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1.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 9, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate incidence risk and adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 disease among short-term users of acid-suppressants in South Korea. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study, conducted using a nationwide claims database for South Korea, used data from patients with COVID-19 tested between January 1 and May 15, 2020. Patients aged over 18 years and prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) for more than 7 days were identified. Primary outcome was COVID-19 while secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalization with respiratory disease, or intensive respiratory intervention. Large-scale propensity scores were used to match patients, while the Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to evaluate any association between exposure and outcome(s). The risk estimates were calibrated by using 123 negative control outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 26,166 PPI users and 62,117 H2RA users. After propensity score matching, compared to H2RA use, PPI use was not significantly associated with lower risk of COVID-19 (calibrated hazard ratio [HR], 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-2.19]); moreover, PPI use was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19, namely, hospitalization with respiratory disease (calibrated HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.72-1.08]), intensive respiratory interventions (calibrated HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.46-1.82]), except for all-cause mortality (calibrated HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.31-0.95]). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that the PPI user was not associated with risk of COVID-19 compared to H2RA users. There was no significant relationship between severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and exposure to PPI compared with H2RA, except for all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502075

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Famotidine is a competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist most commonly used for gastric acid suppression but thought to have potential efficacy in treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to summarize the current literature and report clinical outcomes on the use of famotidine for treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Five databases were searched through February 12, 2021 to identify observational studies that reported on associations of famotidine use with outcomes in COVID-19. Meta-analysis was conducted for composite primary clinical outcome (e.g. rate of death, intubation, or intensive care unit admissions) and death separately, where either aggregate odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) was calculated. RESULTS: Four studies, reporting on 46,435 total patients and 3,110 patients treated with famotidine, were included in this meta-analysis. There was no significant association between famotidine use and composite outcomes in patients with COVID-19: HR 0.63 (95% CI: 0.35, 1.16). Across the three studies that reported mortality separated from other endpoints, there was no association between famotidine use during hospitalization and risk of death-HR 0.67 (95% CI: 0.26, 1.73) and OR 0.79 (95% CI: 0.19, 3.34). Heterogeneity ranged from 83.69% to 88.07%. CONCLUSION: Based on the existing observational studies, famotidine use is not associated with a reduced risk of mortality or combined outcome of mortality, intubation, and/or intensive care services in hospitalized individuals with COVID-19, though heterogeneity was high, and point estimates suggested a possible protective effect for the composite outcome that may not have been observed due to lack of power. Further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may help determine the efficacy and safety of famotidine as a treatment for COVID-19 patients in various care settings of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Adult , Aged , Data Management , Female , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD003424, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malabsorption of fat and protein contributes to poor nutritional status in people with cystic fibrosis. Impaired pancreatic function may also result in increased gastric acidity, leading in turn to heartburn, peptic ulcers and the impairment of oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. The administration of gastric acid-reducing agents has been used as an adjunct to pancreatic enzyme therapy to improve absorption of fat and gastro-intestinal symptoms in people with cystic fibrosis. It is important to establish the evidence regarding potential benefits of drugs that reduce gastric acidity in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of drug therapies for reducing gastric acidity for: nutritional status; symptoms associated with increased gastric acidity; fat absorption; lung function; quality of life and survival; and to determine if any adverse effects are associated with their use. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic and non-electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals,  abstract books and conference proceedings. Both authors double checked the reference lists of the searches Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 26 April 2021. On the 26 April 2021 further searches were conducted on the clinicaltrials.gov register to identify any ongoing trials that may be of relevance. The WHO ICTRP database was last searched in 2020 and is not currently available for searching due to the Covid-19 pandemic. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised and quasi-randomised trials involving agents that reduce gastric acidity compared to placebo or a comparator treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: The searches identified 40 trials; 17 of these, with 273 participants, were suitable for inclusion, but the number of trials assessing each of the different agents was small. Seven trials were limited to children and four trials enrolled only adults. Meta-analysis was not performed, 14 trials were of a cross-over design and we did not have the appropriate information to conduct comprehensive meta-analyses. All the trials were run in single centres and duration ranged from five days to six months. The included trials were generally not reported adequately enough to allow judgements on risk of bias. However, one trial found that drug therapies that reduce gastric acidity improved gastro-intestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain; seven trials reported significant improvement in measures of fat malabsorption; and two trials reported no significant improvement in nutritional status. Only one trial reported measures of respiratory function and one trial reported an adverse effect with prostaglandin E2 analogue misoprostol. No trials have been identified assessing the effectiveness of these agents in improving quality of life, the complications of increased gastric acidity, or survival. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Trials have shown limited evidence that agents that reduce gastric acidity are associated with improvement in gastro-intestinal symptoms and fat absorption. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to indicate whether there is an improvement in nutritional status, lung function, quality of life, or survival. Furthermore, due to the unclear risks of bias in the included trials, we are unable to make firm conclusions based on the evidence reported therein. We therefore recommend that large, multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trials are undertaken to evaluate these interventions.


Subject(s)
Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Gastric Acid/metabolism , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Abdominal Pain/drug therapy , Adult , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Dietary Fats/pharmacokinetics , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Pancreas/enzymology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(6): 295-301, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 was declared as a global pandemic by the WHO. Famotidine is a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist which blocks the H2 receptors in the parietal cells, decreasing gastric acid secretion. Our review aims to study all the available scientific evidence on famotidine research outcomes systematically to introspect its clinical efficacy and probable mechanisms and clinical efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. METHODOLOGY: An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar was performed using MeSH terms "SARS CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" AND"FAMOTIDINE". Relevant informationwas extracted from studies reporting the efficacy of famotidine in COVID-19. RESULTS: We found a total of 32 studies, out of which only 14 were relevant and were included in our review.Molecular computational studies showed that famotidine selectively acts on viral replication proteases papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro). Additionally, it acts via inverse-agonism on the H2 receptors present in neutrophils and eosinophils which leads to inhibition of cytokine release. Clinical study findings have pointed toward significant improvements in COVID-19 patient-reported symptoms in non-hospitalized patients and reduction in intubation or death in critically ill patients associated with the usage of famotidine. However,in one of the studies,famotidine has failed to show any significant benefit in reducing mortality due to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Famotidine has the potential to answer the ongoing global challenge owing to its selective action on viral replication. Additionally, clinical findings in COVID-19 patients support its efficacy to reduce clinical symptoms of COVID-19.We suggest that further optimally powered randomized clinical trials should be carried out to come up with definitive conclusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Famotidine/pharmacology , Histamine H2 Antagonists/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Histamine H2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(11): 3929-3937, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Famotidine was reported to potentially provide benefits to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, it remains controversial whether it is effective in treating COVID-19. AIMS: This study aimed to explore whether famotidine use is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study was registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (ID: CRD42020213536). A comprehensive search was performed to identify relevant studies up to October 2020. I-squared statistic and Q-test were utilized to assess the heterogeneity. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through the random effects or fixed effects model according to the heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessment were also conducted. RESULTS: Five studies including 36,635 subjects were included. We found that famotidine use was associated with a statistically non-significant reduced risk of progression to severe disease, death, and intubation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients (pooled RR was 0.82, 95% CI = 0.52-1.30, P = 0.40). CONCLUSION: Famotidine has no significant protective effect in reducing the risk of developing serious illness, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients. More original studies are needed to further clarify whether it is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans
7.
Exp Lung Res ; 46(5): 157-161, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1017073

ABSTRACT

Multiple pharmacological interventions tested over the last decades have failed to reduce ARDS mortality. This short note recounts past data indicating that (i) neutrophils home along an IL-8 gradient, (ii) in ARDS, massive neutrophil accumulation and degranulation in and along bronchoalveolar spaces contributes to damage and hypoxia, (iii) large increases in IL-8 are one of the chemotaxic signals drawing neutrophils to the ARDS lung, and (iv) old data from dermatology and glioblastoma research showed that the old drug against Hansen's disease, dapsone, inhibits neutrophils' chemotaxis to IL-8. Therefore dapsone might lower neutrophils' contributions to ARDS lung pathology. Dapsone can create methemoglobinemia that although rarely problematic it would be particularly undesirable in ARDS. The common antacid drug cimetidine lowers risk of dapsone related methemoglobinemia and should be given concomitantly.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Neutrophils/drug effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cimetidine/therapeutic use , Dapsone/pharmacology , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Methemoglobinemia/chemically induced , Methemoglobinemia/prevention & control
9.
Inflamm Res ; 70(1): 67-75, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Reports that the over-the-counter histamine H2 receptor antagonist famotidine could help treat the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) appeared from April 2020. We, therefore, examined reports on interactions between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and histamine receptor antagonists. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed by 19 September 2020, and updated on 28 October 2020, in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar using (COVID-19 OR coronavirus OR SARS-CoV-2) AND (histamine antagonist OR famotidine OR cimetidine). ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for COVID-19 and (famotidine or histamine). RESULTS: Famotidine may be a useful addition in COVID-19 treatment, but the results from prospective randomized trials are as yet awaited. Bioinformatics/drug repurposing studies indicated that, among several medicines, H1 and H2 receptor antagonists may interact with key viral enzymes. However, in vitro studies have to date failed to show a direct inhibition of famotidine on SARS-CoV-2 replication. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical research into the potential benefits of H2 receptor antagonists in managing COVID-19 inflammation began from a simple observation and now is being tested in multi-centre clinical trials. The positive effects of famotidine may be due to H2 receptor-mediated immunomodulatory actions on mast cell histamine-cytokine cross-talk, rather than a direct action on SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptors, Histamine/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Receptors, Histamine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
10.
Trials ; 21(1): 848, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-858488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the effect of Famotidine on the recovery process of COVID-19 patients. TRIAL DESIGN: This phase III randomized clinical trial was designed with two parallel arms, placebo-controlled, single-blind, and concealed allocation. PARTICIPANTS: All COVID-19 patients admitted to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas whose PCR test results are positive for SARS-Cov-2 and sign the written consent of the study are included in the study and immunocompromised patients, end-stage renal disease, moderate renal failure (clearance Creatinine 30 to 50 ml/min) or stage 4 severe chronic kidney disease or need for dialysis (creatinine clearance lesser than 30 ml/min), history of liver disease, hepatitis C infection or alcoholism, Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency(G6PD), the ratio of Alanine transaminase to Aspartate transaminase 5 times above the normal limit, history or evidence of long QT segment on Electrocardiogram, psoriasis or porphyria, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, Dasatinib, Neratinib, Ozanimod, Pazopanib, Rilpivirine, Siponimod and/or Tizanidine and allergies to any study drug are excluded. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention group receives standard pharmacotherapy according to the treatment protocols of the National Committee of COVID-19 and oral famotidine 160 mg (Manufactured by Chemidarou Pharmaceutical Company) four times a day until the day of discharge, for a maximum of fourteen days. Comparator group receives standard drug therapy according to the treatment protocols of the National Committee of COVID-19 and placebo in the same dosage. MAIN OUTCOMES: Patients' temperature, respiration rate, oxygen saturation, lung infiltration, lactate dehydrogenase and complete blood count were measured at the baseline (before the intervention) and on day 14 after the intervention or on the discharge day. RANDOMISATION: The person who has no role in admitting patients and assigning patients to random codes preparing random sequences using online tools and by permuted block randomization method. Eligibility criteria are monitored by the person responsible for admitting patients. Codes in a random sequence are assigned to patients by the treatment team without knowing that each code is in the intervention or comparator group. Patient codes are then matched to randomly generated sequence information for interventions. BLINDING (MASKING): All participants are unaware of which group of this study they are in and after grouping patients in the groups, Patients receive Famotidine in the treatment group and receive a placebo in the control group. The lead researcher, care givers, data collectors, and outcome assessors are aware of the grouping of patients. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): As there is no prior work on this research question, so no assumptions for the sample size calculation could be made. A total of 20 patients participate in this study, which are randomly divided into two groups of 10 as intervention or control groups. TRIAL STATUS: Version 3 of the protocol was approved by the Deputy of Research and Technology and the ethics committee of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences on August 2, 2020, with the local code 990245, and the recruitment started on August 17, 2020. recruitment ended on August 31, 2020. Since the recruitment ended earlier than expected (the expected recruitment end date was 21/12/2020), we submitted post recruitment but prior to publication of the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol was registered before starting subject recruitment under the title: The effect of Famotidine on the improvement of patients with COVID-19, IRCT20200509047364N2, at Iranian Registry of clinical trials ( https://www.irct.ir/trial/49657 ) on 17 August 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Famotidine/adverse effects , Histamine H2 Antagonists/adverse effects , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/trends , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760235

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, binds to the ACE2 receptors. ACE2 is thought to counterbalance ACE in the renin-angiotensin system. While presently it is advised that patients should continue to use ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, questions still remain as to whether adverse effects are potentiated by the virus. Here, we report a case of a 57-year-old man, unknowingly with COVID-19, who presented to the emergency department with tongue swelling, shortness of breath and difficulty in speaking following 4 months taking benazepril, an ACE inhibitor. Finally, we also describe possible pathways that exist for SARS-CoV-2 to interact with the mechanism behind angioedema.


Subject(s)
Angioedema/chemically induced , Angioedema/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Benzazepines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angioedema/drug therapy , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Diagnosis, Differential , Diphenhydramine/therapeutic use , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use
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