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3.
BMJ ; 375: n2593, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495418

ABSTRACT

The studyBarker KL, Room J, Knight R, et al. Outpatient physiotherapy versus home-based rehabilitation for patients at risk of poor outcomes after knee arthroplasty: CORKA RCT. Health Technol Assess 2020;24:1-116.To read the full NIHR Alert, go to: https://evidence.nihr.ac.uk/alert/knee-replacements-home-based-rehabilitation-as-effective-physiotherapy/.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/rehabilitation , Home Care Services , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Physical Therapy Modalities , Standard of Care , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Home Care Services/economics , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities/economics , Standard of Care/economics , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Healthc Manag ; 66(4): 258-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475897

ABSTRACT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Home hospital care (HHC) is a new and exciting concept that holds the promise of achieving all three components of the Triple Aim and reducing health disparities. As an innovative care delivery model, HHC substitutes traditional inpatient hospital care with hospital care at home for older patients with certain conditions. Studies have shown evidence of reduced cost of care, improved patient satisfaction, and enhanced quality and safety of care for patients treated through this model. The steady growth in Medicare Advantage enrollment and the expansion in 2020 of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospitals Without Walls program to include acute hospital care at home creates an opportunity for hospitals to implement such programs and be financially rewarded for reducing costs. Capacity constraints exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that now is the ideal time for healthcare leaders to test and advance the concept of HHC in their communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care Nursing/economics , Critical Care Nursing/standards , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Home Care Services/economics , Home Care Services/standards , Quality of Health Care/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quality of Health Care/economics , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 803-810, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of frequent, rapid testing to reduce community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To define performance standards and predict the clinical, epidemiologic, and economic outcomes of nationwide, home-based antigen testing. DESIGN: A simple compartmental epidemic model that estimated viral transmission, portrayed disease progression, and forecast resource use, with and without testing. DATA SOURCES: Parameter values and ranges as informed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance and published literature. TARGET POPULATION: U.S. population. TIME HORIZON: 60 days. PERSPECTIVE: Societal; costs included testing, inpatient care, and lost workdays. INTERVENTION: Home-based SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative infections and deaths, number of persons isolated and hospitalized, and total costs. RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS: Without a testing intervention, the model anticipates 11.6 million infections, 119 000 deaths, and $10.1 billion in costs ($6.5 billion in inpatient care and $3.5 billion in lost productivity) over a 60-day horizon. Weekly availability of testing would avert 2.8 million infections and 15 700 deaths, increasing costs by $22.3 billion. Lower inpatient outlays ($5.9 billion) would partially offset additional testing expenditures ($12.5 billion) and workdays lost ($14.0 billion), yielding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $7890 per infection averted and $1 430 000 per death averted. RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS: Outcome estimates vary widely under different behavioral assumptions and testing frequencies. However, key findings persist across all scenarios, with large reductions in infections, mortality, and hospitalizations. Costs per death averted are roughly an order of magnitude lower than commonly accepted willingness-to-pay values per statistical life saved ($5 to $17 million). LIMITATIONS: Analysis was restricted to at-home testing. There are uncertainties concerning test performance. CONCLUSION: High-frequency home testing for SARS-CoV-2 with an inexpensive, imperfect test could contribute to pandemic control at justifiable cost and warrants consideration as part of a national containment strategy. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/economics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Home Care Services/economics , Mass Screening/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19/mortality , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave/economics , United States/epidemiology
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 333, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lockdown imposed in the UK on the 23rd of March and associated public health measures of social distancing are likely to have had a great impact on care provision. The aim of this study was to explore the decision-making processes of continued paid home care support for dementia in the time of COVID-19. METHODS: Unpaid carers caring for a person living with dementia (PLWD) who were accessing paid home care before COVID-19 and residing in the UK were eligible to take part. Participants were interviewed over the phone and asked about their experiences of using paid home care services before and since COVID-19, and their decision-making processes of accessing paid home care since the outbreak and public health restrictions. RESULTS: Fifteen unpaid carers, who were also accessing paid care support for the PLWD before COVID-19, were included in the analysis. Thematic analysis identified three overarching themes: (1) Risk; (2) Making difficult choices and risk management; and (3) Implications for unpaid carers. Many unpaid carers decided to discontinue paid carers entering the home due to the risk of infection, resulting in unpaid carers having to pick up the care hours to support the person living with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report on the impact of COVID-19 on paid home care changes in dementia. Findings raise implications for providing better Personal Protective Equipment for paid carers, and to support unpaid carers better in their roles, with the pandemic likely to stay in place for the foreseeable future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Caregivers/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Home Care Services/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Caregivers/economics , Dementia/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Phys Ther ; 100(8): 1278-1288, 2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the process and cost of delivering a physical therapist-guided synchronous telehealth exercise program appropriate for older adults with functional limitations. Such programs may help alleviate some of the detrimental impacts of social distancing and quarantine on older adults at-risk of decline. METHODS: Data were derived from the feasibility arm of a parent study, which piloted the telehealth program for 36 sessions with 1 participant. The steps involved in each phase (ie, development, delivery) were documented, along with participant and program provider considerations for each step. Time-driven activity-based costing was used to track all costs over the course of the study. Costs were categorized as program development or delivery and estimated per session and per participant. RESULTS: A list of the steps and the participant and provider considerations involved in developing and delivering a synchronous telehealth exercise program for older adults with functional impairments was developed. Resources used, fixed and variable costs, per-session cost estimates, and total cost per person were reported. Two potential measures of the "value proposition" of this type of intervention were also reported. Per-session cost of $158 appeared to be a feasible business case, especially if the physical therapist to trained assistant personnel mix could be improved. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide insight into the process and costs of developing and delivering telehealth exercise programs for older adults with functional impairments. The information presented may provide a "blue print" for developing and implementing new telehealth programs or for transitioning in-person services to telehealth delivery during periods of social distancing and quarantine. IMPACT: As movement experts, physical therapists are uniquely positioned to play an important role in the current COVID-19 pandemic and to help individuals who are at risk of functional decline during periods of social distancing and quarantine. Lessons learned from this study's experience can provide guidance on the process and cost of developing and delivering a telehealth exercise program for older adults with functional impairments. The findings also can inform new telehealth programs, as well as assist in transitioning in-person care to a telehealth format in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy/economics , Home Care Services/economics , Pandemics , Physical Therapy Modalities/economics , Pneumonia, Viral , Telemedicine/economics , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Telemedicine/methods
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