Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
Add filters

Year range
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111072, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987144

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive pulmonary interstitial inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, and is also a sequela in severe patients with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nintedanib and pirfenidone are the only two known drugs which are conditionally recommended for the treatment of IPF by the FDA. However, these drugs pose some adverse side effects such as nausea and diarrhoea during clinical applications. Therefore, it is of great value and significance to identify effective and safe therapeutic drugs to solve the clinical problems associated with intake of western medicine. As a unique medical treatment, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gradually exerted its advantages in the treatment of IPF worldwide through a multi-level and multi-target approach. Further, to overcome the current clinical problems of oral and injectable intakes of TCM, pulmonary drug delivery system (PDDS) could be designed to reduce the systemic metabolism and adverse reactions of the drug and to improve the bioavailability of drugs. Through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI, we retrieved articles published in related fields in recent years, and this paper has summarized twenty-seven Chinese compound prescriptions, ten single TCM, and ten active ingredients for effective prevention and treatment of IPF. We also introduce three kinds of inhaling PDDS, which supports further research of TCM combined with PDDS to treat IPF.


Subject(s)
/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiratory Therapy
4.
Infez Med ; 28(4): 621-633, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950505

ABSTRACT

The plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, provides one of the best historical examples of pandemic infection. It can therefore be considered the first "globalized" disease, thanks also to the crowds that favoured the rebalancing of infectious agents between Europe and the Middle East. In this paper we analyse all the official documents of the time, highlighting the most effective prevention measures implemented in the city of Ferrara during the Italian plague. Historical mortality data for the 1630 Italian plague in northern Italy are first analysed. In contrast to the high rates recorded throughout the area from Milan to Florence, the mortality rate in Ferrara remained normal over the period. From the city's documents it emerged that the authorities, from the 16th century onwards, had already understood that the spread of the contagion could also occur through domestic animals, although rats are never mentioned. The strength of Ferrara's response to the "plague emergency" stems from an efficient and emergency-ready health control system, financed and supported by the "permanent surveillance team of the city and the Pontifical Legation of Ferrara - Azienda Sanitaria Pubblica" even in times of great economic difficulty for the State. Among the various measures that the city of Ferrara adopted to deal with the plague the following should be mentioned: guards at the city gates, lazarettos, safety of doctors, self-isolation and treatment of every suspicious case as if it were a real case of plague, measures to support the poorer classes of the population, veterinary and hygiene standards for the city and for housing, management of Catholic religious functions and the precepts of the Legation of Ferrara, which was under papal control, closure of churches to avoid mass gatherings, and limitations of all kinds of social and economic relations within and outside the population. The broad regimen, laid down in the 16th century, contains extremely modern health rules which are very much in line with those recommended by the WHO and the health authorities of each individual state in the current COVID-19 pandemic, even starting with hand-washing. The fight against epidemics of the past, especially the history of the plague in the 17th century, anticipates very important and valid concepts, and represents a wake-up call for the recent epidemics of emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Plague/history , Yersinia pestis , Animals , /prevention & control , Disease Vectors , History, 17th Century , History, Medieval , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Paintings/history , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/prevention & control , Plague/transmission
5.
Intervirology ; 63(1-6): 17-32, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transmission of many viruses occurs by direct transmission during a close contact between two hosts, or by an indirect transmission through the environment. Several and often interconnected factors, both abiotic and biotic, determine the persistence of these viruses released in the environment, which can last from a few seconds to several years. Moreover, viruses in the environment are able to travel short to very long distances, especially in the air or in water. SUMMARY: Although well described now, the role of these environments as intermediaries or as reservoirs in virus transmission has been extensively studied and debated in the last century. The majority of these discoveries, such as the pioneer work on bacteria transmission, the progressive discoveries of viruses, as well as the persistence of the influenza virus in the air varying along with droplet sizes, or the role of water in the transmission of poliovirus, have contributed to the improvement of public health. Recent outbreaks of human coronavirus, influenza virus, and Ebola virus have also demonstrated the contemporaneity of these research studies and the need to study virus persistence in the environment. Key Messages: In this review, we discuss historical discoveries that contributed to describe biotic and abiotic factors determining viral persistence in the environment.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Environmental Microbiology , Public Health/history , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/isolation & purification , Air , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Medieval , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Water
6.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(2): 180-195, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893172

ABSTRACT

Until the 19th century, the factor causing epidemics was not known, and the escape from a place where it occurred as well as isolation of patients was considered to be the only effective way to avoid illness and death. Quarantine in a sense similar to modern times was used in 1377 in Ragusa, today's Dubrovnik, during the plague epidemic. It was the first administratively imposed procedure in the world's history. It was later used in Venice and other rich port cities in the Mediterranean. On the territory of today's Poland, quarantine measures were used by the so-called Mayor of the Air - LukaszDrewno in 1623 during the plague epidemic in Warsaw. The quarantine left its mark on all areas of human activity. It affected all humanity in a way that is underestimated today. Throughout history, it has been described and presented visually. It is omnipresent in the world literature, art and philosophy. However, the isolation and closure of cities, limiting trade, had an impact on the economic balance, and the dilemma between the choice of inhabitants' health and the quality of existence, i.e. their wealth, has been the subject of discussions since the Middle Ages. Since the end of the 19th century, quarantine has lost its practical meaning. The discovery of bacteria and a huge development of medical and social sciences allowed limiting its range. In the 20th century isolation and quarantine no longer had a global range, because the ability to identify factors causing the epidemic, knowledge about the incubation period, carrier, infectiousness, enabled the rational determination of its duration and territorial range. The modern SARS COV 2 pandemic has resulted in a global quarantine on a scale unprecedented for at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the history of quarantine from its beginning to the present day, including its usefulness as an epidemiological tool.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Plague/history , Quarantine/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Disease Outbreaks/history , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, Medieval , Humans
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27703-27711, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880729

ABSTRACT

Historical records reveal the temporal patterns of a sequence of plague epidemics in London, United Kingdom, from the 14th to 17th centuries. Analysis of these records shows that later epidemics spread significantly faster ("accelerated"). Between the Black Death of 1348 and the later epidemics that culminated with the Great Plague of 1665, we estimate that the epidemic growth rate increased fourfold. Currently available data do not provide enough information to infer the mode of plague transmission in any given epidemic; nevertheless, order-of-magnitude estimates of epidemic parameters suggest that the observed slow growth rates in the 14th century are inconsistent with direct (pneumonic) transmission. We discuss the potential roles of demographic and ecological factors, such as climate change or human or rat population density, in driving the observed acceleration.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/history , Animals , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, Medieval , Humans , London , Plague/transmission , Population Density , Rats
10.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751465

ABSTRACT

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Ethics, Medical/history , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Hospitals/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/history , Betacoronavirus , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/history , Health Workforce , Hippocratic Oath , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Leprosy/history , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/history , Resource Allocation , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(3): 494-497, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743487
16.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202597, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593743

ABSTRACT

Medical Uniforms date back from medieval times. Nursing uniforms were based on nuns clothes whereas doctors used the famous "plague costumes" and black "frock" coats from about 15th to early 19th century. In latter half 19th century medical uniforms started to change. Nursing uniforms gradually lost their similarities to religious outfits. Doctors started to use white clothing. With great emphasis on hygiene and sanitation, the idea of personal protective equipment (PPE) started to evolve with William Stewart Halsted introducing the use of rubber gloves in 1889. In the 1960s-1970s it became more usual to wear green and blue `scrubs in order to look for a greater contrast in clothing with the all-white hospital environment. In contemporary times, some specialties even stopped using specific uniforms, while others still use them. At the same time, PPE became more and more important, up to nowadays "plague costume" in the combat of the COVID-19 epidemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protective Clothing/history , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans
18.
Eur J Health Econ ; 21(6): 817-823, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526726

ABSTRACT

Like wars and socio-politic shifts, contagious diseases have changed the economics and politics of the world throughout history. In 2020, the world faced COVID-19, a globally effective virus leading to mass losses and socio-economic panic. Due to apparent psycho-social conditions, analyzing the potential economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic was inevitable. Thus, discussing economic effects of previous global and regional epidemics is considered beneficial. This research evaluated most of the known epidemics and their effects on economics and socio-politics by reviewing scientific literature. In addition to the vast literature and observations on the ongoing process, we assessed the potential impacts of COVID-19 and potential ways to overcome these impacts. The most urgent socio-economic measures needed to combat the negative effects of a contagious disease are related to unemployment with its income effects and security of all sectors. To prevent persistent unemployment, service, retail, and even industrial sectors need to be supported. Additionally, we discussed the need for re-organizing the funding and managerial sustainability of healthcare services to be prepared for future.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/economics , Communicable Diseases/history , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Medieval , Humans , Politics , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment
19.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(6): 443-444, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432971

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work is to elucidate psychosocial reactions to plagues by analyzing three landmark descriptions from different eras: Thucydides' description of the plague of Athens (430 BC) in The History of the Peloponnesian War, Giovanni Boccaccio's description of the plague in Florence (1348) in The Decameron, and Albert Camus' description in The Plague (1947). Using a narrative inquiry, we found psychosocial reactions to be complex and ambivalent and could discern several coping strategies. We propose that this knowledge can help psychiatrists and other healthcare professionals during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Medicine in Literature/history , Pandemics/history , Plague/history , Social Behavior/history , History, 20th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humanities/history , Humans
20.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-428675

ABSTRACT

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/history , Conservation of Natural Resources , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/history , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL