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1.
Am Surg ; 88(10): 2425-2428, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648274

ABSTRACT

The CoVID-19 pandemic marks the 300th anniversary of the Boston smallpox epidemic of 1721, America's first immunization controversy. Puritan minister Cotton Mather learned of inoculation for smallpox from Onesimus, a man enslaved to him. When the disease broke out in May 1721, Mather urged Boston's physicians to inoculate all those vulnerable to the disease. Zabdiel Boylston, alone among his colleagues, decided to proceed with the procedure, igniting a heated debate that occasionally grew violent. The division between the advocates and detractors of inoculation were as deep as religion and politics. Puritan ministers supported inoculation, asserting their right to control the lives of their flock. Challenging them were a secular class of medical professionals that proclaimed primacy in medical matters. The controversy was inflamed by a nascent newspaper industry eager to profit from the fear of contagion and the passionate debate. Despite the furor and physical risk to himself and his family Boylston inoculated 282 persons, of whom only 6 died (2.1%). Of the 5759 townspeople who contracted smallpox during the epidemic, there were 844 deaths (14.7%). In America's first effort at preventive medicine Boylston established the efficacy of inoculation, which helped support its acceptance in England, and later in the century, the adoption of Edward Jenner's technique of vaccination in 1796.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smallpox , Boston/epidemiology , History, 18th Century , Humans , Immunization/history , Male , Pandemics , Smallpox/epidemiology , Smallpox/history , Smallpox/prevention & control , Vaccination
3.
Pediatr Radiol ; 50(8): 1069-1070, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451959
4.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436363

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Promotion/history , Healthy Lifestyle , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/history , Occupational Health/history , Occupational Medicine/history , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , Humans , Life Style , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Risk
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341553

ABSTRACT

Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.


Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Forests , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Indians, South American , Public Health/history , Cities , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission
7.
Vaccine ; 39(34): 4914-4919, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316653

ABSTRACT

This history of vaccinology article outlines the work of William Money (1790-1843), who conducted a study related to smallpox disease, immunity, and vaccination. His hitherto unpublished study demonstrated that smallpox could be contracted more than once; notably, results from his studies showed that vaccination was not dangerous. He was also the author of a celebrated Vade Mecum in human anatomy. Here, we outline the work he conducted in England: from serving as the house surgeon at Northampton Infirmary to his post as a surgeon at the Royal Metropolitan Hospital in London.


Subject(s)
Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , England , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Humans , London , Smallpox/prevention & control , Vaccination
8.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(5): 530-540, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199451

ABSTRACT

Background: The face mask has been used to protect against airborne diseases throughout history. We conducted a historical review of the literature on the origin of the face mask, the scientific evidence of its benefits, and its implications for domestic and international politics. Material and Methods: We performed a comprehensive search for peer- and nonpeer- reviewed literature published between 1905 and 2020. Results: Face mask wearing in hospital settings to prevent disease transmission from health care workers to their patients originates with the first use of the mask in surgery in 1897 by German surgeon Johann von Mikulicz. During the first half of the 20th century, various scientific investigators focused on determining the most effective type of medical mask. The role of the face mask in the general population as a preventive intervention during public health emergencies is supported by historical reports spanning from the European Bubonic Plague in 1619, to the Great Manchurian Plague of 1910-1911, the influenza pandemic of 1918, and the current coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although the face mask has helped against airborne disease transmission, its benefits during pandemics have been filtered through the prism of political leanings and geopolitical interests. Conclusions: Our review suggests that while face mask alone cannot stop pandemics, in conjunction with other nonpharmacologic interventions it can be useful in mitigating them. When cooperation rather than division becomes the norm in the global response to pandemics, the face mask can then unite rather than divide us.


Subject(s)
Masks/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Bull Hist Med ; 94(4): 602-625, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156068

ABSTRACT

This essay explores how epidemics in the past and present give rise to distinctive, recurring racial scripts about bodies and identities, with sweeping racial effects beyond the Black experience. Using examples from cholera, influenza, tuberculosis, AIDS, and COVID-19, the essay provides a dramaturgical analysis of race and epidemics in four acts, moving from Act I, racial revelation; to Act II, the staging of bodies and places; to Act III, where race and disease is made into spectacle; and finally, Act IV, in which racial boundaries are fixed, repaired, or made anew in the response to the racial dynamics revealed by epidemics. Focusing primarily on North America but touching on global racial narratives, the essay concludes with reflections on the writers and producers of these racialized dramas, and a discussion of why these racialized repertoires have endured.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/history , /psychology , Racism/history , Social Class , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans
12.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 138(4): 227-228, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152249
14.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(1): e41-e50, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139644

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the unprecedented development and integration of infectious disease dynamic transmission models into policy making and public health practice. Models offer a systematic way to investigate transmission dynamics and produce short-term and long-term predictions that explicitly integrate assumptions about biological, behavioural, and epidemiological processes that affect disease transmission, burden, and surveillance. Models have been valuable tools during the COVID-19 pandemic and other infectious disease outbreaks, able to generate possible trajectories of disease burden, evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies, and estimate key transmission variables. Particularly given the rapid pace of model development, evaluation, and integration with decision making in emergency situations, it is necessary to understand the benefits and pitfalls of transmission models. We review and highlight key aspects of the history of infectious disease dynamic models, the role of rigorous testing and evaluation, the integration with data, and the successful application of models to guide public health. Rather than being an expansive history of infectious disease models, this Review focuses on how the integration of modelling can continue to be advanced through policy and practice in appropriate and conscientious ways to support the current pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Models, Theoretical , Disease Outbreaks/history , Disease Transmission, Infectious/history , Health Policy , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Public Health
15.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(2): 147-149, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132664

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Depictions of pandemics presented through the lens of literary authors and poets have everlasting power. In this article, we explore the psychosocial impact of pandemics, as presented through literature and poetry, and attempt to draw similarities with the current COVID-19 pandemic. We explore topics such as fear and anxiety, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Overall, the psychological devastation caused by epidemics has influenced many major writers and will undoubtedly impact the writers of our generation. These writings are perhaps the richest source of knowledge of humanity's remarkable capacity to endure suffering.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Fear , Medicine in Literature , Pandemics , Suicidal Ideation , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Medicine in Literature/history , Pandemics/history
16.
APMIS ; 129(7): 352-371, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112203

ABSTRACT

The major epidemic and pandemic diseases that have bothered humans since the Neolithic Age and Bronze Age are surveyed. Many of these pandemics are zoonotic infections, and the mathematical modeling of such infections is illustrated. Plague, cholera, syphilis, influenza, SARS, MERS, COVID-19, and new potential epidemic and pandemic infections and their consequences are described and the background for the spread of acute and chronic infections and the transition to endemic infections is discussed. The way we can prevent and fight pandemics is illustrated from the old and new well-known pandemics. Surprisingly, the political reactions through different periods have not changed much during the centuries.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Cholera/history , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plague/history
19.
Pathog Glob Health ; 115(3): 151-167, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082903

ABSTRACT

Before the 20th century many deaths in England, and most likely a majority, were caused by infectious diseases. The focus here is on the biggest killers, plague, typhus, smallpox, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, dysentery, childhood infections, pneumonia, and influenza. Many other infectious diseases including puerperal fever, relapsing fever, malaria, syphilis, meningitis, tetanus and gangrene caused thousands of deaths. This review of preventive measures, public health interventions and changes in behavior that reduced the risk of severe infections puts the response to recent epidemic challenges in historical perspective. Two new respiratory viruses have recently caused pandemics: an H1N1 influenza virus genetically related to pig viruses, and a bat-derived coronavirus causing COVID-19. Studies of infectious diseases emerging in human populations in recent decades indicate that the majority were zoonotic, and many of the causal pathogens had a wildlife origin. As hunter-gatherers, humans contracted pathogens from other species, and then from domesticated animals and rodents when they began to live in settled communities based on agriculture. In the modern world of large inter-connected urban populations and rapid transport, the risk of global transmission of new infectious diseases is high. Past and recent experience indicates that surveillance, prevention and control of infectious diseases are critical for global health. Effective interventions are required to control activities that risk dangerous pathogens transferring to humans from wild animals and those reared for food.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/history , Communicable Diseases/history , Animals , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Public Health/history
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173746, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071296

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of the yellow fever virus in 1901, thus far, two hundred nineteen viral species are recognized as human pathogens. Each year, the number of viruses causing infections in humans increases, triggering epidemics and pandemics, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Pointing to bats as the natural host, in 2019, a genome highly identical to a bat coronavirus (COVID-19) spread all over the world, and the World Health Organization (WHO) officially confirmed it as a pandemic. The virus mainly spreads through the respiratory tract, uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor, and is characterized by symptoms of fever, cough, and fatigue. Antivirals and vaccines have provided improvements in some cases, but the discovery of a new and diverse variety of viruses with outbreaks has posed a challenge in timely treatments for medical scientists. Currently, few specific antiviral strategies are being used, and many of the effective antiviral drugs and reported active molecules are under vital exploration. In this review, with the details of viral diseases, we summarize the current attempts in drug development, epidemiology, and the latest treatments and scientific advancements to combat the COVID-19 epidemic. Moreover, we discuss ways to reduce epidemics and pandemics in the near future.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases/therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Computer Simulation , Drug Development , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Viral Vaccines , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/history
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