Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 66
Filter
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic in Italy has severely affected people aged more than 80, especially socially isolated. Aim of this paper is to assess whether a social and health program reduced mortality associated to the epidemic. METHODS: An observational retrospective cohort analysis of deaths recorded among >80 years in three Italian cities has been carried out to compare death rate of the general population and "Long Live the Elderly!" (LLE) program. Parametric and non-parametric tests have been performed to assess differences of means between the two populations. A multivariable analysis to assess the impact of covariates on weekly mortality has been carried out by setting up a linear mixed model. RESULTS: The total number of services delivered to the LLE population (including phone calls and home visits) was 34,528, 1 every 20 day per person on average, one every 15 days during March and April. From January to April 2019, the same population received one service every 41 days on average, without differences between January-February and March-April. The January-April 2020 cumulative crude death rate was 34.8‰ (9,718 deaths out of 279,249 individuals; CI95%: 34.1-35.5) and 28.9‰ (166 deaths out of 5,727 individuals; CI95%:24.7-33.7) for the general population and the LLE sample respectively. The general population weekly death rate increased after the 11th calendar week that was not the case among the LLE program participants (p<0.001). The Standardized Mortality Ratio was 0.83; (CI95%: 0.71-0.97). Mortality adjusted for age, gender, COVID-19 weekly incidence and prevalence of people living in nursing homes was lower in the LLE program than in the general population (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LLE program is likely to limit mortality associated with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to establish whether it is due to the impact of social care that allows a better clients' adherence to the recommendations of physical distancing or to an improved surveillance of older adults that prevents negative outcomes associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/psychology , Cities , Community Health Services/ethics , Female , Homes for the Aged/ethics , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Nursing Homes/ethics , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies , Social Isolation/psychology , Survival Analysis
4.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2766-2777, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken a disproportionate toll on long-term care facility residents and staff. Our objective was to review the empirical evidence on facility characteristics associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Long-term care facilities (nursing homes and assisted living communities). PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six empirical studies of factors associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths in long-term care facilities published between January 1, 2020 and June 15, 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes included the probability of at least one case or death (or other defined threshold); numbers of cases and deaths, measured variably. RESULTS: Larger, more rigorous studies were fairly consistent in their assessment of risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes in long-term care facilities. Larger bed size and location in an area with high COVID-19 prevalence were the strongest and most consistent predictors of facilities having more COVID-19 cases and deaths. Outcomes varied by facility racial composition, differences that were partially explained by facility size and community COVID-19 prevalence. More staff members were associated with a higher probability of any outbreak; however, in facilities with known cases, higher staffing was associated with fewer deaths. Other characteristics, such as Nursing Home Compare 5-star ratings, ownership, and prior infection control citations, did not have consistent associations with COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSION: Given the importance of community COVID-19 prevalence and facility size, studies that failed to control for these factors were likely confounded. Better control of community COVID-19 spread would have been critical for mitigating much of the morbidity and mortality long-term care residents and staff experienced during the pandemic. Traditional quality measures such as Nursing Home Compare 5-Star ratings and past deficiencies were not consistent indicators of pandemic preparedness, likely because COVID-19 presented a novel problem requiring extensive adaptation by both long-term care providers and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Risk Adjustment , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Long-Term Care/methods , Long-Term Care/trends , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2708-2715, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301523

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has exacted a disproportionate toll on the health of persons living in nursing homes. Healthcare providers and other decision-makers in those settings must refer to multiple evolving sources of guidance to coordinate care delivery in such a way as to minimize the introduction and spread of the causal virus, SARS-CoV-2. It is essential that guidance be presented in an accessible and usable format to facilitate its translation into evidence-based best practice. In this article, we propose the Haddon matrix as a tool well-suited to this task. The Haddon matrix is a conceptual model that organizes influencing factors into pre-event, event, and post-event phases, and into host, agent, and environment domains akin to the components of the epidemiologic triad. The Haddon matrix has previously been applied to topics relevant to the care of older persons, such as fall prevention, as well as to pandemic planning and response. Presented here is a novel application of the Haddon matrix to pandemic response in nursing homes, with practical applications for nursing home decision-makers in their efforts to prevent and contain COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Evidence-Based Practice , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Infection Control , Models, Organizational , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/trends , Health Services for the Aged/organization & administration , Health Services for the Aged/standards , Health Services for the Aged/trends , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(4): 1531-1539, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252185

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of lockdown, as implemented by retirement homes to cope with the spread of Covid-19, on hallucinatory experiences in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included 47 patients with AD living in retirement homes and who were already experiencing hallucinations prior to the lockdown. We invited caregivers to rate hallucinatory experiences in these patients during the lockdown, and compared this rating with that provided by the same caregivers prior to the lockdown. Results demonstrated increased hallucinatory experiences in patients with AD during the lockdown, compared with before the lockdown. The decrease in social and physical activities during the lockdown, and especially, the physical separation of residents from family members, might have led to decreased sensory stimulation and increased loneliness, and consequently, to the hallucinatory experiences in patients with AD living in retirement homes during the lockdown. While the restrictive measures were necessary to cope with the spread of Covid-19, these measures have increased hallucinations in patients with AD living in retirement homes, at least in those who were already experiencing hallucinations prior to the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Hallucinations , Patients , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hallucinations/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Humans , Male , Patients/psychology , Patients/statistics & numerical data
10.
Nurs Older People ; 33(5): 20-25, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234917

ABSTRACT

During the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, older people were discharged from hospitals to care homes to release NHS beds. This influx of new residents whose COVID-19 status was largely unknown added to the many challenges already experienced by care homes, with serious consequences including an increased number of deaths among residents. The social care sector has been fragile for several years and the pandemic has brought the challenges experienced by care homes to the forefront, prompting renewed calls for improved funding and reform. This article describes the ongoing challenges and additional challenges caused by the pandemic in the care home sector. The authors argue for urgent reform to enhance the status and education of care home staff, move towards registration of the social care workforce in England, and achieve integration of health and social care services for older people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/education , Pandemics , Aged , England/epidemiology , Humans , State Medicine/organization & administration
11.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact globally, with older people living in aged care homes suffering high death rates. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the impact of initial government policies on this vulnerable older population between the UK and Australia during the first wave of attack. METHODS: We searched websites of governments in the UK and Australia and media outlets. We examined the key policies including the national lockdown dates and the distribution of some important resources (personal protective equipment and testing) and the effects of these initial policies on the mortality rates in the aged care homes during the first wave of attack of COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that both countries had prioritized resources to hospitals over aged care homes during the first wave of attack. Both countries had lower priority for aged care residents in hospitals (e.g. discharging without testing for COVID-19 or discouraging admissions). However, deaths in aged care homes were 270 times higher in the UK than in Australia as on 7 May 2020 (despite UK having a population only 2.5 times larger than Australia). The lower fatality rate in Australia may have been due to the earlier lockdown strategy when the total daily cases were low in Australia (118) compared to the UK (over 1000), as well as the better community viral testing regime in Australia. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the public health policy in Australia aimed towards earlier intervention with earlier national lockdown and more viral testing to prevent new cases. This primary prevention could have resulted in more lives being saved. In contrast, the initial policy in the UK focussed mainly on protecting resources for hospitals, and there was a delay in national lockdown intervention and lower viral testing rate, resulting in more lives lost in the aged care sector.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Resource Allocation/methods , Resource Allocation/organization & administration , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(4): 290-293, 31-12-2020. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1167981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe infection and mortality rates associated with COVID-19 in older people living in Brazilian care homes. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using primary and secondary data sources. Nationwide care home administrators were invited to report, via an online questionnaire, the occurrence of infection and mortality associated with COVID-19 from April to August 2020. State Public Prosecutor Offices, State Health Departments, and the Unified Social Security System were also contacted for information. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Data were collected from 2154 care homes located in 14 states, covering 59878 older residents. The incidence rate of COVID-19 was 6.57%, and 883 deaths were recorded in the period, with a case-fatality rate of 22.44%. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and mortality rates observed in this study were lower than those observed in other (high-income) countries. Data sources related to COVID-19 outbreaks in Brazilian care homes are currently limited to self-report. Structuring and systematizing data recording and reporting in these settings is essential to better understand the spread of the virus and to protect care home residents in Brazil.


OBJETIVO: Descrever as taxas de infecção e mortalidade associadas a COVID-19 em idosos residentes em lares geriátricos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal descritivo, utilizando fontes primárias e secundárias de dados. Os administradores de lares geriátricos em todo o país foram convidados a relatar, por meio de um questionário online, a ocorrência de infecção e mortalidade associadas a COVID-19 de abril a agosto de 2020. Os gabinetes dos Procuradores Regionais da República, as Secretarias Estaduais de Saúde e o Sistema Único de Assistência Social também foram contatados para informações. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados os dados de 2154 lares de idosos localizados em 14 estados, cobrindo 59 878 idosos residentes. A taxa de incidência de COVID-19 foi de 6,57%, e foram registrados 883 óbitos no período, com uma taxa de letalidade dos casos de 22,44%. CONCLUSÕES: As taxas de incidência e mortalidade observadas neste estudo foram inferiores às observadas em outros países (de alta renda). As fontes de dados relacionadas a surtos de COVID-19 em lares geriátricos brasileiros são atualmente limitadas a autorrelato. Estruturar e sistematizar o registro e a notificação de dados nesses locais é essencial para um melhor entendimento da disseminação do vírus e para a proteção dos residentes de lares geriátricos no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health of the Elderly , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration
16.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(4): 259-266, 31-12-2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1167980

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Pouco se sabe sobre o enfrentamento e a mitigação da COVID-19 em instituições de longa permanência para idosos (ILPIs) na América Latina. OBJETIVO: Descrever como os gestores de ILPIs de países hispano-americanos planejaram e adequaram suas rotinas de enfrentamento da COVID-19 e se foram capazes de cumprir as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal baseado na aplicação de uma pesquisa on-line dirigida aos gestores de ILPIs situadas em países hispano-americanos. Um questionário de 46 questões (adotando os princípios da OMS) foi enviado aos participantes. Estatística descritiva foi usada para resumir os dados. RESULTADOS: Vinte e três gestores responderam à pesquisa, totalizando 874 idosos (5 min - 270 máx); um questionário foi excluído por falta de respostas. Quatorze ILPIs (63,60%) eram privadas com fins lucrativos. A taxa de adesão às recomendações da OMS foi superior a 70% para a maioria das questões. Pouco mais da metade das instituições elaborou um plano estratégico de enfrentamento, ou identificou estratégias para lidar com óbitos de casos suspeitos. Dificuldade para a aquisição de equipamentos de proteção individual (EPIs) foi relatada por 59,10% das ILPIs investigadas. A capacidade de testagem para o SARS-Cov-2 foi reduzida (36,36% das instituições não dispunham de nenhum teste). CONCLUSÕES: A taxa de adesão às recomendações propostas pela OMS para o enfrentamento da COVID-19 foi superior a 70% para a maioria das ILPIs investigadas. Planos estratégicos de enfrentamento foram elaborados em pouco mais da metade das instituições. A disponibilidade de EPIs e a capacidade de testagem para o SARS-Cov-2 mostraram-se bastante insatisfatórias.


INTRODUCTION: Little is known about management and mitigation of COVID-19 in long-term care facilities (LTCF) for older adults in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: To describe how the management of LTCF in Hispanic American countries plan and adapt their routines for coping with COVID-19 and whether they have been able to fulfill recommendations published by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted by online survey of managers of LTCF located in Hispanic American i countries. A 46-item questionnaire (adopting the WHO principles) was sent to participants. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. RESULTS: Twenty-three care home managers replied, responsible for a total of 874 older people (range: 5 - 270). One questionnaire was excluded because of missing responses. Fourteen LTCF (63.60%) were private, for-profit facilities. The rate of compliance with WHO recommendations exceeded 70% for the majority of items. Just over half of the institutions had developed dû a strategic management plan, or had identified strategies for dealing with deaths of suspected cases. Difficulty acquiring personal protective equipment (PPE) was reported by 59.10% of the LTCF surveyed. The homes' capacity for SARS-Cov-2 testing was limited (36.36% of the institutions did not have any tests). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of compliance with recommendations published by the WHO for dealing with COVID-19 was greater than 70% at the majority of the LTCF surveyed. More than half of the institutions had strategic management plans. Availability of PPE and SARS-Cov-2 testing capacity were very unsatisfactory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health of Institutionalized Elderly , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/standards , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Planning Guidelines , Latin America/epidemiology
17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(4): 886-892, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155515

ABSTRACT

Long-term services and supports for older persons in the United States are provided in a complex, racially segregated system, with striking racial disparities in access, process, and outcomes of care for residents, which have been magnified during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. These disparities are in large measure the result of longstanding patterns of structural, interpersonal, and cultural racism in US society, which in aggregate represent an underpinning of systemic racism that permeates the long-term care system's organization, administration, regulations, and human services. Mechanisms underlying the role of systemic racism in producing the observed disparities are numerous. Long-term care is fundamentally tied to geography, thereby reflecting disparities associated with residential segregation. Additional foundational drivers include a fragmented payment system that advantages persons with financial resources, and reimbursement policies that systematically undervalue long-term care workers. Eliminating disparities in health outcomes in these settings will therefore require a comprehensive approach to eliminating the role of systemic racism in promoting racial disparities.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Racism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Humans , United States
20.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 56(3): 157-165, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108647

ABSTRACT

Older people living in nursing homes fulfil the criteria to be considered as geriatric patients, but they often do not have met their health care needs. Current deficits appeared as a result of COVID-19 pandemic. The need to improve the coordination between hospitals and nursing homes emerged, and in Madrid it materialized with the implantation of Liaison Geriatrics teams or units at public hospitals. The Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología has defined the role of the geriatricians in the COVID-19 pandemic and they have given guidelines about prevention, early detection, isolation and sectorization, training, care homes classification, patient referral coordination, and the role of the different care settings, among others. These units and teams also must undertake other care activities that have a shortfall currently, like nursing homes-hospital coordination, geriatricians visits to the homes, telemedicine sessions, geriatric assessment in emergency rooms, and primary care and public health services coordination. This paper describes the concept of Liaison Geriatrics and its implementation at the Autonomous Community of Madrid hospitals as a result of COVID-19 pandemic. Activity data from a unit at a hospital with a huge number of nursing homes in its catchment area are reported. The objective is to understand the need of this activity in order to avoid the current fragmentation of care between hospitals and nursing homes. This activity should be consolidated in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Geriatrics/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/legislation & jurisprudence , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Geriatric Assessment , Geriatricians/organization & administration , Geriatricians/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration , Homes for the Aged/classification , Hospitals, Public/organization & administration , Humans , Nursing Homes/classification , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Public Health Administration , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Telemedicine/organization & administration
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL