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1.
Med Educ ; 56(5): 583-584, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807213
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1747-1755, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776689

ABSTRACT

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the key precursors of the ozone (O3) formation processes in the troposphere and are important control objects for the coordinated governance of O3 and PM2.5. The Spring Festival of 2020 was affected by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia epidemic:companies stopped work and production, and traffic was restricted, providing scientific experimentation opportunities for pollutant emission reduction research. This study analyzed the variety of the composition, chemical reaction activity, and sources of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, using real-time online monitoring data of VOCs obtained at four sites(Guangzhou, Dongguan, Zhongshan, and Duanfen)in the Pearl River Delta from January 1, 2020 to February 29, 2020. The results showed that during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, the average of φ (VOCs) in the Pearl River Delta was 15.89×10-9, and the maximum hourly average concentration was 45.43×10-9, values that were 44% and 60% lower, respectively, than those before the Spring Festival holiday. Among the VOCs component concentration decreases, the aromatic hydrocarbon component decreased the most, and the decrease in the urban area of the Pearl River Delta (74%) was significantly greater than that in the suburban area (56%). As a result, the contribution rate of aromatic hydrocarbons to the total VOCs was reduced to less than 10%. The analysis of the·OH reaction activity of VOCs(L·OH)and ozone formation potential(OFP)showed that the L·OH and OFP of VOCs decreased significantly in the Pearl River Delta during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period. Compared with those before the Spring Festival holiday, the total L·OH and total OFP decreased by an average of 60% and 63% in the urban area of the Pearl River Delta, respectively. Additionally, the atmospheric oxidation had also been significantly reduced, which showed a 28% decrease in ρ(Ox). The ratio of toluene/benzene showed that the influence of industrial sources had almost disappeared during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, and the total points of the representative components of industrial-related solvent-use sources such as toluene, ethylbenzene, and m/p-xylene dropped by 72% to 91%. The results of this study suggest that solvent-use sources and vehicle exhaust emission sources are the current sources of VOCs that need to be paid attention to in the prevention and control of O3 pollution in the Pearl River Delta region, and the impact of petrochemical sources cannot be ignored in the work of further reducing the background concentration of O3.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Holidays , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Solvents/analysis , Toluene/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701706

ABSTRACT

Nutritional education is a recent, mandatory inclusion within the quality standards framework for the Holiday Activities and Food (HAF) programme in England; funded by the Department for Education (DfE). Whilst research has been conducted regarding nutritional education in other contexts, such as schools and community organisations, to the authors' knowledge, no published research has yet explored nutritional education within HAF. The current study therefore aimed to explore the implementation, delivery, and perceived facilitators, barriers and impacts of nutritional education across a number of Local Authorities delivering HAF in England. Purposive sampling (n = 11) was used to recruit HAF leads involved in nutritional education, to participate in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis showed that nutritional education is currently delivered through a variety of modes including face-to-face, online, and take-home methods, all of which require a range of considerations in terms of implementation, delivery, and associated impacts, with some holiday clubs offering no nutritional education. According to participating HAF leads, nutritional education was used as a mechanism to enhance children's and parents' cooking confidence and competence, to improve dietary intake, and to increase understanding of issues such as food sustainability, environmental impacts, and food provenance. Although there are many examples of innovative practice, the findings suggested that COVID guidelines proved challenging for providers to include nutritional education within HAF delivery during 2021. Further, whilst the quality standards framework for nutritional education provides flexibility in terms of implementation and delivery, specific guidance, and monitoring of provision is required to ensure quality assurance and consistency across the HAF programme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Holidays , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , England , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690236

ABSTRACT

The recovery of the tourism industry is an important issue that has attracted much attention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainable and safe festival tourism is considered an effective way of aiding in the recovery of the industry. A face-to-face survey of participants in the Guangzhou Hanfu Festival was conducted to examine the relationship between fears of COVID-19, perceived risks, perceptual evaluations, festival attitudes, behavioral intentions, and crowding during this difficult time. Results clarified how fear affects behavioral intentions in festival research, and the mediation role of perceived risk and the moderation role of crowding was confirmed. A timely set of recommendations was provided to festival operators and local governments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fear , Holidays , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e32, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683881

ABSTRACT

Gatherings where people are eating and drinking can increase the risk of getting and spreading SARS-CoV-2 among people who are not fully vaccinated; prevention strategies like wearing masks and physical distancing continue to be important for some groups. We conducted an online survey to characterise fall/winter 2020-2021 holiday gatherings, decisions to attend and prevention strategies employed during and before gatherings. We determined associations between practicing prevention strategies, demographics and COVID-19 experience. Among 502 respondents, one-third attended in person holiday gatherings; 73% wore masks and 84% practiced physical distancing, but less did so always (29% and 23%, respectively). Younger adults were 44% more likely to attend gatherings than adults ≥35 years. Younger adults (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.19-1.97), persons who did not experience COVID-19 themselves or have relatives/close friends experience severe COVID-19 (aPR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.07), and non-Hispanic White persons (aPR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.18) were more likely to not always wear masks in public during the 2 weeks before gatherings. Public health messaging emphasizing consistent application of COVID-19 prevention strategies is important to slow the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Participation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Family , Female , Holidays/psychology , Humans , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Social Participation/psychology , United States , Young Adult
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054770, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There has been no study in Japan on the predictors of risk for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection based on people's behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to document changes in risk behaviour during the New Year's holiday season in 2021 and to identify factors associated with high-risk behaviour for infection using a quantitative assessment tool. DESIGN: A longitudinal survey. SETTING: Multiphasic health check-ups for the general population in Iwate Prefecture. PARTICIPANTS: Serial cross-sectional data were obtained using rapid online surveys of residents in Iwate Prefecture from 4 to 7 December 2020 (baseline survey) and from 5 to 7 February 2021 (follow-up survey). The data in those two surveys were available for a total of 9741 participants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We estimated each individual's risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the microCOVID calculator. We defined four trajectories of individual risk behaviours based on the probabilities of remaining at low risk, increasing to high risk, improving to low risk and persistence of high risk. RESULTS: Among people in the low-risk group in the first survey, 3.6% increased to high risk, while high risk persisted in 80.0% of people who were in the high-risk group at baseline. While healthcare workers were significantly more likely to be represented in both the increasing risk and persistently high-risk group, workers in the education setting were also associated with persistence of high risk (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.39; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In determining countermeasures against COVID-19 (as well as future outbreaks), health officials should take into account population changes in behaviour during large-scale public events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Holidays , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 154, 2022 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Summer learning loss has been the subject of longstanding concern among researchers, the public and policy makers. The aim of the current research was to investigate inequality changes in children's mental health and cognitive ability across the summer holidays. METHODS: We conducted linear and logistic regression analysis of mental health (borderline-abnormal total difficulty and prosocial scores on the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ)) and verbal cognitive ability (reading, verbal reasoning or vocabulary) at ages 7, 11 and 14, comparing UK Millennium Cohort Study members who were interviewed before and after the school summer holidays. Inequalities were assessed by including interaction terms in the outcome models between a discrete binary variable with values representing time periods and maternal academic qualifications. Coefficients of the interaction terms were interpreted as changes from the pre- to post-holiday period in the extent of inequality in the outcome between participants whose mothers had high or low educational qualifications. Separate models were fitted for each age group and outcome. We used inverse probability weights to allow for differences in the characteristics of cohort members assessed before and after the summer holidays. RESULTS: Mental health (borderline/abnormal SDQ total and prosocial scores) at ages 7 and 14 worsened and verbal cognitive ability scores at age 7 were lower among those surveyed after the summer holidays. Mental health inequalities were larger after the holidays at age 7 ([OR = 1.4; 95%CI (0.6, 3.2) and 14: [OR = 1.5; 95%CI (0.7, 3.2)], but changed little at age 11 (OR = 0.9; 95%CI (0.4, 2.6)]. There were differences in pro-social behaviours among those surveyed before/after the school holidays at age 14 [OR = 1.2; 95%CI (0.5, 3.5)] but not at age 7 or 11. There was little change in inequalities in verbal cognitive ability scores over the school holidays [Age 7: b = 1.3; 95%CI (- 3.3, 6.0); Age 11: b = - 0.7; 95%CI (- 4.3, 2.8); Age 14: b = - 0.3; 95%CI (- 1.0, 0.4)]. CONCLUSION: We found inequalities in mental health and cognitive ability according to maternal education, and some evidence or worsening mental health and mental health inequalities across school summer holidays. We found little evidence of widening inequalities in verbal cognitive ability. Widespread school closures during the COVID-19 restrictions have prompted concerns that prolonged closures may widen health and educational inequalities. Management of school closures should focus on preventing or mitigating inequalities that may arise from differences in the support for mental health and learning provided during closures by schools serving more or less disadvantaged children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Holidays , Adolescent , Child , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625919

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan, China. Most of the studies related to the psychological impact and compliance with staying at home due to COVID-19 focused on ten days or one month after the initial "stay-at-home" phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The early psychological impact and behavior change to COVID-19 during the Chinese Spring Festival (the start time for recommendations to stay at home) is uncertain. In this study, people from 23 provinces in China were recruited to participate in an online survey, using Credamo. Psychological impact and compliance with staying at home were evaluated by a self-designed and validated questionnaire. The results indicated that anxiety was the most often reported feeling (mean: 3.69), followed by sadness (mean: 3.63). Participants employed in foreign-owned companies were most likely to express anxiety and sadness. Overall, 61.8% of participants reported hardly going out, whereas 2.4% said they frequently went out during the initial "stay-at-home" phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants with higher levels of anxiety and sadness were most likely to stay at home against the spread of COVID-19, as were female gender. This survey is an important study of the first reaction to staying at home during the initial "stay-at-home" phase coinciding with Chinese Spring Festival. Our findings identified factors associated with higher level of psychological impact and better compliance with staying at home recommendations during Chinese Spring Festival. The findings can be used to formulate precaution interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups and high uptake of policy during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Holidays , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(2): 30, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616222

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the entire world. The effective implementation of vaccination strategy is critical to prevent the resurgence of the pandemic, especially during large-scale population migration. We establish a multiple patch coupled model based on the transportation network among the 31 provinces in China, under the combined strategies of vaccination and quarantine during large-scale population migration. Based on the model, we derive a critical quarantine rate to control the pandemic transmission and a vaccination rate to achieve herd immunity. Furthermore, we evaluate the influence of passenger flow on the effective reproduction number during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush. Meanwhile, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is investigated for different control strategies, viz. global control and local control. The impact of vaccine-related parameters, such as the number, the effectiveness and the immunity period of vaccine, are explored. It is believed that the articulated models as well as the presented simulation results could be beneficial to design of feasible strategies for preventing COVID-19 transmission during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush or the other future events involving large-scale population migration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , China/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Vaccination
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24390, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585778

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the role of large outbreaks on the persistence of Covid-19 over time. Using data from 650 European regions in 14 countries, I first show that winter school holidays in late February/early March 2020 (weeks 8, 9 and 10) led to large regional outbreaks of Covid-19 in the spring with the spread being 60% and up-to over 90% higher compared to regions with earlier school holidays. While the impact of these initial large outbreaks fades away over the summer months, it systematically reappears from the fall as regions with school holidays in weeks 8, 9 and 10 had 30-70% higher spread. This suggests that following a large outbreak, there is a strong element of underlying (latent) regional persistence of Covid-19. The strong degree of persistence highlights the long-term benefits of effective (initial) containment policies, as once a large outbreak has occurred, Covid-19 persists. This result emphasizes the need for vaccinations against Covid-19 in regions that have recently experienced large outbreaks but are well below herd-immunity, to avoid a new surge of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Europe/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Urbanization
12.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 41(2): 330-337, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583599

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This research aims to understand the content and nature, and to explore the harm potential, of suspected 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) substances circulating at music festivals in New South Wales. METHODS: Across 19 music festivals held between October 2019 and March 2020, 302 substances detected and suspected by police to contain MDMA were selected for quantitative analysis. RESULTS: Five percent of substances contained a drug other than MDMA (n = 13) or no drug (n = 2). The remaining 95.0% (n = 287) contained MDMA. Of this sub-sample, capsule was the commonest form (83.3%), followed by tablet (7.7%), crystal (6.3%) and powder (2.8%). The median MDMA base-purity of non-tablet forms ranged between 73.5% and 75.0%. The median MDMA base-dose per tablet (116 mg) was higher than per capsule (68 mg). The dose range varied substantially for capsules (14-146 mg) and tablets (24-201 mg). A higher dose (130 mg or greater) was found in 3.5% of MDMA tablets or capsules. Adulterants were identified in 14.1% of MDMA substances but only 1.6% contained a psychoactive adulterant and none presented as dangerous due to their nature or low concentration. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Dangerous MDMA adulterants or new psychoactive substances in tablet, capsule, powder or crystal forms (whether misrepresented as MDMA or not) were unlikely to be in circulation during the study period. Harm reduction messaging should inform that a key risk-factor for MDMA-related harm is the high and wide variation of purity and dose across forms. Market changes may have occurred since COVID-19, but continued monitoring will ensure messaging remains current.


Subject(s)
Illicit Drugs , Music , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine , Holidays , Humans , Illicit Drugs/analysis , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine/analysis , New South Wales/epidemiology
13.
BMJ ; 375: e067742, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of sending Christmas cards to participants in randomised controlled trials to increase retention rate at follow-ups, and to explore the feasibility of doing a study within a trial (SWAT) across multiple host trials simultaneously. DESIGN: Randomised SWAT conducted simultaneously across eight host trials. SETTING: Eight randomised controlled trials researching various areas including surgery and smoking cessation. PARTICIPANTS: 3223 trial participants who were still due at least one follow-up from their host randomised controlled trial. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised (1:1, separately by each host trial) to either received a Christmas card in mid-December 2019 or to not receive a card. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of participants completing their next follow-up (retention rate) within their host randomised controlled trial. RESULTS: 1469 participants (age 16-94 years; 70% (n=1033) female; 96% (813/847) white ethnicity) across the eight host randomised controlled trials were involved in the analysis (cut short owing to covid-19). No evidence was found of a difference in retention rate between the two arms for any of the host trials when analysed separately or when the results were combined (85.3% (639/749) for cards versus 85.4% (615/720) for no card; odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.29; P=0.77). No difference was observed when comparing just participants who were due a follow-up in the 30 days after receiving the card (odds ratio 0.96, 0.42 to 2.21). No evidence of a difference in time to complete the questionnaire was found (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.13; P=0.80). These results were robust to post hoc sensitivity analyses. The cost of this intervention was £0.76 (€0.91; $1.02) per participant, and it will have a carbon footprint of approximately 140 g CO2 equivalent per card. One benefit of this approach was the need to only submit one ethics application. CONCLUSIONS: Sending Christmas cards to participants in randomised controlled trials does not increase retention. Undertaking a SWAT within multiple randomised controlled trials at the same time is, however, possible. This approach should be used more often to build an evidence base to support selection of recruitment and retention strategies. Although no evidence of a boost to retention was found, embedding a SWAT in multiple host trials simultaneously has been shown to be possible. STUDY REGISTRATION: SWAT repository https://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/TheNorthernIrelandNetworkforTrialsMethodologyResearch/FileStore/Filetoupload,846275,en.pdf#search=SWAT%2082.


Subject(s)
Holidays , Patient Dropouts , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22902, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541249

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of notified Campylobacter enteritis in Germany revealed a recurrent annual increase of cases with disease onset several days after the Christmas and New Year holidays ("winter peak"). We suspected that handling and consumption of chicken meat during fondue and raclette grill meals on the holidays were associated with winter peak Campylobacter infections. The hypothesis was investigated in a case-control study with a case-case design where notified Campylobacter enteritis cases served as case-patients as well as control-patients, depending on their date of disease onset (case-patients: 25/12/2018 to 08/01/2019; control-patients: any other date between 30/11/2018 and 28/02/2019). The study was conducted as an online survey from 21/01/2019 to 18/03/2019. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were determined in single-variable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age group and sex. We analysed 182 data sets from case-patients and 260 from control-patients and found associations of Campylobacter infections after the holidays with meat fondue (aOR 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.8) and raclette grill meals with meat (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.4) consumed on the holidays. The associations were stronger when chicken meat was served at these meals (fondue with chicken meat: aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.5; raclette grill meal with chicken meat: aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.1). The results confirmed our initial hypothesis. To prevent Campylobacter winter peak cases in the future, consumers should be made more aware of the risks of a Campylobacter infection when handling raw meat, in particular chicken, during fondue or raclette grill meals on the holidays.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , Enteritis/epidemiology , Food Microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Meat/microbiology , Seasons , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Campylobacter Infections/diagnosis , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cooking , Enteritis/diagnosis , Enteritis/microbiology , Female , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Germany/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Poultry/microbiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502432

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we investigate the influence of holidays and community mobility on the transmission rate and death count of COVID-19 in Brazil. We identify national holidays and hallmark holidays to assess their effect on disease reports of confirmed cases and deaths. First, we use a one-variate model with the number of infected people as input data to forecast the number of deaths. This simple model is compared with a more robust deep learning multi-variate model that uses mobility and transmission rates (R0, Re) from a SEIRD model as input data. A principal components model of community mobility, generated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method, is added to improve the input features for the multi-variate model. The deep learning model architecture is an LSTM stacked layer combined with a dense layer to regress daily deaths caused by COVID-19. The multi-variate model incremented with engineered input features can enhance the forecast performance by up to 18.99% compared to the standard one-variate data-driven model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Forecasting , Holidays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Mobility
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 661345, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477884

ABSTRACT

Holiday clubs play a pivotal role in providing food and vital enrichment opportunities to alleviate food insecurity among children during the school holidays (holiday hunger). The need for these opportunities increased substantially for families throughout 2020, as food insecurity quadrupled in the UK during the Covid-19 pandemic. In this qualitative study, holiday club staff from England and Wales reflected on the adaptations they implemented in order to maintain food supplies and food-related enrichment activities for families during the first UK national Covid-19 lockdown and subsequently throughout the summer of 2020. Staff also reflected on the opportunities and challenges related to implementing these adaptations during this period. Twenty-five holiday club staff engaged in video-based interviews during August and September 2020. The findings revealed a range of innovative changes to holiday club food provision, and the challenges and opportunities faced varied across holiday clubs. Challenges during the pandemic in some clubs included staff shortages (typically due to furloughing and/or increased working demands) and difficulties sourcing adequate funding. However, staff identified that the opportunities for holiday clubs included enhanced partnership working during the pandemic, increased engagement with digital technology to communicate with families and deliver their online cooking sessions, and their ability to continue providing food and much needed creative opportunities for children unable to attend school and/or the holiday club. The ability of clubs to adapt their models of working when faced with adversity was essential in protecting their organisational resilience and delivering their vital services. The findings emphasise the important role that holiday clubs play in their communities and highlight their willingness to adapt and expand their role in response to the pandemic to continue to tackle food insecurity and provide vital food and food-related enrichment opportunities to families. The findings also identify lessons that can be applied to practise in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Holidays , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Food Insecurity , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 237: 113836, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392331

ABSTRACT

Our surrounding environment has been influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic situation. The second wave of COVID-19 in India has proven to be more devastating and aggressive than the first wave of the pandemic, which led to recognizing India as one of the world's topmost worst-hit nations considering >4000 fatalities reported in a single day in May 2021. Such "resurgence and acceleration" of COVID-19 transmission has been fuelled by the MahaKumbh festival and political mass gathering (elections rallies) events, where the COVID-19 protocols have been ignored by millions of pilgrims/followers. The present review discusses only the consequences of this year's MahaKumbh festivals, the largest religious mass gathering on earth, which was held during the COVID-19 pandemic in India, and its impact on both the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among participants and their families and its influence on the quality of the river Ganga. This article tries to give readers outside of India an overview of how much impact of any such single large gathering of any relgion in any part of the world can drive coronavirus infections and effectively commence the second/third wave outbreak with this case study. Furthermore, the religious large scale celebration are widely accepted through out the world that have played a significant role in the spread of the pandemic into remote villages and towns all over the subcontinent/world, thus affecting many areas with insufficient healthcare facilities that have been relatively spared. This review also highlights the potential risk of transmission from infected humans into the aquatic environment of the river Ganga. Besides the obvious relevance of SARS-CoV-2, a large variety of other water-related disease vectors (bacteria, viruses, and protozoa) stemming from visitors to the religious congregation were introduced into the upstream regions of the Ganga river. Their sheer number is assumed to have had a severe influence on its delicate ecosystem, including endangered mammals such as the river Dolphins. The detailed epidemiological and clinical study on transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is the need of the hour to understand the pathogenesis of RNA virus infection and prevent the massive spreading of such infectious respiratory diseases. An interdisciplinary approach, rooted in evidence-based efficient learning, contextual strategies, and a streamlined unified approach should be adopted to help in the development of a proactive prevention model during future MahaKumbh festival (and similar religious gatherings) instead of just "picking up the pieces" in a conventional post-event model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Holidays , Rivers/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Endangered Species , Humans , India , Water Microbiology , Water Pollution
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17328, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379336

ABSTRACT

Public health officials discouraged travel and non-household gatherings for Thanksgiving, but data suggests that travel increased over the holidays. The objective of this analysis was to assess associations between holiday gatherings and SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the weeks following Thanksgiving. Using an online survey, we sampled 7770 individuals across 10 US states from December 4-18, 2020, about 8-22 days post-Thanksgiving. Participants were asked about Thanksgiving, COVID-19 symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 testing and positivity in the prior 2 weeks. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 symptoms in the weeks following Thanksgiving. An activity score measured the total number of non-essential activities an individual participated in the prior 2 weeks. The probability of community transmission was estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. While 47.2% had Thanksgiving at home with household members, 26.9% had guests and 25.9% traveled. There was a statistically significant interaction between how people spent Thanksgiving, the frequency of activities, and SARS-CoV-2 test positivity in the prior 2 weeks (p < 0.05). Those who had guests for Thanksgiving or traveled were only more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 if they also had high activity (e.g., participated in > one non-essential activity/day in the prior 2 weeks). Had individuals limited the number and frequency of activities post-Thanksgiving, cases in surveyed individuals would be reduced by > 50%. As travel continues to increase and the more contagious Delta variant starts to dominate transmission, it is critical to promote how to gather in a "low-risk" manner (e.g., minimize other non-essential activities) to mitigate the need for nationwide shelter-at-home orders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Holidays , Humans , Male , Markov Chains , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256747, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mass gathering events (MGEs) are associated with the transmission of COVID-19. Between 6 and 10 March 2020, several MGEs related to the Falles festival took place in Borriana, a municipality in the province of Castellon (Spain). The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 and its association with these MGEs, and to quantify the potential risk factors of its occurrence. METHODS: During May and June 2020, a population-based retrospective cohort study was carried out by the Public Health Center of Castelló and the Hospital de la Plana in Vila-real. Participants were obtained from a representative sample of 1663 people with potential exposure at six MGEs. A questionnaire survey was carried out to obtain information about attendance at MGEs and COVID-19 disease. In addition, a serologic survey of antibodies against SARS-Cov-2 was implemented. Inverse probability weighted regression was used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1338 subjects participated in the questionnaire survey (80.5%), 997 of whom undertook the serologic survey. Five hundred and seventy cases were observed with an attack rate (AR) of 42.6%; average age was 36 years, 62.3% were female, 536 cases were confirmed by laboratory tests, and 514 cases were found with SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies. Considering MGE exposure, AR was 39.2% (496/1264). A dose-response relationship was found between MGE attendance and the disease, (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 4.11 95% confidence interval [CI]3.25-5.19). Two MGEs with a dinner and dance in the same building had higher risks. Associated risk factors with the incidence were older age, obesity, and upper and middle class versus lower class; current smoking was protective. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests the significance of MGEs in the COVID-19 transmission that could explain the subsequent outbreak in Borriana.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Holidays , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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