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2.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E613-E620, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575621

ABSTRACT

The intrusion of infectious diseases in everyday life forces humans to reassess their attitudes. Indeed, pandemics are able catalyze rapid transitions in scientific knowledge, politics, social behaviors, culture and arts. The current Coronavirus diesease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak has driven an unprecedented interest toward the influenza pandemic of 1918. The issue is whether history can shed light on the best preventive response and future scenarios. The aim of this review is to highlight the parallelism between the two pandemics. Starting from epidemiology and clinical features, but further focusing on social and cultural issues, it is possible to unreveal great similarities. Their outbreak pattern lead to hypothesize a similar duration and death burden in absence of effective vaccines or innovative treatments for COVID-19. Thus, then as now, preventive medicine represents the first and most effective tool to contain the course of the pandemic; being treatments available only supportive. At the same time,both pandemics shared the same pattern of narration (e.g. scapegoating) and the same impact on minorities in high-income countries. Furthermore, visual art responded to pandemic issues in 2020 in the form of Graffiti art, while similar role was ruled by Expressionism movement during the Spanish flu. Photography also was capable to document both catastrophic scenarios. Thus, it is possible to find a lot of clinical and social similarities between the two pandemics. Nevertheless, if the Spanish flu was not unforseen, COVID-19 spillover was partially predictable and its global impact will hopefully not be overshadowed by a major crisis such as World War I.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 282, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523322

ABSTRACT

Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by several Trichinella species around the world. In Chile, the domestic cycle was fairly well-studied in previous decades, but has been neglected in recent years. The aims of this study were to analyze, geographically, the incidence of trichinellosis in Chile to assess the relative risk and to analyze the incidence rate fluctuation in the last decades. Using temporal data spanning 1964-2019, as well as geographical data from 2010 to 2019, the time series of cases was analyzed with ARIMA models to explore trends and periodicity. The Dickey-Fuller test was used to study trends, and the Portmanteau test was used to study white noise in the model residuals. The Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model was used to create Bayesian maps of the level of risk relative to that expected by the overall population. The association of the relative risk with the number of farmed swine was assessed with Spearman's correlation. The number of annual cases varied between 5 and 220 (mean: 65.13); the annual rate of reported cases varied between 0.03 and 1.9 cases per 105 inhabitants (mean: 0.53). The cases of trichinellosis in Chile showed a downward trend that has become more evident since the 1980s. No periodicities were detected via the autocorrelation function. Communes (the smallest geographical administrative subdivision) with high incidence rates and high relative risk were mostly observed in the Araucanía region. The relative risk of the commune was significantly associated with the number of farmed pigs and boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758). The results allowed us to state that trichinellosis is not a (re)emerging disease in Chile, but the severe economic poverty rate of the Mapuche Indigenous peoples and the high number of backyard and free-ranging pigs seem to be associated with the high risk of trichinellosis in the Araucanía region.


Subject(s)
Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Trichinellosis/epidemiology , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Chile/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Geographic Mapping , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Incidence , Risk Assessment , Swine , Trichinella , Trichinellosis/history
8.
Comp Med ; 71(5): 359-368, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515728

ABSTRACT

The significant advances made by the global scientific community during the COVID-19 pandemic, exemplified by the development of multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in less than 1 y, were made possible in part because of animal research. Historically, animals have been used to study the characterization, treatment, and prevention of most of the major infectious disease outbreaks that humans have faced. From the advent of modern 'germ theory' prior to the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic through the more recent Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks, research that uses animals has revealed or supported key discoveries in disease pathogenesis and therapy development, helping to save lives during crises. Here we summarize the role of animal research in past pandemic and epidemic response efforts, as well as current and future considerations for animal research in the context of infectious disease research.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , History, 20th Century , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Lancet ; 398(10313): 1837-1850, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510434

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is on the rise globally; however, the burden of mortality remains disproportionate in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). As 2021 marks 100 years since the discovery of insulin, we revisit progress, global burden of type 1 diabetes trends, and understanding of the pathogenesis and management practices related to the disease. Despite much progress, inequities in access and availability of insulin formulations persist and are reflected in differences in survival and morbidity patterns related to the disease. Some of these inequities have also been exacerbated by health-system challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a clear opportunity to improve access to insulin and related essential technologies for improved management of type 1 diabetes in LMICs, especially as a part of universal health coverage. These improvements will require concerted action and investments in human resources, community engagement, and education for the timely diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes, as well as adequate health-care financing. Further research in LMICs, especially those in Africa, is needed to improve our understanding of the burden, risk factors, and implementation strategies for managing type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/economics , Hypoglycemic Agents/history , Insulin/economics , Insulin/history , Life Expectancy , Universal Health Insurance
16.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(5): 639-646, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is just over a century since the 1918 flu pandemic, sometimes referred to as the "mother" of pandemics. This brief retrospective of the 1918 pandemic is taken from the viewpoint of the current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic and is based on a short lecture given during the 2021 Virtual Congress of the ERA-EDTA. SUMMARY: This review summarizes and highlights some of the earlier pandemic's salient features, some parallels with today, and some potential learnings, bearing in mind that the flu pandemic occurred over 100 years ago at a time of major turmoil during the climax to WWl, and with limited medical expertise and knowledge, research facilities, or well-structured and resourced healthcare services. While there is little or no information on renal complications at the time, or an effective treatment, some observations in relation to COVID-19 and vaccination are included. Key Messages: Lessons are difficult to draw from 1918 other than the importance and value of non-pharmaceutical measures to limit viral transmission. While the economic impact of the 1918 pandemic was significant, as it is now with COVID-19, subsequent economic analysis has shown that protecting public health and preserving economic activity are not mutually exclusive. Both H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 viruses are neurotropic and may cause chronically debilitating neurological diseases, including conditions such as encephalitis lethargica (still debated) and myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome), respectively. Although coronavirus and influenza viral infections have some similarities, they are certainly not the same, as we are realising, and future infectious pandemics may still surprise us, but being "forewarned is forearmed."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Influenza, Human/transmission , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/economics , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/economics
17.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 61-65, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In the spring of 1918, a virus swept across the world, killing approximately 50 million people by the summer of 1919. My grandmother, Kathryn ("Katie") Ann Darmody-an Irish immigrant who settled in New York State in 1904-was among the nurses who responded to this pandemic, which became known as the 1918 influenza pandemic (or, erroneously, the Spanish flu). Today, as the world contends with the COVID-19 pandemic, my grandmother's experiences resonate with new meaning-a reminder of how, then as now, nurses have been at the forefront of public health. Her story, transmitted across generations, is one I now share with a new generation of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Nurse's Role/history , Nursing Staff, Hospital/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , New York
19.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471000

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that mainly affects the lungs. COVID-19 symptoms include the presence of fevers, dry coughs, fatigue, sore throat, headaches, diarrhea, and a loss of taste or smell. However, it is understood that SARS-CoV-2 is neurotoxic and neuro-invasive and could enter the central nervous system (CNS) via the hematogenous route or via the peripheral nerve route and causes encephalitis, encephalopathy, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in COVID-19 patients. This review discusses the possibility of SARS-CoV-2-mediated Multiple Sclerosis (MS) development in the future, comparable to the surge in Parkinson's disease cases following the Spanish Flu in 1918. Moreover, the SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a cytokine storm. This review highlights the impact of these modulated cytokines on glial cell interactions within the CNS and their role in potentially prompting MS development as a secondary disease by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is neurotropic and could interfere with various functions of neurons leading to MS development. The influence of neuroinflammation, microglia phagocytotic capabilities, as well as hypoxia-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, are mechanisms that may ultimately trigger MS development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): e15-e17, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461907
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