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4.
Circ Res ; 132(10): 1259-1271, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313177

ABSTRACT

The onset and widespread dissemination of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 in late 2019 impacted the world in a way not seen since the 1918 H1N1 pandemic, colloquially known as the Spanish Flu. Much like the Spanish Flu, which was observed to disproportionately impact young adults, it became clear in the early days of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that certain groups appeared to be at higher risk for severe illness once infected. One such group that immediately came to the forefront and garnered international attention was patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Here, we examine the available literature describing the interaction of COVID-19 with a myriad of cardiovascular conditions and diseases, paying particular attention to patients diagnosed with arrythmias, heart failure, and coronary artery disease. We further discuss the association of acute COVID-19 with de novo cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction due to coronary thrombosis, myocarditis, and new onset arrhythmias. We will evaluate various biochemical theories to explain these findings, including possible mechanisms of direct myocardial injury caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 virus at the cellular level. Finally, we will discuss the strategies employed by numerous groups and governing bodies within the cardiovascular disease community to address the unprecedented challenges posed to the care of our most vulnerable patients, including heart transplant recipients, end-stage heart failure patients, and patients suffering from acute coronary syndromes, during the early days and height of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , History, 20th Century , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/complications , Myocardium
5.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 84(3)2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303105

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine suicide rates in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic and the influenza pandemic of 1918-1920.Methods: Data on deaths by cause for the periods 1910-1925 and 2016-2020 were obtained from the National Statistics Institute of Spain.Results: During the Spanish influenza pandemic, a peak of deaths in 1918 due to influenza, acute bronchitis, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases coincided with an increase in suicides (from 5.9 in 1917 to 6.6 per 100,000 population in 1918). The pattern was repeated in the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020, with an increase in suicides from 7.8 in 2019 to 8.3 per 100,000 population in 2020. In both cases, the male:female suicide ratio was reduced in similar proportion, with a higher net increase in the number of suicides among males but a higher percentage increase among females.Conclusions: Albeit limited, there is evidence that the pandemics may have affected suicide rates. However, the effect was most likely due to precipitation of different diathesis-stressor factors in each setting, given the different historical contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , Suicide , Humans , Male , Female , History, 20th Century , Spain/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
6.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 4079685, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279240

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has plunged the world into a health and economic crisis never seen before since the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918. The closure of schools and universities, the banning of rallies, and other social distancing in countries have been done to disrupt the transmission of the virus. Governments have planned to reduce restrictions on corona management by implementing vaccination programs. This research aims to better understand the Coronavirus disease's behavior, identify the prevalent factors, and adopt effective policies to control the pandemic. This study examines the different scenarios of releasing the constraints and returning to normal conditions before Corona to analyze the results of different scenarios to prevent the occurrence of subsequent peaks. The system dynamics approach is an effective means of studying COVID-19's behavioral characteristics. The factors that affect Coronavirus disease outbreak and control by expanding the basic SEIR model, interventions, and policies, such as vaccination, were investigated in this research. Based on the obtained results, the most critical factor in reducing the prevalence of the disease is reducing the behavioral risks of people and increasing the vaccination process. Observance of hygienic principles leads to disruption of the transmission chain, and vaccination increases the immunity of individuals against the acute type of infection. In addition, the closure of businesses and educational centers, along with government support for incomes, effectively controls and reduces the pandemic, which requires cooperation between the people and the government. In a situation where a new type of corona has spread, if the implementation of the policy of reducing restrictions and reopening schools and universities is done without planning, it will cause a lot of people to suffer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , History, 20th Century , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Vaccination
8.
Clin Transplant ; 37(3): e14877, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266773

ABSTRACT

Dr John S Najarian (1927-2020), chairman of the Department of Surgery at the University of Minnesota from 1967 to 1993, was a pioneer in surgery, clinical immunology and transplantation. A Covid-delayed Festschrift was held in his honor on May 20, 2022. The speakers reflected on his myriad contributions to surgery, transplantation, and resident/fellow training, as well as current areas of ongoing research to improve clinical outcomes. Of note, Dr Najarian was a founder of the journal Clinical Transplantation.


Subject(s)
Transplantation , Humans , History, 20th Century
9.
Politics Life Sci ; 41(2): 289-297, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254214

ABSTRACT

Scholars and journalists connect pandemics to a rise in support for radical political movements. In this study, we draw on this insight to investigate the relationship between the 1918-1919 Spanish influenza pandemic and political extremism-here, the rise of the second Ku Klux Klan-in the United States. Specifically, we ask whether U.S. states and cities with higher death rates from the Spanish flu also had stronger Ku Klux Klan organizations in the early 1920s. Our results do not provide evidence of such a connection; in fact, the data suggest greater Klan membership where the pandemic was less severe. This provides initial evidence that pandemic severity, as measured by mortality, is not necessarily a cause of extremism in the United States; power devaluation as a result of social and cultural change, however, does appear to spur such mobilization.


Subject(s)
Cultural Evolution , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cities
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(35)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270788

ABSTRACT

Observational knowledge of the epidemic intensity, defined as the number of deaths divided by global population and epidemic duration, and of the rate of emergence of infectious disease outbreaks is necessary to test theory and models and to inform public health risk assessment by quantifying the probability of extreme pandemics such as COVID-19. Despite its significance, assembling and analyzing a comprehensive global historical record spanning a variety of diseases remains an unexplored task. A global dataset of historical epidemics from 1600 to present is here compiled and examined using novel statistical methods to estimate the yearly probability of occurrence of extreme epidemics. Historical observations covering four orders of magnitude of epidemic intensity follow a common probability distribution with a slowly decaying power-law tail (generalized Pareto distribution, asymptotic exponent = -0.71). The yearly number of epidemics varies ninefold and shows systematic trends. Yearly occurrence probabilities of extreme epidemics, Py, vary widely: Py of an event with the intensity of the "Spanish influenza" (1918 to 1920) varies between 0.27 and 1.9% from 1600 to present, while its mean recurrence time today is 400 y (95% CI: 332 to 489 y). The slow decay of probability with epidemic intensity implies that extreme epidemics are relatively likely, a property previously undetected due to short observational records and stationary analysis methods. Using recent estimates of the rate of increase in disease emergence from zoonotic reservoirs associated with environmental change, we estimate that the yearly probability of occurrence of extreme epidemics can increase up to threefold in the coming decades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/history , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Public Health Surveillance
12.
J Rheumatol ; 50(1): 1-2, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245236
14.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 37: 3946320231154997, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229476

ABSTRACT

Encephalitis lethargica developed in epidemic from 1919 to 1926 in Europe and throughout the world. From the clinical point of view, the disturbances of consciousness and alertness and the possible outcomes of a postencephalitic Parkinsonism has attracted much attention. For a long time, it was thought that such a disease may still occur sporadically. In this review, the authors examined historical and current pictures of epidemics that may be related to Encephalitis lethargica. The previous Nona and Russian Influenza exhibited frequent neurological symptoms. The Spanish flu, formerly related to Encephalitis lethargica, would appear an epidemic that had its development in a partially overlapping period. The current pandemic linked to COVID-19 sometimes has aspects that can resemble Encephalitis lethargica. Based on historical analysis and the more recent immunological data, it could be suggested that Encephalitis lethargica was an autoimmune encephalitis that arose in a secondary form to the action of a viral agent. It cannot be ruled out that this agent was a coronavirus. From the nosological point of view, the term Encephalitis lethargica should be abolished in designating autoimmune encephalitis pictures that run sporadically.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System , COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic , History, 20th Century , Humans , Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic/complications , Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/complications
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225328

ABSTRACT

In the present paper, we have analysed the role of age and sex in the fatal outcome of COVID-19, as there are conflicting results in the literature. As such, we have answered three controversial questions regarding this aspect of the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) Have women been more resilient than men? (2) Did centenarians die less than the remaining older people? (3) Were older centenarians more resistant to SARS-CoV-2 than younger centenarians? The literature review demonstrated that: (1) it is women who are more resilient, in agreement with data showing that women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics; however, there are conflicting data regarding centenarian men; (2) centenarians overall did not die less than remaining older people, likely linked to their frailty; (3) in the first pandemic wave of 2020, centenarians > 101 years old (i.e., born before 1919), but not "younger centenarians", have been more resilient to COVID-19 and this may be related to the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic, although it is unclear what the mechanisms might be involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , History, 20th Century , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Female , Aged , Centenarians , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Longevity
16.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(24-25): 1617-1625, 2022 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212100

ABSTRACT

Contagious diseases and other conditions from the field of internal medicine have always kept the world on its edge. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has recently reminded us of this with all its terror. If one looks for a historical equivalent, the Spanish flu impresses with as many similarities as differences. However, many of these aspects are difficult to measure by statistics. How were the waves of infections perceived socially almost 100 years ago? What significance did they have in the lives of the ordinary people? And in what light was medical world showcased? An insightful way to get to the bottom of these questions can be through the historical analysis of the mass medium of film.This paper will therefore systematically analyze the decades surrounding the Spanish Flu, known in film history as the silent era. This venture not only fills a gap in film and medical history research, where the portrayal of the main antagonist of epidemics - the internist - has been missing. Furthermore, such a study helps to put the present events in an adequate context. As a result, it becomes clear how little contemporary developments should be seen as an anomaly; how cinema, as an anticipatory medium with a warning function, reflects medical reality; how poorly the film industry used the therapeutic possibilities of cinematic art in times of pandemics. Finally, however, it becomes particularly apparent what a significant role internal diseases or internists played in the history of cinema from the very beginning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , History, 20th Century , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Motion Pictures , Pandemics
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015501, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantify the (direct and indirect) impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality for actual populations of persons living in 12 European countries in 2020. Method: Based on demographic and mortality data, as well as remaining life expectancies found in the Human Mortality Database, we calculated a "population life loss" in 2020 for men and women living in Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. This quantity was obtained by dividing the total number of years lost in 2020 (estimated from all-cause mortality data and attributed directly or indirectly to COVID-19) by the size of the population. Results: A significant population life loss was found in 8 countries in 2020, with men losing an average of 8.7, 5.0, 4.4, 4.0, 3.7, 3.4, 3.1, and 2.7 days in Lithuania, Spain, Belgium, Hungary, Croatia, Portugal, Switzerland, and Sweden, respectively. For women, this loss was 5.5, 4.3, 3.7, 3.7, 3.1, 2.4, 1.6, and 1.4 days, respectively. No significant losses were found in Finland, Luxembourg, Denmark and Norway. Life loss was highly dependent on age, reaching 40 days at the age of 90 in some countries, while only a few significant losses occurred under the age of 60. Even in countries with a significant population life loss in 2020, it was on average about 30 times lower than in 1918, at the time of the Spanish flu. Conclusions: Our results based on the concept of population life loss were consistent with those based on the classical concept of life expectancy, confirming the significant impact of COVID-19 on mortality in 8 European countries in 2020. However, while life expectancy losses were typically counted in months or years, population life losses could be counted in days, a potentially useful piece of information from a public health perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , History, 20th Century , Male , Humans , Female , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Life Expectancy , Europe/epidemiology
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