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1.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305727

ABSTRACT

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the "mother of herbs" in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb-Artemisiae vulgaris herba-is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts , History of Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
2.
Microbes Infect ; 23(9-10): 104851, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267864

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, experts and the broader public have vigorously debated the means by which SARS CoV-2 is spread. And understandably so, for identifying the routes of transmission is crucial for selecting appropriate nonpharmaceutical interventions to control the pandemic. The most controversial question in the debate is the role played by airborne transmission. What is at stake is not just the clinical evidence, but the implications for public health policy, society, and psychology. Interestingly, however, the issue of airborne transmission is not a new controversy. It has reappeared throughout the history of western medicine. This essay traces the notion of airborne infection from its development in ancient medical theories to its manifestation in the modern era and its impact today.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , COVID-19/epidemiology , History of Medicine , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Dropouts
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 83, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267526

ABSTRACT

The role of a journal like HPLS during the novel coronavirus pandemic should serve as a means for scholars in different fields and professions to consider historically and critically what is happening as it unfolds. Surely it cannot tackle all the possible issues related to the pandemic, in particular to the COVID-19 pandemic, but it does have a responsibility to foster the best possible dialogue about the various issues related to the history and philosophy of the life sciences, and thus to solicit contributions from potential authors working in different parts of the world and belonging to different cultural traditions. Only a real plurality of perspectives should allow for a better, large-scale comprehension of what the COVID-19 pandemic is.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , COVID-19 , History of Medicine , Pandemics , Philosophy, Medical , Philosophy , Science , Humans
4.
NTM ; 29(2): 203-211, 2021 06.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192529

ABSTRACT

This paper is part of the Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The history of medicine is mostly written as a history of human medicine. COVID-19 and other zoonotic infectious diseases, however, demand a reconsideration of medical history in terms of ecology and the inclusion of non-human actors and diverse environments. This contribution discusses possible approaches for an ecological history of medicine which satisfies the needs of several current and overlapping crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Historiography , History of Medicine , Zoonoses/history , Animals , COVID-19/history , Ecology , Environment , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans
5.
Bull Hist Med ; 94(4): 744-753, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156072

ABSTRACT

Teaching the history of epidemics remains a critical mission of our profession, both inside and outside of the classroom. Charles E. Rosenberg's "dramaturgical model" of epidemic response endures as a useful and flexible heuristic. Through guided discussion of the dramaturgical model, students can develop a shared vocabulary and a working theory of epidemic responses through time. Students can apply the model, then revise and refine it for themselves through writing assignments and careful comparisons of epidemics in different times, places, and populations. Special consideration must be given to teaching the history of epidemics during the present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Curriculum , Epidemics , History of Medicine , Teaching , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Soc Stud Sci ; 51(2): 167-188, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085211

ABSTRACT

During the past forty years, statistical modelling and simulation have come to frame perceptions of epidemic disease and to determine public health interventions that might limit or suppress the transmission of the causative agent. The influence of such formulaic disease modelling has pervaded public health policy and practice during the Covid-19 pandemic. The critical vocabulary of epidemiology, and now popular debate, thus includes R0, the basic reproduction number of the virus, 'flattening the curve', and epidemic 'waves'. How did this happen? What are the consequences of framing and foreseeing the pandemic in these modes? Focusing on historical and contemporary disease responses, primarily in Britain, I explore the emergence of statistical modelling as a 'crisis technology', a reductive mechanism for making rapid decisions or judgments under uncertain biological constraint. I consider how Covid-19 might be configured or assembled otherwise, constituted as a more heterogeneous object of knowledge, a different and more encompassing moment of truth - not simply as a measured telos directing us to a new normal. Drawing on earlier critical engagements with the AIDS pandemic, inquiries into how to have 'theory' and 'promiscuity' in a crisis, I seek to open up a space for greater ecological, sociological, and cultural complexity in the biopolitics of modelling, thereby attempting to validate a role for critique in the Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Models, Biological , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Biobehavioral Sciences , History of Medicine , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 59, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079242

ABSTRACT

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is a prestigious award given every year for ostensibly the most important discovery in the field. Prizes in Medicine have typically gone to honor foundational knowledge rather than measurable impact. Two recent examples from global health (a rotavirus vaccine, child growth standards) offer alternatives for what might be lauded in medicine. These two examples and historical achievements regarding cholera and smallpox are worthy but do not fall within the scope of Nobel awards for Peace or Economics. The COVID-19 pandemic gives a new context for the idea that discovery and implementation are both keys to medicine. New patterns that redefine achievement in medicine could emerge by Nobel Prize precedent to promote greater health equity and international collaboration.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Health Equity , History of Medicine , Nobel Prize , COVID-19 , Humans
8.
Eur J Med Res ; 25(1): 23, 2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612270

ABSTRACT

In the human population, social contacts are a key for transmission of bacteria and viruses. The use of face masks seems to be critical to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 for the period, in which therapeutic interventions are lacking. In this review, we describe the history of masks from the middle age to modern times.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , History of Medicine , Masks/history , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Masks/standards , Respiratory Protective Devices/history , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards
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