based approaches with Latino cultural strengths to reduce stress, enhance coping strategies, and increase social support. Latina immigrant women who spoke Spanish were recruited from Latino serving organizations to participate in an intervention trial. The program consisted of eight sessions offered weekly in person to groups of ∼20 Latina immigrants. After the onset of the pandemic, the program was adapted to be delivered online via zoom. Attendance and fidelity were monitored by intervention staff, and a satisfaction survey was given to participants post-intervention. Results: We enrolled 226 Latina immigrant women with an average age of 40 years and an average of 15.0 years living in the United States. The majority of participants were monolingual Spanish speakers (59%) with a high school degree (66%), although almost half were living on less than $2,200 per month (48%). One hundred and seven (47%) attended the program in-person, and 119 (53%) participated online. Program attendance was similar across modalities, with an average of 58% sessions completed among in-person and 60% among online participants. Participant satisfaction and perceived efficacy of the intervention were high in both in-person and online groups. Discussion: Our findings indicate that the ALMA intervention is acceptable and feasible in this population. Future research should assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in Latina immigrant populations, including both in-person and online modalities. CTR# NCT03749278.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Adult , Female , Humans , Hispanic or Latino , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1935, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community Heart Health Actions for Latinos at Risk (CHARLAR) is a promotora-led cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-reduction program for socio-demographically disadvantaged Latinos and consists of 11 skill-building sessions. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worsening health status in U.S. adults and necessitated transition to virtual implementation of the CHARLAR program. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used to evaluate virtual delivery of CHARLAR. Changes in health behaviors were assessed through a pre/post program survey. Results from virtual and historical (in-person delivery) were compared. Key informant interviews were conducted with promotoras and randomly selected participants and then coded and analyzed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: An increase in days of exercise per week (+ 1.52), daily servings of fruit (+ 0.60) and vegetables (+ 0.56), and self-reported general health (+ 0.38), were observed in the virtual cohort [all p < 0.05]. A numeric decrease in PHQ-8 (-1.07 p = 0.067) was also noted. The historical cohort showed similar improvements from baseline in days of exercise per week (+ 0.91), daily servings of fruit (+ 0.244) and vegetables (+ 0.282), and PHQ-8 (-1.89) [all p < 0.05]. Qualitative interviews revealed that the online format provided valuable tools supporting positive behavior change. Despite initial discomfort and technical challenges, promotoras and participants adapted and deepened valued relationships through additional virtual support. CONCLUSION: Improved health behaviors and CVD risk factors were successfully maintained through virtual delivery of the CHARLAR program. Optimization of virtual health programs like CHARLAR has the potential to increase reach and improve CVD risk among Latinos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Health Promotion/methods , Hispanic or Latino , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071447

ABSTRACT

This study explored barriers, motivators, and trusted sources of information regarding COVID-19 vaccination among Hispanic/Latine individuals. Hispanic/Latine is a broad social construct that encompasses people from heterogeneous countries and cultures. In the U.S., foreign-born Hispanics/Latines tend to have better health outcomes than U.S.-born individuals. Thus, the study examined whether nativity is a significant factor in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Binary logistic regression and linear regression analyses were employed and revealed that, regardless of nativity, Hispanic/Latine participants face similar barriers and find similar sources of information trustworthy. Controlling for age and race, vaccination rates or perceived likelihood of getting vaccinated did not differ between the two groups. The two groups significantly differed in specific motivators for vaccination: foreign-born Hispanic/Latine individuals were more motivated to get the vaccine to keep themselves, their families, and their community safe, and more often believed vaccination is needed for life to return to normal. Study results provide important insights into similarities and differences in barriers, motivators, and trusted sources of information regarding COVID-19 vaccination among native and foreign-born Hispanic/Latine individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Florida , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hispanic or Latino , Vaccination
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 962862, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065647

ABSTRACT

Background: Latinx communities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 compared with non-Latinx White communities in Oregon and much of the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a critical and urgent need to reach Latinx communities with innovative, culturally tailored outreach and health promotion interventions to reduce viral transmission and address disparities. The aims of this case study are to (1) outline the collaborative development of a culturally and trauma-informed COVID-19 preventive intervention for Latinx communities; (2) describe essential intervention elements; and (3) summarize strengths and lessons learned for future applications. Methods: Between June 2020 and January 2021, a multidisciplinary team of researchers and Latinx-serving partners engaged in the following intervention development activities: a scientific literature review, a survey of 67 Latinx residents attending public testing events, interviews with 13 leaders of community-based organizations serving Latinx residents, and bi-weekly consultations with the project's Public Health and Community Services Team and a regional Community and Scientific Advisory Board. After launching the intervention in the field in February 2021, bi-weekly meetings with interventionists continuously informed minor iterative refinements through present day. Results: The resulting intervention, Promotores de Salud, includes outreach and brief health education. Bilingual, trauma-informed trainings and materials reflect the lived experiences, cultural values, needs, and concerns of Latinx communities. Interventionists (21 Promotores) were Latinx residents from nine Oregon counties where the intervention was delivered. Conclusions: Sharing development and intervention details with public health researchers and practitioners facilitates intervention uptake and replication to optimize the public health effect in Oregon's Latinx communities and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Oregon , Pandemics , United States
13.
J Prev (2022) ; 43(4): 499-511, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048418

ABSTRACT

This study explored older adults' preventive behaviors during the pandemic. A sample of 2982 community-dwelling older adults was extracted from the United States National Health and Aging Trends Study. Results showed that number of preventive behaviors was decreased with rundown neighborhood and age; but increased with Blacks, Hispanics, other ethnic minorities, income, female, number of persons in household, social cohesion, social network, family/peer support, severity of COVID-19 symptoms, and anxiety during COVID-19 outbreak. The study results imply that joint effort of government and ethnic minority advocacy groups in public health education should focus on preventive measures as well as racial disparities in health, and that rejuvenating rundown neighborhoods, promoting neighboring, providing stimulus checks and unemployment insurance, and maintaining connection with family and friends will promote preventive behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Female , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 928575, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043528

ABSTRACT

Addressing mental health is an important part of the COVID-19 response among historically underserved communities, which have been disproportionately affected. Community Health Workers (CHWs) are well placed to offer insights about barriers to mental health service use in their communities, and they are well positioned to address mental health gaps by providing education, resources, and assistance to bridging the gap for the use of more traditional mental health services. Using the perspectives of CHWs, this project identified barriers faced by CHWs in assisting community members with their mental health needs, along with relevant training needs to more effectively deliver mental health resources, referrals, and recommendations to community members. Survey data along with data from focus groups were collected among 43 CHWs in communities that have been historically underserved near the U.S.-Mexico border region. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics whereas qualitative data were analyzed through systematic methods. Identified barriers to assisting community members with their mental health needs exist at the personal, community, environmental and organizational levels, and ranged from fear and mistrust to limited services, resources, funding and training opportunities. To help address the aforementioned barriers and facilitate access to mental health service use in their communities, CHWs identified and described opportunities for training in core areas including communication, mental illness symptom identification, trauma, self-care and stress reduction, and cultural awareness and sensitivity. Needs-based training programs that incorporate the insights of CHWs are a crucial part of promoting community-based mental health to address existing mental health disparities in access to and use of mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Workers/psychology , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Qualitative Research
15.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221125103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042947

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that perceived immigration policy vulnerability has important health implications. Coupled with the mental and physical stressors accompanying the postpartum period and a growing awareness of the discrimination and structural racism experienced by marginalized communities globally, the coronavirus disease 2019 period may have exacerbated stress among vulnerable populations, specifically postpartum Hispanic/Latina women. This study evaluated perceived immigration policy vulnerability (i.e. discrimination, social isolation, and family threats) in early postpartum Hispanic/Latina women in Los Angeles before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: The Perceived Immigration Policy Effects Scale (PIPES) was administered cross-sectionally at 1 month postpartum to 187 Hispanic/Latina women in the MADRES cohort. Respondents between September 2018 and March 2020 were classified as "pre-pandemic" (N = 128), between March 2020 and July 2020 as "early pandemic" (N = 38), and between August 2020 and November 2021 as "later pandemic" (N = 21). Average PIPES subscale scores were dichotomized into "higher" and "lower" groups (⩽median, >median) and logistic regression models were performed. RESULTS: Approximately half of participants had incomes of <$50,000 (50.3%) and were Latin American born (54.6%). After adjusting for age, nativity, education, income, postpartum distress, and employment status, early pandemic respondents had 5.05 times the odds of a higher score on the perceived discrimination subscale (95% CI: 1.81, 14.11), 6.47 times the odds of a higher score on the social isolation subscale (95% CI: 2.23, 18.74), 2.66 times the odds of a higher score on the family threats subscale (95% CI: 0.97, 7.32), and 3.36 times the odds of a higher total score (95% CI: 1.19, 9.51) when compared to pre-pandemic respondents. There were no significant subscale score differences between later pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. CONCLUSION: Higher perceived immigration policy vulnerability was reported among postpartum women during the early coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic versus pre-pandemic periods. This suggests greater social inequities during the early pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1645, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Latino populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by substance use, HIV/AIDS, violence, and mental health issues (SAVAME). A growing body of evidence demonstrates the syndemic nature of SAVAME and the need for integrated strategies to reduce their impact. This study sought to understand the network of SAVAME services for Latino immigrants in Philadelphia to inform future interventions for SAVAME prevention and mitigation. METHODOLOGY: Key informant interviews (N = 30) were conducted with providers working in Latino-serving organizations providing SAVAME services. Interviews were analyzed using thematic coding and grounded theory. RESULTS: Latino-serving providers perceived a large need for, and important limitations in the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of SAVAME services for Latino immigrants. Gaps were seen as especially acute for mental health and substance use services, partly because of insufficient funding for these services. Latino immigrants' lack of health insurance, immigration status, limited English proficiency (LEP), stigma surrounding SAVAME issues, and limited knowledge of available services were identified as significant barriers preventing access to services. Providers noted that scarcity of well-trained, culturally competent, and ethnically concordant providers reduced the adequacy of SAVAME services for Latino immigrant clients. The small size, low levels of infrastructure, and limited capacity were reported as additional factors limiting the ability of many Latino-serving organizations to adopt a syndemic approach in the prevention and treatment of SAVAME services. CONCLUSIONS: The results call for changes in the structure of funding streams and communitywide strategies to foster collaboration across SAVAME providers working with Latino immigrant clients.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Substance-Related Disorders , Health Services Accessibility , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Philadelphia , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , United States
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2210941119, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037060

ABSTRACT

As research documenting disparate impacts of COVID-19 by race and ethnicity grows, little attention has been given to dynamics in mortality disparities during the pandemic and whether changes in disparities persist. We estimate age-standardized monthly all-cause mortality in the United States from January 2018 through February 2022 for seven racial/ethnic populations. Using joinpoint regression, we quantify trends in race-specific rate ratios relative to non-Hispanic White mortality to examine the magnitude of pandemic-related shifts in mortality disparities. Prepandemic disparities were stable from January 2018 through February 2020. With the start of the pandemic, relative mortality disadvantages increased for American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and Black individuals, and relative mortality advantages decreased for Asian and Hispanic groups. Rate ratios generally increased during COVID-19 surges, with different patterns in the summer 2021 and winter 2021/2022 surges, when disparities approached prepandemic levels for Asian and Black individuals. However, two populations below age 65 fared worse than White individuals during these surges. For AIAN people, the observed rate ratio reached 2.25 (95% CI = 2.14, 2.37) in October 2021 vs. a prepandemic mean of 1.74 (95% CI = 1.62, 1.86), and for NHOPI people, the observed rate ratio reached 2.12 (95% CI = 1.92, 2.33) in August 2021 vs. a prepandemic mean of 1.31 (95% CI = 1.13, 1.49). Our results highlight the dynamic nature of racial/ethnic disparities in mortality and raise alarm about the exacerbation of mortality inequities for Indigenous groups due to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Mortality , American Indians or Alaska Natives , Asians , Blacks , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Mortality/ethnology , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Pandemics , Racial Groups , United States/epidemiology , Whites
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032977

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted multiple racial and ethnic minority groups, including Latinos residing in rural communities. Low rates of vaccination and testing combined with social determinants of health have contributed significantly to this disparate impact. Given the needs and constraints unique to rural Latino migrant and immigrant communities, this qualitative study examined multilevel barriers and strategies that affect COVID-19 vaccination and testing uptake among these communities in southwest Florida. Four focus groups (n = 25) were conducted between March and April 2021 with various key stakeholders, including rural Latino community members, local leaders, and community health workers ('Promotoras de Salud'). Themes that aligned with barriers to COVID-19 vaccination and testing included fear, lack of control, misinformation, lack of accessibility, and institutional/policy issues; themes that aligned with strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccination and testing uptake included faith, taking care of self, and community and family resilience. Recommendations for improving future pandemic responses for rural Latino communities include incorporating multiple levels of intervention, such as consideration of the role of the family, involving trusted community members, and ensuring the development and implementation of fair and consistent policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnicity , Family Health , Florida/epidemiology , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Rural Population , Vaccination
19.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(9): e370-e372, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030117

ABSTRACT

The obesity epidemic remains a major public health issue worldwide, and it is pronounced in the United States. As rates of obesity continue to increase, children now experience obesity at younger ages, which predisposes them to early-onset obesity-related diseases. Of note, Black and Hispanic children experience obesity at higher rates compared with their White counterparts. Although there are many factors that contribute to higher rates of obesity, the increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is one such contributor. Despite the dire state of obesity in these populations, sugar-sweetened beverage companies continue to increase their advertisements to Black and Hispanic children, which can negatively influence the childhood obesity epidemic. This article discusses the effect that sugar-sweetened beverages and their advertisements have on children in underrepresented communities. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(9):e370-e372.].


Subject(s)
Advertising , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Beverages/adverse effects , Beverages/analysis , Child , Dietary Sucrose , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Sugars/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology
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