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Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): e15-e17, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461907
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397932


Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.

Climate Change , Obesity/etiology , Agriculture/economics , Agriculture/trends , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Climate Change/history , Comorbidity , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environment , Environmental Exposure/history , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Greenhouse Gases/toxicity , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Pandemics , Risk Factors
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166264, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385051


The molecular evolution of life on earth along with changing environmental, conditions has rendered mankind susceptible to endemic and pandemic emerging infectious diseases. The effects of certain systemic viral and bacterial infections on morbidity and mortality are considered as examples of recent emerging infections. Here we will focus on three examples of infections that are important in pregnancy and early childhood: SARS-CoV-2 virus, Zika virus, and Mycoplasma species. The basic structural characteristics of these infectious agents will be examined, along with their general pathogenic mechanisms. Coronavirus infections, such as caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, likely evolved from zoonotic bat viruses to infect humans and cause a pandemic that has been the biggest challenge for humanity since the Spanish Flu pandemic of the early 20th century. In contrast, Zika Virus infections represent an expanding infectious threat in the context of global climate change. The relationship of these infections to pregnancy, the vertical transmission and neurological sequels make these viruses highly relevant to the topics of this special issue. Finally, mycoplasmal infections have been present before mankind evolved, but they were rarely identified as human pathogens until recently, and they are now recognized as important coinfections that are able to modify the course and prognosis of various infectious diseases and other chronic illnesses. The infectious processes caused by these intracellular microorganisms are examined as well as some general aspects of their pathogeneses, clinical presentations, and diagnoses. We will finally consider examples of treatments that have been used to reduce morbidity and mortality of these infections and discuss briefly the current status of vaccines, in particular, against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is important to understand some of the basic features of these emerging infectious diseases and the pathogens involved in order to better appreciate the contributions of this special issue on how infectious diseases can affect human pregnancy, fetuses and neonates.

Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/history , Bacterial Infections/transmission , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/virology , Female , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/history , Mycoplasma/pathogenicity , Mycoplasma Infections/metabolism , Mycoplasma Infections/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/history , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1105-1133, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381356


SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of the current pandemic worldwide and its associated disease COVID-19. In this review, we have analyzed SARS-CoV-2 characteristics and those ones of other well-known RNA viruses viz. HIV, HCV and Influenza viruses, collecting their historical data, clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms. The aim of the work is obtaining useful insights and lessons for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2. These pathogens present a distinct mode of transmission, as SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza viruses are airborne, whereas HIV and HCV are bloodborne. However, these viruses exhibit some potential similar clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms and their understanding may contribute to establishing preventive measures and new therapies against SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19/history , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Climate , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mutation , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , RNA Viruses/physiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/history , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/history , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Virus Replication
Nurs Outlook ; 69(5): 720-731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373214


BACKGROUND: Since its founding, professional nursing has applied an environmental lens to healing. METHODS: This CANS 2020 Keynote article describes the history of nursing environmental science and nurses important contributions to the US Environmental Justice Movement. Starting with Florence Nightingale's Notes on Nursing, which established Environmental Theory, the paper introduces key figures throughout nursing history who have studied and advocated for environmental health and justice. FINDINGS: The paper emphasizes that nursing has always been about environmental health and that, regardless of specialty or practice setting, all nurses are called to incorporate environmental science and translation into their research and practice. CONCLUSION: This call to action is especially critical today in the context of urgent issues like climate change, environmental racism and racial health disparities, emerging infectious diseases like COVID-19, and chemical exposures in the home and workplace (among others).

COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Health/history , Environmental Science/history , History of Nursing , Health Status Disparities , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(3): 1225-1235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369550


There have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; however, racial disparities continue to create inequity in mental health care. In this commentary, we explore mental health disparities disfavoring African Americans in the psychiatric literature. We discuss how discrimination over time has resulted in a difference of perception, misdiagnoses, and conflicts in patient care. The literature reviewed reveals a pattern wherein African Americans are more likely to be misdiagnosed for all types of mental illness compared with other ethnicities due to fallacies perpetuated throughout the history of African Americans. In addition, the aggregation of current information and research on the current COVID-19 pandemic will justify future research on the epidemic of police brutality and shootings of unarmed African Americans. If we address this issue, we will reduce medical mistrust and ultimately reduce racial health inequities.

African Americans , Healthcare Disparities , Mental Disorders/therapy , Racism , COVID-19/ethnology , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mental Disorders/ethnology , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Psychiatry/history , Racism/history
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341553


Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.

Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.

Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Forests , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Indians, South American , Public Health/history , Cities , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): e209-e221, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331321


Health-care-associated infections are the most prevalent adverse events of hospital care, posing a substantial threat to patient safety and burden on society. Hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub is the most effective preventive strategy to reduce health-care-associated infections. Over the past two decades, various interventions have been introduced and studied to improve hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers. The global implementation of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy and constant efforts to replace the use of soap and water with alcohol-based hand rub have led to a faster and more efficient hand cleaning method. These strategies have strongly contributed to the success of behaviour change and a subsequent decrease in health-care-associated infections and cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms worldwide. The WHO multimodal behaviour change strategy requires a series of elements including system change as a prerequisite for behaviour, change, education, monitoring and performance feedback, reminders in the workplace, and an institutional safety climate. Successful adoption of the promotion strategy requires adaptation to available resources and sociocultural contexts. This Review focuses on the major advances and challenges in hand hygiene research and practices in the past 20 years and sets out various ways forward for improving this lifesaving action.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene/history , Health Personnel , Publications/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Hygiene/trends , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Research/trends