Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 487
Filter
1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(35)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270788

ABSTRACT

Observational knowledge of the epidemic intensity, defined as the number of deaths divided by global population and epidemic duration, and of the rate of emergence of infectious disease outbreaks is necessary to test theory and models and to inform public health risk assessment by quantifying the probability of extreme pandemics such as COVID-19. Despite its significance, assembling and analyzing a comprehensive global historical record spanning a variety of diseases remains an unexplored task. A global dataset of historical epidemics from 1600 to present is here compiled and examined using novel statistical methods to estimate the yearly probability of occurrence of extreme epidemics. Historical observations covering four orders of magnitude of epidemic intensity follow a common probability distribution with a slowly decaying power-law tail (generalized Pareto distribution, asymptotic exponent = -0.71). The yearly number of epidemics varies ninefold and shows systematic trends. Yearly occurrence probabilities of extreme epidemics, Py, vary widely: Py of an event with the intensity of the "Spanish influenza" (1918 to 1920) varies between 0.27 and 1.9% from 1600 to present, while its mean recurrence time today is 400 y (95% CI: 332 to 489 y). The slow decay of probability with epidemic intensity implies that extreme epidemics are relatively likely, a property previously undetected due to short observational records and stationary analysis methods. Using recent estimates of the rate of increase in disease emergence from zoonotic reservoirs associated with environmental change, we estimate that the yearly probability of occurrence of extreme epidemics can increase up to threefold in the coming decades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/history , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Public Health Surveillance
2.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 59(1): 26-30, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281430

ABSTRACT

Among the objectives of the WHO Global Vaccination Action Plan 2020-2025, there is the establishment, in all countries, of a National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG), an independent body with the aim of supporting and harmonising vaccination policies. Italy firstly established a NITAG in 2017; it contributed to the nation's immunization policies but fell short of its goal of becoming a true reference group. The newly appointed NITAG, made up of 28 independent experts, has the ambitious goal to promote the new National Immunization Prevention Plan (PNPV), to harmonise the current vaccination schedule with the anti-COVID-19 campaign, and to recover the vaccination coverage decline that occurred during the pandemic. The contact with the ECDC EU/EEA, the WHO Global NITAG networks, and all the national stakeholders needs to be reinforced in order to accomplish these aims. This paper describes the structure, organisation, and strategy of the new Italian NITAG.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination , Advisory Committees/history , Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/ethics , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/standards , Immunization Programs/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Goals , Mass Vaccination/ethics , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Mass Vaccination/standards , Mass Vaccination/trends , Conflict of Interest , Humans
6.
Nature ; 612(7940): 477-482, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160238

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric methane growth reached an exceptionally high rate of 15.1 ± 0.4 parts per billion per year in 2020 despite a probable decrease in anthropogenic methane emissions during COVID-19 lockdowns1. Here we quantify changes in methane sources and in its atmospheric sink in 2020 compared with 2019. We find that, globally, total anthropogenic emissions decreased by 1.2 ± 0.1 teragrams of methane per year (Tg CH4 yr-1), fire emissions decreased by 6.5 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 yr-1 and wetland emissions increased by 6.0 ± 2.3 Tg CH4 yr-1. Tropospheric OH concentration decreased by 1.6 ± 0.2 per cent relative to 2019, mainly as a result of lower anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and associated lower free tropospheric ozone during pandemic lockdowns2. From atmospheric inversions, we also infer that global net emissions increased by 6.9 ± 2.1 Tg CH4 yr-1 in 2020 relative to 2019, and global methane removal from reaction with OH decreased by 7.5 ± 0.8 Tg CH4 yr-1. Therefore, we attribute the methane growth rate anomaly in 2020 relative to 2019 to lower OH sink (53 ± 10 per cent) and higher natural emissions (47 ± 16 per cent), mostly from wetlands. In line with previous findings3,4, our results imply that wetland methane emissions are sensitive to a warmer and wetter climate and could act as a positive feedback mechanism in the future. Our study also suggests that nitrogen oxide emission trends need to be taken into account when implementing the global anthropogenic methane emissions reduction pledge5.


Subject(s)
Atmosphere , Methane , Wetlands , Humans , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Methane/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Atmosphere/chemistry , Human Activities/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , History, 21st Century , Temperature , Humidity , Nitrogen Oxides/analysis
8.
OMICS ; 26(11): 586-588, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097272

ABSTRACT

In this perspective analysis, we strive to answer the following question: how can we advance integrative biology research in the 21st century with lessons from animal science? At the University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Animal Science, we share here our three lessons learned in the two decades from 2002 to 2022 that we believe could inform integrative biology, systems science, and animal science scholarship in other countries and geographies. Cultivating multiomics knowledge through a conceptual lens of integrative biology is crucial for life sciences research that can stand the test of diverse biological, clinical, and ecological contexts. Moreover, in an era of the current COVID-19 pandemic, animal nutrition and animal science, and the study of their interactions with human health (and vice versa) through integrative biology approaches hold enormous prospects and significance for systems medicine and ecosystem health.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , History, 21st Century , Ecosystem , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Biology
9.
JAMA ; 328(13): 1295-1296, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074835

ABSTRACT

In this Viewpoint, Lauren Gardner, winner of the 2022 Lasker-Bloomberg Public Service Award for creating the COVID-19 Dashboard, discusses the development of the Dashboard and the factors that contributed to its success.


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , COVID-19 , Global Health , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health/history , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
10.
Science ; 377(6611): 1137-1138, 2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063971
11.
Science ; 378(6615): 17-21, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053099

ABSTRACT

With rigorous science and good-humored braggadocio, Tulio de Oliveira champions coronavirus research from the Global South.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computational Biology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Brazil , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/history , South Africa
12.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(12): 1467-1468, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663977
17.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939027

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, scientific research has moved at an unprecedented rate in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid development of effective vaccines and therapeutics would not have been possible without extensive background knowledge on coronaviruses developed over decades by researchers, including Kathryn (Kay) Holmes. Kay's research team discovered the first coronavirus receptors for mouse hepatitis virus and human coronavirus 229E and contributed a wealth of information on coronaviral spike glycoproteins and receptor interactions that are critical determinants of host and tissue specificity. She collaborated with several research laboratories to contribute knowledge in additional areas, including coronaviral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and evolution. Throughout her career, Kay was an extremely dedicated and thoughtful mentor to numerous graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. This article provides a review of her contributions to the coronavirus field and her exemplary mentoring.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Receptors, Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19 , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(27): 3083-3084, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883562
19.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(5): 1629-1647, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853690

ABSTRACT

The mission of translational science is to bring predictivity and efficiency to the development and dissemination of interventions that improve human health. Ten years ago this year, the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences was founded to embody, conduct, and support this new discipline. The Center's first decade has brought substantial progress across a broad range of translational areas, from diagnostic and drug development to clinical trials to implementation science to education. The origins of the translational science and advances to this point are reviewed here and allow the establishment of an ambitious future research agenda for the field.


Subject(s)
Translational Science, Biomedical/trends , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/history , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration , Translational Science, Biomedical/history , Translational Science, Biomedical/organization & administration , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL