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4.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 820-831, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1022691

ABSTRACT

Por meio da autoetnografia, na qual a experiência do pesquisador se inter-relaciona com o cenário empírico que analisa, o artigo desenvolve como se articulam, em atos comunicacionais, os fluxos encadeados de memória, haja vista um evento traumático contemporâneo. A pandemia da Covid-19 faz emergir lembranças de um passado que sobreviveu pelas narrativas de outro, a gripe espanhola de 1918, nas memórias de infância de quem hoje faz o gesto de contar essa história. Apresentam-se, ainda, aspectos da cobertura jornalística realizada na época pelos principais periódicos do Rio de Janeiro que também produzem narrativas governadas pela lógica dos fluxos encadeados de memória.


Through the autoethnography, in which the researcher's experience is interrelated with the empirical scenario that she or he analyzes, the article reveals how the interconnected streams of memory are articulated in communicational acts, taking into account a contemporary traumatic event. The Covid-19 pandemic gives rise to reminiscences of a past that survived because of the narratives of another event, the 1918 influenza pandemic (Spanish flu), in the childhood memories of the one who nowadays makes the gesture of telling that story. Moreover, the article presents aspects of journalistic coverage then carried out in Rio de Janeiro by the main newspapers and magazines, which also produce narratives guided by the interconnected streams of memory logic.


Por medio de la autoetnografía, en que la experiencia del investigador está interrelacionada con el escenario empírico que analiza, el artículo desarrolla cómo se articulan las corrientes encadenadas de la memoria en actos comunicacionales, teniendo en cuenta un evento traumático contemporáneo. La pandemia de coronavirus desencadena recuerdos de un pasado que sobrevivió debido a las narraciones de otro evento, la gripe española de 1918, en las memorias de la infancia de quien hoy en día hace el gesto de narrar esa historia. Además, el artículo presenta aspectos de la cobertura periodística llevada a cabo en la época por los principales periódicos y revistas de Río de Janeiro que también producen narrativas regidas por la lógica de las corrientes encadenadas de memoria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodical , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Personal Narrative , Memory , Journalism , History, 20th Century , Health Communication
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111072, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987144

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive pulmonary interstitial inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, and is also a sequela in severe patients with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nintedanib and pirfenidone are the only two known drugs which are conditionally recommended for the treatment of IPF by the FDA. However, these drugs pose some adverse side effects such as nausea and diarrhoea during clinical applications. Therefore, it is of great value and significance to identify effective and safe therapeutic drugs to solve the clinical problems associated with intake of western medicine. As a unique medical treatment, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gradually exerted its advantages in the treatment of IPF worldwide through a multi-level and multi-target approach. Further, to overcome the current clinical problems of oral and injectable intakes of TCM, pulmonary drug delivery system (PDDS) could be designed to reduce the systemic metabolism and adverse reactions of the drug and to improve the bioavailability of drugs. Through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI, we retrieved articles published in related fields in recent years, and this paper has summarized twenty-seven Chinese compound prescriptions, ten single TCM, and ten active ingredients for effective prevention and treatment of IPF. We also introduce three kinds of inhaling PDDS, which supports further research of TCM combined with PDDS to treat IPF.


Subject(s)
/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiratory Therapy
8.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1624-1627, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982651

ABSTRACT

Anti-Asian discrimination and assaults have increased significantly during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, contributing to a "secondary contagion" of racism. The United States has a long and well-documented history of both interpersonal and structural anti-Asian discrimination, and the current pandemic reinforces longstanding negative stereotypes of this rapidly growing minority group as the "Yellow Peril."We provide a general overview of the history of anti-Asian discrimination in the United States, review theoretical and empirical associations between discrimination and health, and describe the associated public health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, citing relevant evidence from previous disasters in US history that became racialized.Although the literature suggests that COVID-19 will likely have significant negative effects on the health of Asian Americans and other vulnerable groups, there are reasons for optimism as well. These include the emergence of mechanisms for reporting and tracking incidents of racial bias, increased awareness of racism's insidious harms and subsequent civic and political engagement by the Asian American community, and further research into resilience-promoting factors that can reduce the negative health effects of racism.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Asian Americans/history , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/trends , Racism/history , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(1): 85-87, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978630

ABSTRACT

In the last half of the 20th century, psychiatry lost many of the conditions needed for unhindered practice. I compiled from searches of the literature the 20th century changes in the arenas of psychiatric practice and the sources of these changes. I determined how these changes are shaping 21st century health and well-being. The neglect of the severely mentally ill, first in Bedlams and now on Boulevards, reflects a wide loss of resources. Psychiatry's patients have lost a past of community-based mental health services, interdisciplinary care teams, preventive consultation with social agencies, and, with reimbursements targeted for 15-minute visits, time adequate with the physician to individualize diagnosis and treatment. With the Covid-19 and other epidemics, economic inequalities, an economic crisis, unrest over police violence, and racism, psychiatry can find in its past the resources to engage 21st century psychiatric and other problems.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services/history , Psychiatry/history , /history , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Health Services/economics , Mental Health Services/trends , Psychiatry/economics , Psychiatry/trends
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977753

ABSTRACT

The twenty-first century has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012) and Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard tohigher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Ebolavirus , Female , HIV , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Public Health , SARS Virus , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
14.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200581, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951058

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) poses a huge threat to health systems and economies worldwide. So far, there has been no proven effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Various potential therapies, viz., immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and plasma transfusion, are undergoing clinical trials. An intensive search of the medical corpora revealed that low dose X-ray radiation therapy has been used in the past to treat interstitial pneumonia. In this article we explore a historical background of low-dose X-rays for the treatment of pneumonia and how it could be a promising therapy in treating patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/radiotherapy , X-Ray Therapy/methods , History, 20th Century , Humans , Radiotherapy Dosage , X-Ray Therapy/history
15.
Risk Anal ; 40(S1): 2272-2299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948522

ABSTRACT

One-fifth of the way through the 21st century, a commonality of factors with those of the last 50 years may offer the opportunity to address unfinished business and current challenges. The recommendations include: (1) Resisting the tendency to oversimplify scientific assessments by reliance on single disciplines in lieu of clear weight-of-evidence expressions, and on single quantitative point estimates of health protective values for policy decisions; (2) Improving the separation of science and judgment in risk assessment through the use of clear expressions of the range of judgments that bracket protective quantitative levels for public health protection; (3) Use of comparative risk to achieve the greatest gains in health and the environment; and (4) Where applicable, reversal of the risk assessment and risk management steps to facilitate timely and substantive improvements in public health and the environment. Lessons learned and improvements in the risk assessment process are applied to the unprecedented challenges of the 21st century such as, pandemics and climate change. The beneficial application of the risk assessment and risk management paradigm to ensure timely research with consistency and transparency of assessments is presented. Institutions with mandated stability and leadership roles at the national and international levels are essential to ensure timely interdisciplinary scientific assessment at the interface with public policy as a basis for organized policy decisions, to meet time sensitive goals, and to inform the public.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Management , /prevention & control , Climate Change/history , Environmental Health , Evidence-Based Medicine , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making , Public Health/history , Public Health/trends , Public Policy/history , Public Policy/trends , Risk Assessment/history , Risk Assessment/trends , Risk Management/history , Risk Management/trends , United States , United States Government Agencies
17.
Intervirology ; 63(1-6): 17-32, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transmission of many viruses occurs by direct transmission during a close contact between two hosts, or by an indirect transmission through the environment. Several and often interconnected factors, both abiotic and biotic, determine the persistence of these viruses released in the environment, which can last from a few seconds to several years. Moreover, viruses in the environment are able to travel short to very long distances, especially in the air or in water. SUMMARY: Although well described now, the role of these environments as intermediaries or as reservoirs in virus transmission has been extensively studied and debated in the last century. The majority of these discoveries, such as the pioneer work on bacteria transmission, the progressive discoveries of viruses, as well as the persistence of the influenza virus in the air varying along with droplet sizes, or the role of water in the transmission of poliovirus, have contributed to the improvement of public health. Recent outbreaks of human coronavirus, influenza virus, and Ebola virus have also demonstrated the contemporaneity of these research studies and the need to study virus persistence in the environment. Key Messages: In this review, we discuss historical discoveries that contributed to describe biotic and abiotic factors determining viral persistence in the environment.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Environmental Microbiology , Public Health/history , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/isolation & purification , Air , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Medieval , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Water
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