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1.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28826, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236368

ABSTRACT

The mechanistic understanding of virus infection and inflammation in many diseases is incomplete. Normally, messenger RNA (mRNA) tails of replication-dependent histones (RDH) that safeguard naked nuclear DNAs are protected by a specialized stem-loop instead of polyadenylation. Here, we showed that infection by various RNA viruses (including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) induced aberrant polyadenylation of RDH mRNAs (pARDH) that resulted in inflammation or cellular senescence, based on which we constructed a pARDH inflammation score (pARIS). We further investigated pARIS elevation in various disease conditions, including different types of virus infection, cancer, and cellular senescence. Notably, we found that pARIS was positively correlated with coronavirus disease 2019 severity in specific immune cell types. We also detected a subset of HIV-1 elite controllers characterized by pARDH "flipping" potentially mediated by HuR. Importantly, pARIS was positively associated with transcription of endogenous retrovirus but negatively associated with most immune cell infiltration in tumors of various cancer types. Finally, we identified and experimentally verified two pARIS regulators, ADAR1 and ZKSCAN1, which was first linked to inflammation. The ZKSCAN1 was known as a transcription factor but instead was shown to regulate pARIS as a novel RNA binding protein. Both regulators were upregulated under most infection and inflammation conditions. In conclusion, we unraveled a potential antiviral mechanism underlying various types of virus infections and cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Histones , Polyadenylation , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Inflammation , Neoplasms/genetics
2.
Nucleus ; 14(1): 2216560, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244882

ABSTRACT

Molecular mimicry is a commonly used mechanism by viruses to manipulate host cellular machinery and coordinate their life cycles. While histone mimicry is well studied, viruses also employ other mimicry strategies to affect chromatin dynamics. However, the relationship between viral molecular mimicry and host chromatin regulation is not well understood. This review summarizes recent advances in histone mimicry and explores how viral molecular mimicry influences chromatin dynamics. We also discuss how viral proteins interact with both intact and partially unfolded nucleosomes and compare the distinct mechanisms governing chromatin tethering. Finally, we address the role of viral molecular mimicry in regulating chromatin dynamics. This review provides new insights into viral molecular mimicry and its impact on host chromatin dynamics, paving the way for the development of novel antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Chromatin , Viruses , Chromatin/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Molecular Mimicry , Viruses/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240810

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are the key players in the innate immune system, being weaponized with numerous strategies to eliminate pathogens. The production of extracellular traps is one of the effector mechanisms operated by neutrophils in a process called NETosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are complex webs of extracellular DNA studded with histones and cytoplasmic granular proteins. Since their first description in 2004, NETs have been widely investigated in different infectious processes. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi have been shown to induce the generation of NETs. Knowledge is only beginning to emerge about the participation of DNA webs in the host's battle against parasitic infections. Referring to helminthic infections, we ought to look beyond the scope of confining the roles of NETs solely to parasitic ensnarement or immobilization. Hence, this review provides detailed insights into the less-explored activities of NETs against invading helminths. In addition, most of the studies that have addressed the implications of NETs in protozoan infections have chiefly focused on their protective side, either through trapping or killing. Challenging this belief, we propose several limitations regarding protozoan-NETs interaction. One of many is the duality in the functional responses of NETs, in which both the positive and pathological aspects seem to be closely intertwined.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Parasitic Diseases , Humans , Neutrophils , Histones , DNA , Parasitic Diseases/pathology
4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 37(6): e24876, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed at analyzing the serum levels of citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3) in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and their association with disease activity. METHODS: Serum CitH3 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in serum samples obtained from 93 DM patients and 56 healthy controls (HCs). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminant capacity of CitH3 and other disease variables. The association between CitH3 and disease variables was analyzed using Pearson's rank correlation. RESULTS: Serum CitH3 level was significantly lower in DM patients than in HCs (p < 0.001). The ROC curve analysis revealed that CitH3 strongly discriminated DM patients from HCs (area under the curve [AUC], 0.86), and a combination of CitH3 and the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts (NLR) showed a greater diagnostic value (AUC, 0.92). Serum CitH3 levels were markedly lower in DM patients with normal muscle enzyme levels than in HCs (all p < 0.001), and when compared to an elevated group, the CitH3 levels were comparable (all p > 0.05). The CitH3 levels showed no difference between DM in active and remission groups. However, in a paired test with 18 hospitalized DM patients, the CitH3 levels were higher in remission state than in active state. Moreover, the CitH3 levels showed no correlation with disease variables that were associated with the disease activity of DM. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CitH3 level may serve as a useful biochemical marker for screening patients with DM from HCs, while its role in monitoring DM disease activity requires further research.


Subject(s)
Dermatomyositis , Histones , Humans , Neutrophils , Biomarkers , ROC Curve
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295699

ABSTRACT

The role of NETs and platelet activation in COVID-19 is scarcely known. We aimed to evaluate the role of NETs (citrullinated histone H3 [CitH3], cell-free DNA [cfDNA]) and platelet activation markers (soluble CD40 ligand [CD40L] and P-selectin) in estimating the hazard of different clinical trajectories in patients with COVID-19. We performed a prospective study of 204 patients, categorized as outpatient, hospitalized and ICU-admitted. A multistate model was designed to estimate probabilities of clinical transitions across varying states, such as emergency department (ED) visit, discharge (outpatient), ward admission, ICU admission and death. Levels of cfDNA, CitH3 and P-selectin were associated with the severity of presentation and analytical parameters. The model showed an increased risk of higher levels of CitH3 and P-selectin for ED-to-ICU transitions (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.35 and 1.31, respectively), as well as an elevated risk of higher levels of P-selectin for ward-to-death transitions (HR: 1.09). Elevated levels of CitH3 (HR: 0.90), cfDNA (HR: 0.84) and P-selectin (HR: 0.91) decreased the probability of ward-to-discharge transitions. A similar trend existed for elevated levels of P-selectin and ICU-to-ward transitions (HR 0.40); In conclusion, increased NET and P-selectin levels are associated with more severe episodes and can prove useful in estimating different clinical trajectories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Extracellular Traps , Humans , P-Selectin , Prospective Studies , Histones , Platelet Activation
6.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 28(6): 345-355, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301152

ABSTRACT

AIM: Urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has potential utility as an early prognostic biomarker ahead of traditional severity scores in coronavirus disease 2019 and sepsis, however, the mechanism of elevated urinary L-FABP in the disease has not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the background mechanisms of urinary L-FABP excretion through non-clinical animal model focusing on histone, which is one of the aggravating factors in these infectious diseases. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in central intravenous catheters, and these rats were given a continuous intravenous infusion of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/min calf thymus histones for 240 min from caudal vena cava. RESULTS: After the administration of histone, urinary L-FABP and gene expression of an oxidative stress marker in the kidney increased in a histone dose-dependent manner before increased serum creatinine. Upon further investigation, fibrin deposition in the glomerulus was observed and it tended to be remarkable in the high dose administrated groups. The levels of coagulation factor were significantly changed after the administration of histone, and these were significantly correlated with the levels of urinary L-FABP. CONCLUSIONS: Firstly, it was suggested that histone is one of the causative agents for the urinary L-FABP increase at an early stage of the disease with a risk of acute kidney injury. Secondly, urinary L-FABP could be a marker reflecting the changes of coagulation system and microthrombus caused by histone in the early stage of acute kidney injury before becoming severely ill and maybe a guide to early treatment initiation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Male , Animals , Rats , Histones , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins , Liver
7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 42(9): 1103-1112, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285811

ABSTRACT

The activating interplay of thrombosis and inflammation (thromboinflammation) has been established as a major underlying pathway, driving not only cardiovascular disease but also autoimmune disease and most recently, COVID-19. Throughout the years, innate immune cells have emerged as important modulators of this process. As the most abundant white blood cell in humans, neutrophils are well-positioned to propel thromboinflammation. This includes their ability to trigger an organized cell death pathway with the release of decondensed chromatin structures called neutrophil extracellular traps. Decorated with histones and cytoplasmic and granular proteins, neutrophil extracellular traps exert cytotoxic, immunogenic, and prothrombotic effects accelerating disease progression. Distinct steps leading to extracellular DNA release (NETosis) require the activities of PAD4 (protein arginine deiminase 4) catalyzing citrullination of histones and are supported by neutrophil inflammasome. By linking the immunologic function of neutrophils with the procoagulant and proinflammatory activities of monocytes and platelets, PAD4 activity holds important implications for understanding the processes that fuel thromboinflammation. We will also discuss mechanisms whereby vascular occlusion in thromboinflammation depends on the interaction of neutrophil extracellular traps with ultra-large VWF (von Willebrand Factor) and speculate on the importance of PAD4 in neutrophil inflammasome assembly and neutrophil extracellular traps in thromboinflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thromboinflammation , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286002

ABSTRACT

During inflammatory responses, neutrophils enter the sites of attack where they execute various defense mechanisms. They (I) phagocytose microorganisms, (II) degranulate to release cytokines, (III) recruit various immune cells by cell-type specific chemokines, (IV) secrete anti-microbials including lactoferrin, lysozyme, defensins and reactive oxygen species, and (V) release DNA as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The latter originates from mitochondria as well as from decondensed nuclei. This is easily detected in cultured cells by staining of DNA with specific dyes. However, in tissues sections the very high fluorescence signals emitted from the condensed nuclear DNA hamper the detection of the widespread, extranuclear DNA of the NETs. In contrast, when we employ anti-DNA-IgM antibodies, they are unable to penetrate deep into the tightly packed DNA of the nucleus, and we observe a robust signal for the extended DNA patches of the NETs. To validate anti-DNA-IgM, we additionally stained the sections for the NET-markers histone H2B, myeloperoxidase, citrullinated histone H3, and neutrophil elastase. Altogether, we have described a fast one-step procedure for the detection of NETs in tissue sections, which provides new perspectives to characterize neutrophil-associated immune reactions in disease.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Neutrophils , Phagocytosis , Histones , DNA , Immunoglobulin M
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(13): 3199-3207, 2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252233

ABSTRACT

Nonstructural accessory proteins in viruses play a key role in hijacking the basic cellular mechanisms, which is essential to promote the virus survival and evasion of the immune system. The immonuglobulin-like open reading frame 8 (ORF8) protein expressed by SARS-CoV-2 accumulates in the nucleus and may influence the regulation of the gene expression in infected cells. In this contribution, by using microsecond time-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we unravel the structural bases behind the epigenetic action of ORF8. In particular, we highlight how the protein is able to form stable aggregates with DNA through a histone tail-like motif, and how this interaction is influenced by post-translational modifications, such as acetylation and methylation, which are known epigenetic markers in histones. Our work not only clarifies the molecular mechanisms behind the perturbation of the epigenetic regulation caused by the viral infection but also offers an unusual perspective which may foster the development of original antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Epigenesis, Genetic , COVID-19/genetics , Histones/metabolism , Methylation
10.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 77, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268893

ABSTRACT

Both high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and histones are major damage-associated molecular patterns (DAPMs) that mediate lethal systemic inflammation, activation of the complement and coagulation system, endothelial injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in critical illnesses. Although accumulating evidence collectively shows that targeting HMGB1 or histones by their specific antibodies or inhibitors could significantly mitigate aberrant immune responses in multiple critically ill animal models, routine clinical use of such agents is still not recommended by any guideline. In contrast, extracorporeal blood purification, which has been widely used to replace dysfunctional organs and remove exogenous or endogenous toxins in intensive care units, may also exert an immunomodulatory effect by eliminating inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, endotoxin, HMGB1 and histones in patients with critical illnesses. In this review, we summarize the multiple immunopathological roles of HMGB1 and histones in mediating inflammation, immune thrombosis and organ dysfunction and discuss the rationale for the removal of these DAMPs using various hemofilters. The latest preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of extracorporeal blood purification to improve the clinical outcome of critically ill patients by targeting circulating HMGB1 and histones is also gathered.


Subject(s)
HMGB1 Protein , Histones , Animals , Critical Illness/therapy , Alarmins , Immunomodulation , Inflammation
11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(8): 1525-1535, 2023 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracellular histone levels are associated with the severity of many human pathologies, including sepsis and COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the role of extracellular histones on monocyte distribution width (MDW), and their effect on the release of cytokines by blood cells. METHODS: Peripheral venous blood was collected from healthy subjects and treated with different doses of a histone mixture (range 0-200 µg/mL) to analyze MDW modifications up-to 3 h and digital microscopy of blood smears. Plasma obtained after 3 h of histone treatment were assayed to evaluate a panel of 24 inflammatory cytokines. RESULTS: MDW values significantly increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These findings are associated with the histone-induced modifications of cell volume, cytoplasmic granularity, vacuolization, and nuclear structure of monocytes, promoting their heterogeneity without affecting their count. After 3 h of treatment almost all cytokines significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The most relevant response was shown by the significantly increased G-CSF levels, and by the increase of IL-1ß, IL-6, MIP-1ß, and IL-8 at the histone doses of 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL. VEGF, IP-10, GM-CSF, TNF-α, Eotaxin, and IL-2 were also up-regulated, and a lower but significant increase was observed for IL-15, IL-5, IL-17, bFGF, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and IL-9. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating histones critically induce functional alterations of monocytes mirrored by MDW, monocyte anisocytosis, and hyperinflammation/cytokine storm in sepsis and COVID-19. MDW and circulating histones may be useful tools to predict higher risks of worst outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Histones , Monocytes/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines
12.
Blood ; 141(7): 725-742, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245121

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-associated coagulopathy (CAC) is a morbid and lethal sequela of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. CAC results from a perturbed balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis and occurs in conjunction with exaggerated activation of monocytes/macrophages (MO/Mφs), and the mechanisms that collectively govern this phenotype seen in CAC remain unclear. Here, using experimental models that use the murine betacoronavirus MHVA59, a well-established model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we identify that the histone methyltransferase mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1/KMT2A) is an important regulator of MO/Mφ expression of procoagulant and profibrinolytic factors such as tissue factor (F3; TF), urokinase (PLAU), and urokinase receptor (PLAUR) (herein, "coagulopathy-related factors") in noninfected and infected cells. We show that MLL1 concurrently promotes the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines while suppressing the expression of interferon alfa (IFN-α), a well-known inducer of TF and PLAUR. Using in vitro models, we identify MLL1-dependent NF-κB/RelA-mediated transcription of these coagulation-related factors and identify a context-dependent, MLL1-independent role for RelA in the expression of these factors in vivo. As functional correlates for these findings, we demonstrate that the inflammatory, procoagulant, and profibrinolytic phenotypes seen in vivo after coronavirus infection were MLL1-dependent despite blunted Ifna induction in MO/Mφs. Finally, in an analysis of SARS-CoV-2 positive human samples, we identify differential upregulation of MLL1 and coagulopathy-related factor expression and activity in CD14+ MO/Mφs relative to noninfected and healthy controls. We also observed elevated plasma PLAU and TF activity in COVID-positive samples. Collectively, these findings highlight an important role for MO/Mφ MLL1 in promoting CAC and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Animals , Humans , Mice , COVID-19/complications , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/genetics , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/metabolism
14.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279998, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197134

ABSTRACT

Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus results in manifestation of several clinical observations from asymptomatic to multi-organ failure. Biochemically, the serious effects are due to what is described as cytokine storm. The initial infection region for COVID-19 is the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal region which is the site where samples are taken to examine the presence of virus. We have now carried out detailed proteomic analysis of the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab samples collected from normal individuals and those tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, in India, during the early days of the pandemic in 2020, by RTPCR, involving high throughput quantitative proteomics analysis. Several proteins like annexins, cytokines and histones were found differentially regulated in the host human cells following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Genes for these proteins were also observed to be differentially regulated when their expression was analyzed. Majority of the cytokine proteins were found to be up regulated in the infected individuals. Cell to Cell signaling interaction, Immune cell trafficking and inflammatory response pathways were found associated with the differentially regulated proteins based on network pathway analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteomics , Histones
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1030610, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163019

ABSTRACT

The highly conserved histones in different species seem to represent a very ancient and universal innate host defense system against microorganisms in the biological world. Histones are the essential part of nuclear matter and act as a control switch for DNA transcription. However, histones are also found in the cytoplasm, cell membranes, and extracellular fluid, where they function as host defenses and promote inflammatory responses. In some cases, extracellular histones can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), thereby triggering innate immune responses and causing initial organ damage. Histones and their fragments serve as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to directly eliminate bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites in vitro and in vivo. Histones are also involved in phagocytes-related innate immune response as components of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), neutrophil activators, and plasminogen receptors. In addition, as a considerable part of epigenetic regulation, histone modifications play a vital role in regulating the innate immune response and expression of corresponding defense genes. Here, we review the regulatory role of histones in innate immune response, which provides a new strategy for the development of antibiotics and the use of histones as therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histones , Humans , Epigenesis, Genetic , Immunity, Innate
16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(21): 5506-5516, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103158

ABSTRACT

Although the physiological function of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 3 has emerged as a critical mediator of programmed necrosis/necroptosis, the intracellular role it plays as an attenuator in human lungs and human bronchial epithelia remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of RIPK3 dramatically decreased in the inflamed tissues of human lungs, and moved from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The overexpression of RIPK3 dramatically increased F-actin formation and decreased the expression of genes for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1ß), but not siRNA-RIPK3. Interestingly, whereas RIPK3 was bound to histone 1b without LPS stimulation, the interaction between them was disrupted after 15 min of LPS treatment. Histone methylation could not maintain the binding of RIPK3 and activated movement towards the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, overexpressed RIPK3 continuously attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression by inhibiting NF-κB activation, preventing the progression of inflammation during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Our data indicated that RIPK3 is critical for the regulation of the LPS-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Therefore, we suggest that RIPK3 is a potential therapeutic candidate for bacterial infection-induced pulmonary inflammation.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Humans , Histones , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Necrosis , Inflammation/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism
17.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 20(12): 703, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062225
18.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(10): e1069, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A heterogeneous clinical phenotype is a characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, investigating biomarkers associated with disease severity is important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for this heterogeneity and for developing novel agents to prevent critical conditions. This study aimed to elucidate the modulations of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids, which have been shown to possess potent biological properties. METHODS: We measured the serum sphingolipid and glycerophospholipid levels in a total of 887 samples from 215 COVID-19 subjects, plus 115 control subjects without infectious diseases and 109 subjects with infectious diseases other than COVID-19. RESULTS: We observed the dynamic modulations of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in the serum of COVID-19 subjects, depending on the time course and severity. The elevation of C16:0 ceramide and lysophosphatidylinositol and decreases in C18:1 ceramide, dihydrosphingosine, lysophosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol were specific to COVID-19. Regarding the association with maximum severity, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine species with long unsaturated acyl chains were negatively associated, while lysophosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylethanolamine were positively associated with maximum severity during the early phase. Lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine had strong negative correlations with CRP, while phosphatidylethanolamine had strong positive ones. C16:0 ceramide, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species with long unsaturated acyl chains had negative correlations with D-dimer, while phosphatidylethanolamine species with short acyl chains and phosphatidylinositol had positive ones. Several species of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin might serve as better biomarkers for predicting severe COVID-19 during the early phase than CRP and D-dimer. Compared with the lipid modulations seen in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide, tissue factor, or histone, the lipid modulations observed in severe COVID-19 were most akin to those in mice administered lipopolysaccharide. CONCLUSION: A better understanding of the disturbances in sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids observed in this study will prompt further investigation to develop laboratory testing for predicting maximum severity and/or novel agents to suppress the aggravation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sphingolipids , Animals , Biomarkers , Ceramides , Glycerophospholipids , Histones , Lipopolysaccharides , Lysophosphatidylcholines , Mice , Phosphatidylcholines , Phosphatidylethanolamines , Phosphatidylglycerols , Phosphatidylinositols , Sphingomyelins , Thromboplastin
19.
Nature ; 610(7931): 381-388, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050416

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged at the end of 2019 and caused the devastating global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in part because of its ability to effectively suppress host cell responses1-3. In rare cases, viral proteins dampen antiviral responses by mimicking critical regions of human histone proteins4-8, particularly those containing post-translational modifications required for transcriptional regulation9-11. Recent work has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 markedly disrupts host cell epigenetic regulation12-14. However, how SARS-CoV-2 controls the host cell epigenome and whether it uses histone mimicry to do so remain unclear. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 protein encoded by ORF8 (ORF8) functions as a histone mimic of the ARKS motifs in histone H3 to disrupt host cell epigenetic regulation. ORF8 is associated with chromatin, disrupts regulation of critical histone post-translational modifications and promotes chromatin compaction. Deletion of either the ORF8 gene or the histone mimic site attenuates the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to disrupt host cell chromatin, affects the transcriptional response to infection and attenuates viral genome copy number. These findings demonstrate a new function of ORF8 and a mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 disrupts host cell epigenetic regulation. Further, this work provides a molecular basis for the finding that SARS-CoV-2 lacking ORF8 is associated with decreased severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epigenesis, Genetic , Histones , Host Microbial Interactions , Molecular Mimicry , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chromatin/genetics , Chromatin/metabolism , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Epigenome/genetics , Histones/chemistry , Histones/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
20.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 260, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Histone proteins are physiologically involved in DNA packaging and gene regulation but are extracellularly released by neutrophil/monocyte extracellular traps and mediate thrombo-inflammatory pathways, associated to the severity of many human pathologies, including bacterial/fungal sepsis and COVID-19. Prominent and promising laboratory features in classic and viral sepsis emphasize monocyte distribution width (MDW), due to its ability to distinguish and stratify patients at higher risk of critical conditions or death. No data are available on the roles of histones as MDW modifiers. DESIGN: Comparison of MDW index was undertaken by routine hematology analyzer on whole blood samples from patients with COVID-19 and Sepsis. The impact of histones on the MDW characteristics was assessed by the in vitro time-dependent treatment of healthy control whole blood with histones and histones plus lipopolysaccharide to simulate viral and classical sepsis, respectively. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We demonstrated the breadth of early, persistent, and significant increase of MDW index in whole blood from healthy subject treated in vitro with histones, highlighting changes similar to those found in vivo in classic and viral sepsis patients. These findings are mechanistically associated with the histone-induced modifications of cell volume, cytoplasmic granularity and vacuolization, and nuclear structure alterations of the circulating monocyte population. CONCLUSIONS: Histones may contribute to the pronounced and persistent monocyte alterations observed in both acute classical and viral sepsis. Assessment of the biological impact of circulating histone released during COVID-19 and sepsis on these blood cells should be considered as key factor modulating both thrombosis and inflammatory processes, as well as the importance of neutralization of their cytotoxic and procoagulant activities by several commercially available drugs (e.g., heparins and heparinoids).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Histones/metabolism , Histones/pharmacology , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism
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