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4.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1624-1627, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982651

ABSTRACT

Anti-Asian discrimination and assaults have increased significantly during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, contributing to a "secondary contagion" of racism. The United States has a long and well-documented history of both interpersonal and structural anti-Asian discrimination, and the current pandemic reinforces longstanding negative stereotypes of this rapidly growing minority group as the "Yellow Peril."We provide a general overview of the history of anti-Asian discrimination in the United States, review theoretical and empirical associations between discrimination and health, and describe the associated public health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, citing relevant evidence from previous disasters in US history that became racialized.Although the literature suggests that COVID-19 will likely have significant negative effects on the health of Asian Americans and other vulnerable groups, there are reasons for optimism as well. These include the emergence of mechanisms for reporting and tracking incidents of racial bias, increased awareness of racism's insidious harms and subsequent civic and political engagement by the Asian American community, and further research into resilience-promoting factors that can reduce the negative health effects of racism.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Asian Americans/history , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/trends , Racism/history , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(1): 85-87, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978630

ABSTRACT

In the last half of the 20th century, psychiatry lost many of the conditions needed for unhindered practice. I compiled from searches of the literature the 20th century changes in the arenas of psychiatric practice and the sources of these changes. I determined how these changes are shaping 21st century health and well-being. The neglect of the severely mentally ill, first in Bedlams and now on Boulevards, reflects a wide loss of resources. Psychiatry's patients have lost a past of community-based mental health services, interdisciplinary care teams, preventive consultation with social agencies, and, with reimbursements targeted for 15-minute visits, time adequate with the physician to individualize diagnosis and treatment. With the Covid-19 and other epidemics, economic inequalities, an economic crisis, unrest over police violence, and racism, psychiatry can find in its past the resources to engage 21st century psychiatric and other problems.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services/history , Psychiatry/history , /history , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Health Services/economics , Mental Health Services/trends , Psychiatry/economics , Psychiatry/trends
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977753

ABSTRACT

The twenty-first century has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012) and Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard tohigher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Ebolavirus , Female , HIV , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Public Health , SARS Virus , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
8.
Science ; 370(6517): 652, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975631
9.
Science ; 370(6522): 1261-1262, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970490
12.
Risk Anal ; 40(S1): 2272-2299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948522

ABSTRACT

One-fifth of the way through the 21st century, a commonality of factors with those of the last 50 years may offer the opportunity to address unfinished business and current challenges. The recommendations include: (1) Resisting the tendency to oversimplify scientific assessments by reliance on single disciplines in lieu of clear weight-of-evidence expressions, and on single quantitative point estimates of health protective values for policy decisions; (2) Improving the separation of science and judgment in risk assessment through the use of clear expressions of the range of judgments that bracket protective quantitative levels for public health protection; (3) Use of comparative risk to achieve the greatest gains in health and the environment; and (4) Where applicable, reversal of the risk assessment and risk management steps to facilitate timely and substantive improvements in public health and the environment. Lessons learned and improvements in the risk assessment process are applied to the unprecedented challenges of the 21st century such as, pandemics and climate change. The beneficial application of the risk assessment and risk management paradigm to ensure timely research with consistency and transparency of assessments is presented. Institutions with mandated stability and leadership roles at the national and international levels are essential to ensure timely interdisciplinary scientific assessment at the interface with public policy as a basis for organized policy decisions, to meet time sensitive goals, and to inform the public.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Management , /prevention & control , Climate Change/history , Environmental Health , Evidence-Based Medicine , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making , Public Health/history , Public Health/trends , Public Policy/history , Public Policy/trends , Risk Assessment/history , Risk Assessment/trends , Risk Management/history , Risk Management/trends , United States , United States Government Agencies
14.
Intervirology ; 63(1-6): 17-32, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transmission of many viruses occurs by direct transmission during a close contact between two hosts, or by an indirect transmission through the environment. Several and often interconnected factors, both abiotic and biotic, determine the persistence of these viruses released in the environment, which can last from a few seconds to several years. Moreover, viruses in the environment are able to travel short to very long distances, especially in the air or in water. SUMMARY: Although well described now, the role of these environments as intermediaries or as reservoirs in virus transmission has been extensively studied and debated in the last century. The majority of these discoveries, such as the pioneer work on bacteria transmission, the progressive discoveries of viruses, as well as the persistence of the influenza virus in the air varying along with droplet sizes, or the role of water in the transmission of poliovirus, have contributed to the improvement of public health. Recent outbreaks of human coronavirus, influenza virus, and Ebola virus have also demonstrated the contemporaneity of these research studies and the need to study virus persistence in the environment. Key Messages: In this review, we discuss historical discoveries that contributed to describe biotic and abiotic factors determining viral persistence in the environment.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Environmental Microbiology , Public Health/history , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/isolation & purification , Air , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Medieval , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Water
18.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(21): 2791-2805, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899997

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) is a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme discovered in 2000. From the initial discovery, it was recognized that the kidneys were organs very rich on ACE2. Subsequent studies demonstrated the precise localization of ACE2 within the kidney and the importance of this enzyme in the metabolism of Angiotensin II and the formation of Angiotensin 1-7. With the recognition early in 2020 of ACE2 being the main receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the interest in this protein has dramatically increased. In this review, we will focus on kidney ACE2; its localization, its alterations in hypertension, diabetes, the effect of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) on ACE2 and the potential use of ACE2 recombinant proteins therapeutically for kidney disease. We also describe the emerging kidney manifestations of COVID-19, namely the frequent development of acute kidney injury. The possibility that binding of SARS-CoV-2 to kidney ACE2 plays a role in the kidney manifestations is also briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Kidney/enzymology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/enzymology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypertension/enzymology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/history , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/history
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 172: 112750, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893621

ABSTRACT

Tremendous research and commercialization efforts around the world are focused on developing novel wearable electrochemical biosensors that can noninvasively and continuously screen for biochemical markers in body fluids for the prognosis, diagnosis and management of diseases, as well as the monitoring of fitness. Researchers in North America are leading the development of innovative wearable platforms that can comfortably comply to the human body and efficiently sample fluids such as sweat, interstitial fluids, tear and saliva for the electrochemical detection of biomarkers through various sensing approaches such as potentiometric ion selective electrodes and amperometric enzymatic sensors. We start this review with a historical timeline overviewing the major milestones in the development of wearable electrochemical sensors by North American institutions. We then describe how such research efforts have led to pioneering developments and are driving the advancement and commercialization of wearable electrochemical sensors: from minimally invasive continuous glucose monitors for chronic disease management to non-invasive sweat electrolyte sensors for dehydration monitoring in fitness applications. While many countries across the globe have contributed significantly to this rapidly emerging field, their contributions are beyond the scope of this review. Furthermore, we share our perspective on the promising future of wearable electrochemical sensors in applications spanning from remote and personalized healthcare to wellness.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , /diagnosis , Wearable Electronic Devices , Biomarkers/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/history , Biosensing Techniques/trends , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/history , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Epidermis/chemistry , Equipment Design/history , Extracellular Fluid/chemistry , History, 21st Century , Humans , North America , Potentiometry/instrumentation , Saliva/chemistry , Sweat/chemistry , Tears/chemistry , Wearable Electronic Devices/history , Wearable Electronic Devices/trends
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