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2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111072, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987144

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive pulmonary interstitial inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, and is also a sequela in severe patients with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nintedanib and pirfenidone are the only two known drugs which are conditionally recommended for the treatment of IPF by the FDA. However, these drugs pose some adverse side effects such as nausea and diarrhoea during clinical applications. Therefore, it is of great value and significance to identify effective and safe therapeutic drugs to solve the clinical problems associated with intake of western medicine. As a unique medical treatment, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gradually exerted its advantages in the treatment of IPF worldwide through a multi-level and multi-target approach. Further, to overcome the current clinical problems of oral and injectable intakes of TCM, pulmonary drug delivery system (PDDS) could be designed to reduce the systemic metabolism and adverse reactions of the drug and to improve the bioavailability of drugs. Through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI, we retrieved articles published in related fields in recent years, and this paper has summarized twenty-seven Chinese compound prescriptions, ten single TCM, and ten active ingredients for effective prevention and treatment of IPF. We also introduce three kinds of inhaling PDDS, which supports further research of TCM combined with PDDS to treat IPF.


Subject(s)
/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiratory Therapy
3.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(1): 4-9, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894439

ABSTRACT

Drug repositioning is a strategy that identifies new uses of approved drugs to treat conditions different from their original purpose. Current efforts to treat Covid-19 are based on this strategy. The first drugs used in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were antimalarial drugs. It is their mechanism of action, i. e., rise in endosomal pH, which recommends them against the new coronavirus. Disregarding their side effects, the study of their antiviral activity provides valuable hints for the choice and design of drugs against SARS-CoV-2. One prominent drug candidate is thymoquinone, an antimalarial substance contained in Nigella sativa - most likely one of the first antimalarial drugs in human history. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, the number of articles relating thymoquinone to Covid-19 continuously increases. Here, we use it as an exemplary model drug, compare its antiviral mechanism with that of conventional antimalarial drugs and establish an irreducible parametric scheme for the identification of drugs with a potential in Covid-19.Translation into the laboratory is simple. Starting with the discovery of Nigella sativa seeds in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, we establish a physicochemical model for the interaction of thymoquinone with both coronavirus and cells. Exploiting the predictive capability of the model, we provide a generalizable scheme for the systematic choice and design of drugs for Covid-19. An unexpected offshoot of our research is that Tutankhamun could not have died of malaria, a finding contrary to the mainstream theory.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Antimalarials/history , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Benzoquinones/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Egypt , Famous Persons , History, Ancient , Humans
4.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751465

ABSTRACT

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Ethics, Medical/history , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Hospitals/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/history , Betacoronavirus , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/history , Health Workforce , Hippocratic Oath , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Leprosy/history , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/history , Resource Allocation , United States/epidemiology
5.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1051-1071, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647145

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. No specific treatment and vaccine with documented safety and efficacy for the disease have been established. Hence it is of utmost importance to identify more therapeutics such as Chinese medicine formulae to meet the urgent need. Qing Fei Pai Du Tang (QFPDT), a Chinese medicine formula consisting of 21 herbs from five classical formulae has been reported to be efficacious on COVID-19 in 10 provinces in mainland China. QFPDT could prevent the progression from mild cases and shorten the average duration of symptoms and hospital stay. It has been recommended in the 6th and 7th versions of Clinical Practice Guideline on COVID-19 in China. The basic scientific studies, supported by network pharmacology, on the possible therapeutic targets of QFPDT and its constituent herbs including Ephedra sinica, Bupleurum chinense, Pogostemon cablin, Cinnamomum cassia, Scutellaria baicalensis were reviewed. The anti-oxidation, immuno-modulation and antiviral mechanisms through different pathways were collated. Two clusters of actions identified were cytokine storm prevention and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding regulation. The multi-target mechanisms of QFPDT for treating viral infection in general and COVID-19 in particular were validated. While large scale clinical studies on QFPDT are being conducted in China, one should use real world data for exploration of integrative treatment with inclusion of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and herb-drug interaction studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/history , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/history , History, Ancient , Humans , Medicine in Literature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
9.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202597, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593743

ABSTRACT

Medical Uniforms date back from medieval times. Nursing uniforms were based on nuns clothes whereas doctors used the famous "plague costumes" and black "frock" coats from about 15th to early 19th century. In latter half 19th century medical uniforms started to change. Nursing uniforms gradually lost their similarities to religious outfits. Doctors started to use white clothing. With great emphasis on hygiene and sanitation, the idea of personal protective equipment (PPE) started to evolve with William Stewart Halsted introducing the use of rubber gloves in 1889. In the 1960s-1970s it became more usual to wear green and blue `scrubs in order to look for a greater contrast in clothing with the all-white hospital environment. In contemporary times, some specialties even stopped using specific uniforms, while others still use them. At the same time, PPE became more and more important, up to nowadays "plague costume" in the combat of the COVID-19 epidemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protective Clothing/history , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans
10.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(6): 443-444, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432971

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work is to elucidate psychosocial reactions to plagues by analyzing three landmark descriptions from different eras: Thucydides' description of the plague of Athens (430 BC) in The History of the Peloponnesian War, Giovanni Boccaccio's description of the plague in Florence (1348) in The Decameron, and Albert Camus' description in The Plague (1947). Using a narrative inquiry, we found psychosocial reactions to be complex and ambivalent and could discern several coping strategies. We propose that this knowledge can help psychiatrists and other healthcare professionals during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Medicine in Literature/history , Pandemics/history , Plague/history , Social Behavior/history , History, 20th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humanities/history , Humans
11.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-428675

ABSTRACT

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/history , Conservation of Natural Resources , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/history , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
14.
Urologe A ; 59(5): 585-594, 2020 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165356

ABSTRACT

The knowledge of hagiography and hagiotherapy still plays an important role in the history of science, especially when focusing on specific aspects of history. While knowledge about St. Liborius persists in urology, knowledge about patron saints for pandemics, especially those who were called upon to treat venereal diseases, has diminished due to the association with nonappropriate sexual behavior.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Saints/history , Urology/history , Catholicism/history , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Medicine , Religion and Medicine
15.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(4): 243-250, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since December 2019, an outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to almost all parts of China. This was followed by prevention programs recommending Chinese medicine (CM) for the prevention. In order to provide evidence for CM recommendations, we reviewed ancient classics and human studies. METHODS: Historical records on prevention and treatment of infections in CM classics, clinical evidence of CM on the prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 influenza, and CM prevention programs issued by health authorities in China since the COVID-19 outbreak were retrieved from different databases and websites till 12 February, 2020. Research evidence included data from clinical trials, cohort or other population studies using CM for preventing contagious respiratory virus diseases. RESULTS: The use of CM to prevent epidemics of infectious diseases was traced back to ancient Chinese practice cited in Huangdi's Internal Classic (Huang Di Nei Jing) where preventive effects were recorded. There were 3 studies using CM for prevention of SARS and 4 studies for H1N1 influenza. None of the participants who took CM contracted SARS in the 3 studies. The infection rate of H1N1 influenza in the CM group was significantly lower than the non-CM group (relative risk 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.52; n=4). For prevention of COVID-19, 23 provinces in China issued CM programs. The main principles of CM use were to tonify qi to protect from external pathogens, disperse wind and discharge heat, and resolve dampness. The most frequently used herbs included Radix astragali (Huangqi), Radix glycyrrhizae (Gancao), Radix saposhnikoviae (Fangfeng), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Baizhu), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), and Fructus forsythia (Lianqiao). CONCLUSIONS: Based on historical records and human evidence of SARS and H1N1 influenza prevention, Chinese herbal formula could be an alternative approach for prevention of COVID-19 in high-risk population. Prospective, rigorous population studies are warranted to confirm the potential preventive effect of CM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Epidemics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epidemics/history , Epidemics/prevention & control , History, Ancient , Humans , Infection Control/history , Infection Control/methods , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , Qi , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
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