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2.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 31(7): 464-474, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429159

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe the development of a protocol and practical tool for the safe delivery of telemental health (TMH) services to the home. The COVID-19 pandemic forced providers to rapidly transition their outpatient practices to home-based TMH (HB-TMH) without existing protocols or tools to guide them. This experience underscored the need for a standardized privacy and safety tool as HB-TMH is expected to continue as a resource during future crises as well as to become a component of the routine mental health care landscape. Methods: The authors represent a subset of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Telemental Health Consortium. They met weekly through videoconferencing to review published safety standards of care, existing TMH guidelines for clinic-based and home-based services, and their own institutional protocols. They agreed on three domains foundational to the delivery of HB-TMH: environmental safety, clinical safety, and disposition planning. Through multiple iterations, they agreed upon a final Privacy and Safety Protocol for HB-TMH. The protocol was then operationalized into the Privacy and Safety Assessment Tool (PSA Tool) based on two keystone medical safety constructs: the World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist/Time-Out and the Checklist Manifesto. Results: The PSA Tool comprised four modules: (1) Screening for Safety for HB-TMH; (2) Assessment for Safety During the HB-TMH Initial Visit; (3) End of the Initial Visit and Disposition Planning; and (4) the TMH Time-Out and Reassessment during subsequent visits. A sample workflow guides implementation. Conclusions: The Privacy and Safety Protocol and PSA Tool aim to prepare providers for the private and safe delivery of HB-TMH. Its modular format can be adapted to each site's resources. Going forward, the PSA Tool should help to facilitate the integration of HB-TMH into the routine mental health care landscape.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Clinical Protocols/standards , Home Care Services , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Patient Safety , Privacy , Telemedicine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Computer Communication Networks/standards , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Home Care Services/ethics , Home Care Services/standards , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/ethics , Telemedicine/methods , United States
4.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2963-2972, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although more than seven million older adults struggle or are unable to leave their homes independently, only a small minority access home-based primary care (HBPC). Despite substantial growth of HBPC, fueled by growing evidence supporting positive patient outcomes and cost savings, the population remains dramatically underserved and many evidence gaps still exist around scope of practice and key issues in care delivery and quality. Understanding the current state of the field is critical to the delivery of high-quality home-based care. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature on HBPC, published between January 2010 and January 2020, using Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus online libraries. All studies were evaluated by two members of the research team, and key findings were extracted. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 1730 unique studies for screening. Of these initial results, 1322 were deemed not relevant to this review. Of the 408 studies deemed potentially relevant, 79 were included in the study. Researchers identified five overarching themes: the provision of HBPC, the composition of care teams, HBPC outcomes, the role of telehealth, and emergency preparedness efforts. CONCLUSION: The need and desire for growth of HBPC has been highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Current research on HBPC finds a diverse scope of practice, successful use of interdisciplinary teams, positive outcomes, and increasing interest in telehealth with many areas ripe for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense/standards , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Home Care Services , Primary Health Care , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Needs and Demand , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/standards , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Professional Practice Gaps , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends , United States
5.
Laryngoscope ; 131(11): 2471-2477, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of at home drain removal in head and neck surgery patients. METHODS: The study population included patients who underwent head and neck surgery at an academic tertiary care center between February 2020 and November 2020 and were discharged with one to four drains with instructions for home removal. Prior to discharge, patients received thorough drain removal education. Patients were prospectively followed to evaluate for associated outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were evaluated in the study. There was record for ninety-seven patients receiving education at discharge. The most common methods of education were face-to-face education and written instructions with educational video link provided. Of 123 drains upon discharge, 110 drains (89.4%) were removed at home while 13 (10.6%) were removed in office. Most drains were located in the neck (86.4%). There was one seroma, two hematomas, two drain site infections, and five ED visits; however, none of these complications were directly associated with the action of drain removal at home. Calculated cost savings for travel and lost wages was $259.82 per round trip saved. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that home drain removal can provide a safe and efficacious option for patients following head and neck surgery. This approach was safe and associated with patient cost savings and better utilization of provider's time. Furthermore, patients and healthcare providers avoided additional in-person encounters and exposures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings warrant further investigation into cost savings and formal patient satisfaction associated with home drain removal. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2471-2477, 2021.


Subject(s)
Device Removal/adverse effects , Drainage/instrumentation , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Neck Dissection/methods , Patient Discharge/standards , Postoperative Care/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Device Removal/economics , Drainage/methods , Efficiency , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hematoma/epidemiology , Hematoma/etiology , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neck Dissection/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Patient Education as Topic/trends , Postoperative Care/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Seroma/epidemiology , Seroma/etiology , Time Factors
8.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 33(4): 62-67, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094388

ABSTRACT

This case study outlines the journey of a home-care organization to support practice change during the COVID-19 crisis. The leadership attributes and organizational structures and processes required for a nimble knowledge-to-action response are explored in relation to client screening, personal protective equipment and development of virtual care. A home and community practice lens was often not evident in the literature or guidance documents. This added complexity to the process of rapidly evaluating evidence and guidance across two provinces and issuing practice direction to a widely dispersed and mobile workforce. A cross-functional clinical response team has been invaluable in the organization's pandemic response.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services/trends , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Home Care Services/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Community Health Services/methods , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Evidence-Based Practice/trends , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends
9.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(11): 1185-1194, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences and needs of caregivers of persons with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in a city in India. DESIGN: Qualitative study using a telephonic semistructured interview. SETTING: A specialist geriatric outpatient mental health service based in a nongovernmental organization in Chennai, India. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sampling of family members of persons with dementia registered in the database and seen within the previous 6 months. RESULTS: Thirty-one caregivers participated. Thematic analysis of the data showed two sets of issues that the caregivers of persons with dementia faced in their experiences during the pandemic. The first set was unique to the caregivers that directly related to their caregiving role, while the second set did not relate directly to their caregiving role. These two sets also appeared to have a two-way interaction influencing each other. These issues generated needs, some of which required immediate support while others required longer-term support. The caregivers suggested several methods, such as use of video-consultations, telephone-based support and clinic-based in-person visits to meet their needs. They also wanted more services postpandemic. CONCLUSION: Caregivers of persons with dementia had multiple needs during the pandemic. Supporting them during these times require a pragmatic multilayered approach. Systemic changes, policies and frameworks, increased awareness, use of technology, and better access to health are necessary.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Coronavirus Infections , Dementia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quality of Life , Telemedicine/methods , Videoconferencing , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Dementia/virology , Female , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , India/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Needs Assessment , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Cyst Fibros ; 19(6): 880-887, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 on patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), despite being considered a high-risk group. This study explored the early impact of COVID-19 on the emotional well-being of patients and self-reported changes in their home therapy since the start of the pandemic. METHODS: Adult patients with CF, lung-transplanted (LTX) CF patients and parents of children with CF completed an online questionnaire, securely linked to their medical files. The questionnaire covered the emotional impact of the pandemic, changes in CF and LTX treatment, changes in health-protecting behaviours and CF-related concerns, and their perception of their COVID-19 status. RESULTS: The response rate was 63% (80 CF, 66 LTX and 73 parents). A wide range of illness severity was included. None of the respondents had contracted COVID-19 and all strictly followed the social distancing rules. There was evident psychological impact, with many reporting increased stress, fear and worry about CF and the future. Changes in treatment were positive, including more physiotherapy for adults and better-quality nebulizing. Changes in routine were reported, such as different treatment timing. Adult patients and parents had cancelled their CF appointments more often since the start of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The initial psychological impact of COVID-19 was evident. The impact on home treatment was reassuringly small. Psychological care is needed for patients suffering prolonged psychological impact, and CF teams need to contextualize the information that patients and parents receive from the media and support them to balance the perceived risk with true risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cystic Fibrosis , Home Care Services , Parents/psychology , Psychological Distress , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/surgery , Female , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Lung Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(11): 1453-1459, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694701

ABSTRACT

Importance: Home health care workers care for community-dwelling adults and play an important role in supporting patients with confirmed and suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who remain at home. These workers are mostly middle-aged women and racial/ethnic minorities who typically earn low wages. Despite being integral to patient care, these workers are often neglected by the medical community and society at large; thus, developing a health care system capable of addressing the COVID-19 crisis and future pandemics requires a better understanding of the experiences of home health care workers. Objective: To understand the experiences of home health care workers caring for patients in New York City during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: From March to April 2020, a qualitative study with 1-to-1 semistructured interviews of 33 home health care workers in New York City was conducted in partnership with the 1199SEIU Home Care Industry Education Fund, a benefit fund of the 1199 Service Employees International Union United Healthcare Workers East, the largest health care union in the US. Purposeful sampling was used to identify and recruit home health care workers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Audio-recorded interviews were professionally transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. Major themes and subthemes were identified. Results: In total, 33 home health care workers employed by 24 unique home care agencies across the 5 boroughs of New York City participated. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 47.6 (14.0) years, 32 (97%) were women, 21 (64%) were Black participants, and 6 (18%) were Hispanic participants. Five major themes emerged: home health care workers (1) were on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic but felt invisible; (2) reported a heightened risk for virus transmission; (3) received varying amounts of information, supplies, and training from their home care agencies; (4) relied on nonagency alternatives for support, including information and supplies; and (5) were forced to make difficult trade-offs in their work and personal lives. Conclusions and Relevance: In this qualitative analysis, home health care workers reported providing frontline essential care, often at personal risk, during the COVID-19 pandemic. They experienced challenges that exacerbated the inequities they face as a marginalized workforce. Interventions and policies to better support these frontline health care professionals are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Helping Behavior , Home Care Services , Home Health Aides/psychology , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Home Care Agencies/organization & administration , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Perception , Social Support
14.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(7): 404-413, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637071

ABSTRACT

Objective: Telemental health (TMH) is not well described for mental health service delivery during crises. Most child and adolescent psychiatry training programs have not integrated TMH into their curricula and are ill equipped to respond during crises to their patients' needs. In this study, we present the implementation of a home-based TMH (HB-TMH) service during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We describe the technological, administrative, training, and clinical implementation components involved in transitioning a comprehensive outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry program to a HB-TMH virtual clinic. Results: The transition was accomplished in 6 weeks. Most in-clinic services were rapidly moved off campus to the home. Owing to challenges encountered with each implementation component, phone sessions bridged the transition from in-clinic to reliable virtual appointments. Within 3 weeks (March 20, 2020) of planning for HB-TMH, 67% of all appointments were conducted at home, and within 4 weeks (March 27, 2020), 90% were conducted at home. By week 6 (April 3, 2020), reliable HB-TMH appointments were implemented. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic crisis created the opportunity to innovate a solution to disrupted care for our established patients and to create a resource for youth who developed problems during the crisis. Our department was experienced in providing TMH services that facilitated the transition to HB-TMH, yet still had to overcome known and unanticipated challenges. Our experience provides a roadmap for establishing a HB-TMH service with focus on rapid implementation. It also demonstrates a role for TMH during (rather than after) future crises when usual community resources are not available.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Home Care Services , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Mental Health Services/trends , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Washington/epidemiology
15.
Home Health Care Serv Q ; 39(4): 223-237, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597183

ABSTRACT

Home care for elderly people is an important part of the social welfare system. The sector employs many people, especially women, and work environment issues are common. This review explores the scientific literature on organizational interventions that target the home care work environment. Altogether, 16 studies of varying quality met the inclusion criteria. The interventions identified involved organizational change, education and training, digitalization and scheduling. Many interventions were concerned with changing specific behaviors or with introducing new technology rather than tackling complex issues such as sick leave, stress or gender inequality. Employee participation increased the likelihood of success.


Subject(s)
Home Care Services/standards , Workplace/standards , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Workplace/psychology
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