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1.
Immunogenetics ; 75(3): 309-320, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326450

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was sparked by the severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that first surfaced in December 2019 (COVID-19). The effects of COVID-19 differ substantially not just between patients individually but also between populations with different ancestries. In humans, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system coordinates immune regulation. Since HLA molecules are a major component of antigen-presenting pathway, they play an important role in determining susceptibility to infectious disease. It is likely that differential susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or disease course in COVID-19 in different individuals could be influenced by the variations in the HLA genes which are associated with various immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. A growing number of studies have identified a connection between HLA variation and diverse COVID-19 outcomes. Here, we review research investigating the impact of HLA on individual responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or progression, also discussing the significance of MHC-related immunological patterns and its use in vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunogenetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics
2.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 507(1): 289-293, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303710

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies showed that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of death from COVID-19 by five times. It is generally accepted that the high lethality of COVID-19 against the background of DM is due to the main complications of this disease: micro- and macroangiopathies, as well as heart and kidney failure. In addition, it was shown that acute respiratory viral infection increases the production of interferon gamma, increases muscle resistance to insulin, and modulates the activity of effector CD8+ T cells. The ability of CD8+ T cells to recognize SARS-CoV-2-infected cells depends not only on humoral factors but also on individual genetic characteristics, including the individual set of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. In this study, the relationship of the MHC-I genotype of patients with DM aged less than 60 years with the outcome of COVID-19 was studied using a sample of 222 patients. It was shown that lethal outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with DM are associated with the low affinity of the interaction of an individual set of MHC-I molecules with SARS-CoV-2 peptides.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Genotype
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299700

ABSTRACT

Interferons (IFNs), divided into type I, type II, and type III IFNs represent proteins that are secreted from cells in response to various stimuli and provide important information for understanding the evolution, structure, and function of the immune system, as well as the signaling pathways of other cytokines and their receptors. They exert comparable, but also distinct physiologic and pathophysiologic activities accompanied by pleiotropic effects, such as the modulation of host responses against bacterial and viral infections, tumor surveillance, innate and adaptive immune responses. IFNs were the first cytokines used for the treatment of tumor patients including hairy leukemia, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. However, tumor cells often develop a transient or permanent resistance to IFNs, which has been linked to the escape of tumor cells and unresponsiveness to immunotherapies. In addition, loss-of-function mutations in IFN signaling components have been associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as COVID-19 and mycobacterial infections. In this review, we summarize general features of the three IFN families and their function, the expression and activity of the different IFN signal transduction pathways, and their role in tumor immune evasion and pathogen clearance, with links to alterations in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II antigen processing machinery (APM). In addition, we discuss insights regarding the clinical applications of IFNs alone or in combination with other therapeutic options including immunotherapies as well as strategies reversing the deficient IFN signaling. Therefore, this review provides an overview on the function and clinical relevance of the different IFN family members, with a specific focus on the MHC pathways in cancers and infections and their contribution to immune escape of tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/genetics , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Cytokines/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics
4.
J Immunother ; 46(3): 75-88, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269388

ABSTRACT

The high mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 is related to poor antigen presentation and lymphopenia. Cytomegalovirus and the herpes family encode a series of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecules required for targeted immune responses to achieve immune escape. In this present study, domain search results showed that many proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus had MHC-like domains, which were similar to decoys for the human immune system. MHC-like structures could bind to MHC receptors of immune cells (such as CD4 + T-cell, CD8 + T-cell, and natural killer-cell), interfering with antigen presentation. Then the oxygen free radicals generated by E protein destroyed immune cells after MHC-like of S protein could bind to them. Mutations in the MHC-like region of the viral proteins such as S promoted weaker immune resistance and more robust transmission. S 127-194 were the primary reason for the robust transmission of delta variants. The S 144-162 regulated the formation of S trimer. The mutations of RdRP: G671S and N: D63G of delta variant caused high viral load. S 62-80 of alpha, beta, lambda variants were the important factor for fast-spreading. S 616-676 and 1014-1114 were causes of high mortality for gamma variants infections. These sites were in the MHC-like structure regions.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , COVID-19 , Humans , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Histocompatibility Antigens
5.
Genes Genomics ; 45(4): 451-456, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic. The pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 has been widely investigated, but it is still unclear. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) plays a central role in immune response, and its variants might be related to COVID-19 progression and severity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that individual HLA variations could alter the course of COVID-19 and might be associated with the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, we conducted an HLA targeted capture enrichment and sequencing of severe COVID-19 patients matched to mild cases. A total of 16 COVID-19 patients, confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) test and chest computed tomography (CT) scan, were enrolled in this study. The HLA targeted capture enrichment and sequencing were conducted. HLA typing was performed by comparing contigs with IPD-IMGT/HLA Database. RESULTS: In this study, 139 four-digit resolution HLA alleles were acquired. The results showed that HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele was significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 27.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35-560.50, P = 0.0064). And HLA-K*01:01 might be a potential risk factor for COVID-19 severity (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.017-0.66, P = 0.019), but HLA-K*01:02 might be a protective factor (OR = 7.50, 95% CI = 1.48-37.92, P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Three non-classical HLA alleles, including HLA-DRB3*01:01, HLA-K*01:01, HLA-K*01:02 were identified to be associated with the severity of COVID-19 by comparing mild and severe patients. The current findings would be helpful for exploring the influence of HLA gene polymorphisms on the development and severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , HLA-DRB3 Chains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1101526, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259532

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 causes genome-wide disruption of the transcriptional profiles of genes and biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Expression allelic imbalance is characterized by a deviation from the Mendelian expected 1:1 expression ratio and is an important source of allele-specific heterogeneity. Expression allelic imbalance can be measured by allele-specific expression analysis (ASE) across heterozygous informative expressed single nucleotide variants (eSNVs). ASE reflects many regulatory biological phenomena that can be assessed by combining genome and transcriptome information. ASE contributes to the interindividual variability associated with the disease. We aim to estimate the transcriptome-wide impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection by analyzing eSNVs. Methods: We compared ASE profiles in the human lung cell lines Calu-3, A459, and H522 before and after infection with SARS-CoV-2 using RNA-Seq experiments. Results: We identified 34 differential ASE (DASE) sites in 13 genes (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, BRD2, EHD2, GFM2, GSPT1, HAVCR1, MAT2A, NQO2, SUPT6H, TNFRSF11A, UMPS), all of which are enriched in protein binding functions and play a role in COVID-19. Most DASE sites were assigned to the MHC class I locus and were predominantly upregulated upon infection. DASE sites in the MHC class I locus also occur in iPSC-derived airway epithelium basal cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Using an RNA-Seq haplotype reconstruction approach, we found DASE sites and adjacent eSNVs in phase (i.e., predicted on the same DNA strand), demonstrating differential haplotype expression upon infection. We found a bias towards the expression of the HLA alleles with a higher binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes. Discussion: Independent of gene expression compensation, SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lung cell lines induces transcriptional allelic switching at the MHC loci. This suggests a response mechanism to SARS-CoV-2 infection that swaps HLA alleles with poor epitope binding affinity, an expectation supported by publicly available proteome data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Alleles , Epitopes , Haplotypes , Lung , Methionine Adenosyltransferase , SARS-CoV-2 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2208525120, 2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186693

ABSTRACT

Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, which are dimers of a glycosylated polymorphic transmembrane heavy chain and the small-protein ß2-microglobulin (ß2m), bind peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum that are generated by the cytosolic turnover of cellular proteins. In virus-infected cells, these peptides may include those derived from viral proteins. Peptide-MHC-I complexes then traffic through the secretory pathway and are displayed at the cell surface where those containing viral peptides can be detected by CD8+ T lymphocytes that kill infected cells. Many viruses enhance their in vivo survival by encoding genes that down-regulate MHC-I expression to avoid CD8+ T cell recognition. Here, we report that two accessory proteins encoded by SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, down-regulate MHC-I expression using distinct mechanisms. First, ORF3a, a viroporin, reduces the global trafficking of proteins, including MHC-I, through the secretory pathway. The second, ORF7a, interacts specifically with the MHC-I heavy chain, acting as a molecular mimic of ß2m to inhibit its association. This slows the exit of properly assembled MHC-I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum. We demonstrate that ORF7a reduces antigen presentation by the human MHC-I allele HLA-A*02:01. Thus, both ORF3a and ORF7a act post-translationally in the secretory pathway to lower surface MHC-I expression, with ORF7a exhibiting a specific mechanism that allows immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins , Humans , Antigen Presentation , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , HLA Antigens , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0276700, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197028

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The severity of COVID-19 is highly variable and related to known (e.g., age, obesity, immune deficiency) and unknown risk factors. The widespread clinical symptoms encompass a large group of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, raising a crucial question regarding genetic susceptibility, e.g., whether individual differences in immunity play a role in patient symptomatology and how much human leukocyte antigen (HLA) contributes to this. To reveal genetic determinants of susceptibility to COVID-19 severity in the population and further explore potential immune-related factors, we performed a genome-wide association study on 284 confirmed COVID-19 patients (cases) and 95 healthy individuals (controls). We compared cases and controls of European (EUR) ancestry and African American (AFR) ancestry separately. We identified two loci on chromosomes 5q32 and 11p12, which reach the significance threshold of suggestive association (p<1x10-5 threshold adjusted for multiple trait testing) and are associated with the COVID-19 susceptibility in the European ancestry (index rs17448496: odds ratio[OR] = 0.173; 95% confidence interval[CI], 0.08-0.36 for G allele; p = 5.15× 10-5 and index rs768632395: OR = 0.166; 95% CI, 0.07-0.35 for A allele; p = 4.25×10-6, respectively), which were associated with two genes, PPP2R2B at 5q32, and LRRC4C at 11p12, respectively. To explore the linkage between HLA and COVID-19 severity, we applied fine-mapping analysis to dissect the HLA association with mild and severe cases. Using In-silico binding predictions to map the binding of risk/protective HLA to the viral structural proteins, we found the differential presentation of viral peptides in both ancestries. Lastly, extrapolation of the identified HLA from the cohort to the worldwide population revealed notable correlations. The study uncovers possible differences in susceptibility to COVID-19 in different ancestral origins in the genetic background, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Florida , Genome-Wide Association Study , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , HLA Antigens , SARS-CoV-2 , White/genetics , Black or African American/genetics
9.
Clin Chim Acta ; 538: 211-215, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has become a global pandemic. While susceptibility to COVID-19 is subject to several external factors, including hypertension, BMI, and the presence of diabetes, it is also genetically determined to a significant extent. Infectious agents require iron (Fe) for proper functioning. Carriers of mutations resulting in increased iron concentrations are understood to be at increased risk of COVID-19. METHODS: We examined HFE genotypes associated with hereditary haemochromatosis (rs1800562 and rs1799945 SNPs) in 617 COVID-19 patients (166 asymptomatic, 246 symptomatic and 205 hospitalised survivors) and 2 559 population-based controls. RESULTS: We found a higher frequency of the minor allele (Tyr282) of the rs1800562 polymorphism (P < 0.002) in patients compared to controls (8.5 % vs 5.5 %). Non-carriers of the minor allele were protected against SARS-Cov-2 infection (OR, 95 %CI; 0.59, 0.42-0.82). The frequency of minor allele carriers was almost identical across asymptomatic, symptomatic, and hospitalised survivors. The rs1799945 variant did not affect disease severity and its occurrence was almost identical in patients and controls (P between 0.58 and 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results indicate that presence of the rs1800562 minor allele, which is associated with hereditary haemochromatosis (thus increased levels of plasma Fe), increases susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemochromatosis , Humans , Hemochromatosis/genetics , Hemochromatosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Hemochromatosis Protein/genetics , Czech Republic , COVID-19/genetics , Iron , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
10.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(5): e12481, 2020 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025763

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread to many countries around the world, but the infection and death rates vary widely. One country that appeared to have kept the infection under control despite limited societal restrictions is Japan. This commentary explores why Japan may have, up to now, been spared an escalation of the SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Culture , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Genetic Variation , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 891816, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969020

ABSTRACT

An important number of studies have been conducted on the potential association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity since the beginning of the pandemic. However, case-control and peptide-binding prediction methods tended to provide inconsistent conclusions on risk and protective HLA alleles, whereas some researchers suggested the importance of considering the overall capacity of an individual's HLA Class I molecules to present SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides. To close the gap between these approaches, we explored the distributions of HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 1st-field alleles in 142 Iranian patients with COVID-19 and 143 ethnically matched healthy controls, and applied in silico predictions of bound viral peptides for each individual's HLA molecules. Frequency comparison revealed the possible predisposing roles of HLA-A*03, B*35, and DRB1*16 alleles and the protective effect of HLA-A*32, B*58, B*55, and DRB1*14 alleles in the viral infection. None of these results remained significant after multiple testing corrections, except HLA-A*03, and no allele was associated with severity, either. Compared to peptide repertoires of individual HLA molecules that are more likely population-specific, the overall coverage of virus-derived peptides by one's HLA Class I molecules seemed to be a more prominent factor associated with both COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, which was independent of affinity index and threshold chosen, especially for people under 60 years old. Our results highlight the effect of the binding capacity of different HLA Class I molecules as a whole, and the more essential role of HLA-A compared to HLA-B and -C genes in immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , HLA-A Antigens/metabolism , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Humans , Iran , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/metabolism
12.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 9710376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874908

ABSTRACT

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is one of the most crucial host factors influencing disease progression in bacterial and viral infections. This review provides the basic concepts of the structure and function of HLA molecules in humans. Here, we highlight the main findings on the associations between HLA class I and class II alleles and susceptibility to important infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, melioidosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, human immunodeficiency virus infection, coronavirus disease 2019, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in populations worldwide. Finally, we discuss challenges in HLA typing to predict disease outcomes in clinical implementation. Evaluation of the impact of HLA variants on the outcome of bacterial and viral infections would improve the understanding of pathogenesis and identify those at risk from infectious diseases in distinct populations and may improve the individual treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II , Humans
13.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 76: 102178, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828141

ABSTRACT

The extraordinary variation of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is critical for diversifying antigen presentation to T cells. Coupled with the rise of novel strains and rapidly evolving immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2 proteins, HLA-mediated immunity in COVID-19 is critically important but far from being fully understood. A growing number of studies have found the association of HLA variants with different COVID-19 outcomes and that HLA genotypes associate with differential immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. Prediction studies have shown that mutations in multiple viral strains, most concentrated in the Spike protein, affect the affinity between these mutant peptides and HLA molecules. Understanding the impact of this variation on T-cell responses is critical for comprehending the immunogenic mechanisms in both natural immunity and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antigen Presentation , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , HLA Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Hum Immunol ; 83(7): 547-550, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814486

ABSTRACT

In this population-based case-control study conducted in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia, we examined the distribution of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1, in a group of 100 patients with confirmed COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia. Typing was performed by NGS and statistical calculations were carried out with the Arlequin program. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 alleles were compared between patients with COVID-19 and 99 healthy controls. We identified that COVID-19 susceptibility is associated with alleles and genotypes rs9277534A (disequilibrium with HLA-DPB1*02:01, -02:02, -04:01, -04:02, -17:01 alleles) with low expression of protein products HLA-DPB1 (pc < 0.028) and homozygosity at HLA-C*04 (p = 0.024, pc = 0.312). Allele HLA-A*01:01 was decreased in a group of patients with severe forms of bilateral pneumonia, and therefore it may be considered as a protective factor for the development of severe symptoms of COVID-19 (p = 0.009, pc = 0.225). Our studies provide further evidence for the functional association between HLA genes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Gene Frequency , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , HLA-A Antigens/immunology , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/immunology , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , HLA-C Antigens/immunology , HLA-D Antigens/genetics , HLA-D Antigens/metabolism , Haplotypes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 30(8): 922-929, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758186

ABSTRACT

The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) loci have been widely characterized to be associated with viral infectious diseases using either HLA allele frequency-based association or in silico predicted studies. However, there is less experimental evidence to link the HLA alleles with COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases, particularly in the lung cells. To examine the role of HLA alleles in response to coronavirus and other respiratory viral infections in disease-relevant cells, we designed a two-stage study by integrating publicly accessible RNA-seq data sets, and performed allelic expression (AE) analysis on heterozygous HLA genotypes. We discovered an increased AE pattern accompanied with overexpression of HLA-B gene in SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung epithelial cells. Analysis of independent data sets verified the respiratory virus-induced AE of HLA-B gene in lung cells and tissues. The results were further experimentally validated in cultured lung cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. We further uncovered that the antiviral cytokine IFNß contribute to AE of the HLA-B gene in lung cells. Our analyses provide a new insight into allelic influence on the HLA expression in association with SARS-CoV-2 and other common viral infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Allelic Imbalance , COVID-19/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Lung
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(2): e1009726, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753172

ABSTRACT

The massive assessment of immune evasion due to viral mutations that increase COVID-19 susceptibility can be computationally facilitated. The adaptive cytotoxic T response is critical during primary infection and the generation of long-term protection. Here, potential HLA class I epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome were predicted for 2,915 human alleles of 71 families using the netMHCIpan EL algorithm. Allele families showed extreme epitopic differences, underscoring genetic variability of protective capacity between humans. Up to 1,222 epitopes were associated with any of the twelve supertypes, that is, allele clusters covering 90% population. Next, from all mutations identified in ~118,000 viral NCBI isolates, those causing significant epitope score reduction were considered epitope escape mutations. These mutations mainly involved non-conservative substitutions at the second and C-terminal position of the ligand core, or total ligand removal by large recurrent deletions. Escape mutations affected 47% of supertype epitopes, which in 21% of cases concerned isolates from two or more sub-continental areas. Some of these changes were coupled, but never surpassed 15% of evaded epitopes for the same supertype in the same isolate, except for B27. In contrast to most supertypes, eight allele families mostly contained alleles with few SARS-CoV-2 ligands. Isolates harboring cytotoxic escape mutations for these families co-existed geographically within sub-Saharan and Asian populations enriched in these alleles according to the Allele Frequency Net Database. Collectively, our findings indicate that escape mutation events have already occurred for half of HLA class I supertype epitopes. However, it is presently unlikely that, overall, it poses a threat to the global population. In contrast, single and double mutations for susceptible alleles may be associated with viral selective pressure and alarming local outbreaks. The integration of genomic, geographical and immunoinformatic information eases the surveillance of variants potentially affecting the global population, as well as minority subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Immune Evasion , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Frequency , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Mutation/genetics , Mutation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
17.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723544

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability across the three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes (human leukocyte antigen A [HLA-A], -B, and -C genes) may affect susceptibility to and severity of the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed a comprehensive in silico analysis of viral peptide-MHC class I binding affinity across 145 HLA-A, -B, and -C genotypes for all SARS-CoV-2 peptides. We further explored the potential for cross-protective immunity conferred by prior exposure to four common human coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome was successfully sampled and was represented by a diversity of HLA alleles. However, we found that HLA-B*46:01 had the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that individuals with this allele may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS (M. Lin, H.-T. Tseng, J. A. Trejaut, H.-L. Lee, et al., BMC Med Genet 4:9, 2003, https://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-4-9). Conversely, we found that HLA-B*15:03 showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting that it could enable cross-protective T-cell-based immunity. Finally, we reported global distributions of HLA types with potential epidemiological ramifications in the setting of the current pandemic.IMPORTANCE Individual genetic variation may help to explain different immune responses to a virus across a population. In particular, understanding how variation in HLA may affect the course of COVID-19 could help identify individuals at higher risk from the disease. HLA typing can be fast and inexpensive. Pairing HLA typing with COVID-19 testing where feasible could improve assessment of severity of viral disease in the population. Following the development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, individuals with high-risk HLA types could be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Haplotypes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 769900, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705660

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection has become a global health concern, causing the COVID-19 pandemic. The disease symptoms and outcomes depend on the host immunity, in which the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a distinct role. The HLA alleles have an inter-population variability, and understanding their link to the COVID-19 in an ethnically distinct population may contribute to personalized medicine. The present study aimed at detecting associations between common HLA alleles and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity in Armenians. In 299 COVID-19 patients (75 asymptomatic, 102 mild/moderate, 122 severe), the association between disease severity and classic HLA-I and II loci was examined. We found that the advanced age, male sex of patients, and sex and age interaction significantly contributed to the severity of the disease. We observed that an age-dependent effect of HLA-B*51:01 carriage [odds ratio (OR)=0.48 (0.28-0.80), Pbonf <0.036] is protective against severe COVID-19. Contrary, the HLA-C*04:01 allele, in a dose-dependent manner, was associated with a significant increase in the disease severity [OR (95% CI) =1.73 (1.20-2.49), Pbonf <0.021] and an advancing age (P<0.013). The link between HLA-C*04:01 and age was secondary to a stronger association between HLA-C*04:01 and disease severity. However, HLA-C*04:01 exerted a sex-dependent differential distribution between clinical subgroups [females: P<0.0012; males: P=0.48]. The comparison of HLA-C*04:01 frequency between subgroups and 2,781 Armenian controls revealed a significant incidence of HLA-C*04:01 deficiency in asymptomatic COVID-19. HLA-C*04:01 homozygous genotype in patients blueprinted a decrease in heterozygosity of HLA-B and HLA class-I loci. In HLA-C*04:01 carriers, these changes translated to the SARS-CoV-2 peptide presentation predicted inefficacy by HLA-C and HLA class-I molecules, simultaneously enhancing the appropriate HLA-B potency. In patients with clinical manifestation, due to the high prevalence of HLA-C*04:01, these effects provided a decrease of the HLA class-I heterozygosity and an ability to recognize SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Based on our observations, we developed a prediction model involving demographic variables and HLA-C*04:01 allele for the identification of potential cases with the risk of hospitalization (the area under the curve (AUC) = 86.2%) or severe COVID-19 (AUC =71%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , HLA-B51 Antigen/genetics , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Armenia , Female , Gene Frequency/genetics , HLA-B51 Antigen/immunology , HLA-C Antigens/immunology , Heterozygote , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk , Sex Factors , Viral Proteins/immunology
19.
Immunology ; 166(1): 68-77, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685320

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection results in different outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild or severe disease and death. Reasons for this diversity of outcome include differences in challenge dose, age, gender, comorbidity and host genomic variation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms may influence immune response and disease outcome. We investigated the association of HLAII alleles with case definition symptomatic COVID-19, virus-specific antibody and T-cell immunity. A total of 1364 UK healthcare workers (HCWs) were recruited during the first UK SARS-CoV-2 wave and analysed longitudinally, encompassing regular PCR screening for infection, symptom reporting, imputation of HLAII genotype and analysis for antibody and T-cell responses to nucleoprotein (N) and spike (S). Of 272 (20%) HCW who seroconverted, the presence of HLA-DRB1*13:02 was associated with a 6·7-fold increased risk of case definition symptomatic COVID-19. In terms of immune responsiveness, HLA-DRB1*15:02 was associated with lower nucleocapsid T-cell responses. There was no association between DRB1 alleles and anti-spike antibody titres after two COVID vaccine doses. However, HLA DRB1*15:01 was associated with increased spike T-cell responses following both first and second dose vaccination. Trial registration: NCT04318314 and ISRCTN15677965.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 832889, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686488

ABSTRACT

The potential effect of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants on vaccine efficacy is an issue of critical importance. In this study, the possible impact of mutations that facilitate virus escape from the cytotoxic and the helper cellular immune responses in the new SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern was analyzed for the 551 and 41 most abundant HLA class I and II alleles, respectively. Computational prediction showed that almost all of these 592 alleles, which cover >90% of the human population, contain enough epitopes without escape mutations in the emerging SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern. These data suggest that both cytotoxic and helper cellular immune protection elicited by currently licensed vaccines are virtually unaffected by the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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