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Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0232222, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053139


Over the last 2 years, several global virus-host interactome studies have been published with SARS-CoV-2 proteins with the purpose of better understanding how specific viral proteins can subvert or utilize different cellular processes to promote viral infection and pathogenesis. However, most of the virus-host protein interactions have not yet been confirmed experimentally, and their biological significance is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to verify the interaction of NSP5, the main protease of SARS-CoV-2, with the host epigenetic factor histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and test if HDAC2 is required for NSP5-mediated inhibition of the type I interferon signaling pathway. Our results show that NSP5 can significantly reduce the expression of a subset of immune response genes such as IL-6, IL-1ß, and IFNß, which requires NSP5's protease activity. We also found that NSP5 can inhibit Sendai virus-, RNA sensor-, and DNA sensor-mediated induction of IFNß promoter, block the IFN response pathway, and reduce the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. We also provide evidence for HDAC2 interacting with IRF3, and NSP5 can abrogate their interaction by binding to both IRF3 and HDAC2. In addition, we found that HDAC2 plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of IFNß and IFN-induced promoters, but our results indicate that HDAC2 is not involved in NSP5-mediated inhibition of IFNß gene expression. Taken together, our data show that NSP5 interacts with HDAC2 but NSP5 inhibits the IFNß gene expression and interferon-signaling pathway in an HDAC2-independent manner. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 has developed multiple strategies to antagonize the host antiviral response, such as blocking the IFN signaling pathway, which favors the replication and spreading of the virus. A recent SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction mapping revealed that the main viral protease NSP5 interacts with the host epigenetic factor HDAC2, but the interaction was not confirmed experimentally and its biological importance remains unclear. Here, we not only verified the interaction of HDAC2 with NSP5, but we also found that HDAC2 also binds to IRF3, and NSP5 can disrupt the IRF3-HDAC2 complex. Furthermore, our results show that NSP5 can efficiently repress the IFN signaling pathway regardless of whether viral infections, RNA, or DNA sensors activated it. However, our data indicate that HDAC2 is not involved in NSP5-mediated inhibition of IFNß promoter induction and IFNß gene expression.

COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Signal Transduction , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Interferons , Viral Proteins/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , DNA , RNA , Viral Proteases , Interferon Type I/metabolism
J Virol ; 96(16): e0102722, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973796


Protein acetylation plays an important role during virus infection. Thus, it is not surprising that viruses always evolve elaborate mechanisms to regulate the functions of histone deacetylases (HDACs), the essential transcriptional and epigenetic regulators for deacetylation. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential to infect humans. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection inhibited cellular HDAC activity. By screening the expressions of different HDAC subfamilies after PDCoV infection, we unexpectedly found that HDAC2 was cleaved. Ectopic expression of HDAC2 significantly inhibited PDCoV replication, while the reverse effects could be observed after treatment with an HDAC2 inhibitor (CAY10683) or the knockdown of HDAC2 expression by specific siRNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PDCoV-encoded nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5), a 3C-like protease, was responsible for HDAC2 cleavage through its protease activity. Detailed analyses showed that PDCoV nsp5 cleaved HDAC2 at glutamine 261 (Q261), and the cleaved fragments (amino acids 1 to 261 and 262 to 488) lost the ability to inhibit PDCoV replication. Interestingly, the Q261 cleavage site is highly conserved in HDAC2 homologs from other mammalian species, and the nsp5s encoded by seven tested mammalian coronaviruses also cleaved HDAC2, suggesting that cleaving HDAC2 may be a common strategy used by different mammalian coronaviruses to antagonize the antiviral role of HDAC2. IMPORTANCE As an emerging porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that possesses the potential to infect humans, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is receiving increasing attention. In this work, we found that PDCoV infection downregulated cellular histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Of particular interest, the viral 3C-like protease, encoded by the PDCoV nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5), cleaved HDAC2, and this cleavage could be observed in the context of PDCoV infection. Furthermore, the cleavage of HDAC2 appears to be a common strategy among mammalian coronaviruses, including the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), to antagonize the antiviral role of HDAC2. To our knowledge, PDCoV nsp5 is the first identified viral protein that can cleave cellular HDAC2. Results from our study provide new targets to develop drugs combating coronavirus infection.

COVID-19 , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Swine Diseases , Animals , Humans , Mammals , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 515: 110917, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661768


Obesity patients are more susceptible to develop COVID-19 severe outcome due to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the viral infection. ACE2 is regulated in the human cells by different genes associated with increased (TLR3, HAT1, HDAC2, KDM5B, SIRT1, RAB1A, FURIN and ADAM10) or decreased (TRIB3) virus replication. RNA-seq data revealed 14857 genes expressed in human subcutaneous adipocytes, including genes mentioned above. Irisin treatment increased by 3-fold the levels of TRIB3 transcript and decreased the levels of other genes. The decrease in FURIN and ADAM10 expression enriched diverse biological processes, including extracellular structure organization. Our results, in human subcutaneous adipocytes cell culture, indicate a positive effect of irisin on the expression of multiple genes related to viral infection by SARS-CoV-2; furthermore, translatable for other tissues and organs targeted by the novel coronavirus and present, thus, promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 infection as therapeutic strategy to decrease ACE2 regulatory genes.

Adipocytes/drug effects , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , ADAM10 Protein/genetics , ADAM10 Protein/metabolism , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/genetics , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fibronectins/genetics , Fibronectins/metabolism , Furin/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Gene Ontology , Histone Acetyltransferases/genetics , Histone Acetyltransferases/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase 2/genetics , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Humans , Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/genetics , Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Models, Biological , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism