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1.
Rev. crim ; 63(3): [9-31], 20211201.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1812187

ABSTRACT

El comportamiento de la criminalidad durante el año 2020 evidenció variaciones asociadas con los cambios en las dinámicas de las poblaciones en todo el país. Este artículo utilizando elementos descriptivos, expone las características del delito en Colombia durante el año 2020 y el contexto criminógeno asociado con las transformaciones del crimen haciendo énfasis en el homicidio. En particular, al interior del artículo incluye una sección que plantea una reflexión en torno a los aportes de la neurocriminología para la comprensión de la conducta criminal. Entre las conclusiones se indica: 1) una reducción importante en el homicidio que representó la tasa más baja de los últimos 46 años en Colombia equivalente a 23,8 homicidios por cien mil habitantes. 2) un decremento equivalente al 29% de los delitos de impacto ocurridos en el país al comparar el año 2019 con el año 2020. 3) asociado a un año de emergencia sanitaria la Policía Nacional capturó 173.217 sujetos por la comisión de diferentes delitos y de acuerdo con ejercicios analíticos realizados en territorios, las unidades de policía aumentaron su carga laboral con nuevas tareas derivadas de las medidas de atención y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Criminology , Criminal Behavior , COVID-19 , Homicide
2.
Sci Justice ; 62(2): 214-220, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692905

ABSTRACT

Femicide constitutes a leading cause of premature deaths for women, yet it has been the subject of limited research until recently. Enhanced data collection and analysis on killings of women and girls are necessary to understand and address this unrelenting phenomenon. This study examines all cases of female homicide encountered at the Institute of Legal Medicine of Milan (Italy) spanning from 1999 to 2019; data from 2020/2021 were shown separately given the bias that the forced cohabitation and stay at home during the lockdowns of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may represent regarding violence against women and femicide. In this study, specific factors were considered, including the age and nationality of the victims, the place of recovery of the bodies, the victim's relationship to the perpetrator and the injuries they suffered. As a result, 200 female killings were found among the over 15,000 autopsies and 535 homicides investigated at the Institute of Legal Medicine of Milan from 1999 to 2019, representing an average of 9.5 femicides yearly. The majority of victims were Italian (74%) and half were aged between 18 and 49 years old. The killings were overwhelmingly committed in the domestic setting (78.5%) by male perpetrators (at least 85%), related to the victims as intimate or ex-intimate partners and members of the family (73.5%). The homicides were mainly perpetrated with sharp (32%) or blunt instruments (21.5%), shooting (18.5%) and asphyxiation (16.5%). This study is part of a growing effort to enhance data collection and analysis on femicide. Studying and monitoring the rates of femicide (or "femicide watch") will permit to better understand, reduce, and finally end femicide globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crime Victims , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Homicide , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
J Urban Health ; 99(1): 82-91, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652452

ABSTRACT

Unemployment and violence both increased during the coronavirus pandemic in the United States (US), but no studies to our knowledge have examined their association. Using data for 16 US cities from January 2018 to July 2020, we estimated the association between acute changes in unemployment during the coronavirus pandemic and violent and acquisitive crime. We used negative binomial regression models and parametric g-computation to estimate average differences in crime incidents if the highest and lowest levels of unemployment observed in each city had been sustained across the exposure period (March-July 2020), compared with observed unemployment in each city-month. During the pandemic, the percentage of the adult population who were unemployed was 8.1 percentage points higher than expected, on average. Increases in unemployment were associated with increases in firearm violence and homicide. For example, we estimated an average increase of 3.3 firearm violence incidents (95% CI: - 0.2, 6.7) and 2.0 homicides (95% CI: - 0.2, 3.9) per city-month from March to July 2020 if all cities experienced their highest versus observed level of unemployment. There was no association between unemployment and aggravated assault or any acquisitive crime. Findings suggest that the sharp rise in unemployment during the pandemic may have contributed to increases in firearm violence and homicide, but not other crime. Additional research is needed on mechanisms of association, generalizability, and modifying factors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Firearms , Adult , Cities , Crime , Homicide , Humans , Pandemics , Unemployment , United States/epidemiology
5.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 65(1): 11-17, 2022 Jan.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although suicide is not a criminal offence and the person who commits suicide is neither a victim nor a perpetrator in the classic police sense, suicides are the subject of police investigations and sometimes even recorded in the police crime statistics. In the state of Bavaria, available data go back to 1986. The present analysis provides information about the development of suicides registered by the police, the social characteristics of the individuals who commit suicide, and the methods and circumstances for suicide. In particular, the extent to which the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on suicide risk is examined. METHODS: Descriptive statistical analysis of completed and attempted suicides based on the Bavarian police crime statistics from 1986-2020. RESULTS: The number of suicide deaths has continuously declined over the decades. This positive trend is also visible in the reporting year 2020, which is profoundly influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the persons who commit suicide are male and older than the age of 60. Hanging is the most commonly used method to commit suicide and the circumstances for doing so are often a mental or physical illness. DISCUSSION: Prevention of danger is an important duty of police. Data generated by the police, experience-based knowledge, and police intervention and influence can help prevent suicides. The statistical recording of suicides in the police crime statistics is a valuable addition to the causes of death statistics and provides a basis for optimizing prevention and emergency care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Police , Age Distribution , Cause of Death , Germany/epidemiology , Homicide , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 144-153, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559717

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe associations between neighborhood racial and economic segregation and violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. For 13 US cities, we obtained zip code-level data on 5 violence outcomes from March through July 2018 through 2020. Using negative binomial regressions and marginal contrasts, we estimated differences between quintiles of racial, economic, and racialized economic segregation using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes as a measure of neighborhood privilege (1) in 2020 and (2) relative to 2018 through 2019 (difference-in-differences). Results. In 2020, violence was higher in less-privileged neighborhoods than in the most privileged. For example, if all zip codes were in the least privileged versus most privileged quintile of racialized economic segregation, we estimated 146.2 additional aggravated assaults (95% confidence interval = 112.4, 205.8) per zip code on average across cities. Differences over time in less-privileged zip codes were greater than differences over time in the most privileged for firearm violence, aggravated assault, and homicide. Conclusions. Marginalized communities endure endemically high levels of violence. The events of 2020 exacerbated disparities in several forms of violence. Public Health Implications. To reduce violence and related disparities, immediate and long-term investments in low-income neighborhoods of color are warranted. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):144-153. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306540).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gun Violence/statistics & numerical data , Race Factors , Residence Characteristics/classification , Social Segregation , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Homicide/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Theft/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
7.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 65(1): 11-17, 2022 Jan.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although suicide is not a criminal offence and the person who commits suicide is neither a victim nor a perpetrator in the classic police sense, suicides are the subject of police investigations and sometimes even recorded in the police crime statistics. In the state of Bavaria, available data go back to 1986. The present analysis provides information about the development of suicides registered by the police, the social characteristics of the individuals who commit suicide, and the methods and circumstances for suicide. In particular, the extent to which the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on suicide risk is examined. METHODS: Descriptive statistical analysis of completed and attempted suicides based on the Bavarian police crime statistics from 1986-2020. RESULTS: The number of suicide deaths has continuously declined over the decades. This positive trend is also visible in the reporting year 2020, which is profoundly influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the persons who commit suicide are male and older than the age of 60. Hanging is the most commonly used method to commit suicide and the circumstances for doing so are often a mental or physical illness. DISCUSSION: Prevention of danger is an important duty of police. Data generated by the police, experience-based knowledge, and police intervention and influence can help prevent suicides. The statistical recording of suicides in the police crime statistics is a valuable addition to the causes of death statistics and provides a basis for optimizing prevention and emergency care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Police , Age Distribution , Cause of Death , Germany/epidemiology , Homicide , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1325-1326, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526997
9.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 156(3): 580-581, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482136
10.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(3): ix-x, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369546
12.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 729-749, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299070

ABSTRACT

What we are witnessing in the present time in human history, in the 2020's, is a vortex of intersecting pandemics - jolting revelations that are unfolding with a terrific energy and force - so much so that we cannot ignore them or escape them. These include the world-wide pandemics of racism, COVID-19 and climate change. This paper argues that all of these swirling pandemics are manifestations of the archetype of the apocalypse, which is constellating now in a very powerful way. Any one of these phenomena could swallow humanity whole as a species. Together they represent a seemingly overwhelming challenge for us to meet over the next century of life on earth. If humanity cannot meet the challenge of these combined negative forces, it could simply perish. A multi-layered intersecting set of challenges such as this has never yet occurred in human history. We must therefore be very alert to what is going on, and as to how we can consciously mediate these threats, both individually and collectively. It also presents an unprecedented opportunity for humanity to evolve and grow psychologically both individually and collectively, nationally and globally.


Ce dont nous sommes témoins à l'heure actuelle dans l'histoire de l'humanité, dans les années 2020, est un vortex de pandémies qui s'entrecroisent - des révélations choquantes qui se déploient avec une énergie et une force formidables - tellement que l'on ne peut les ignorer ou leur échapper. Cela inclue la pandémie mondiale de racisme, la COVID-19, et le changement climatique. Cet article soutient que toutes ces pandémies tourbillonnantes sont des manifestations de l'archétype de l'apocalypse, qui se constelle en ce moment de manière très puissante. Chacun de ces phénomènes pourrait avaler l'humanité toute entière en tant qu'espèce. Ensembles ils représentent un défi apparemment insurmontable auquel nous avons à faire face durant le siècle à venir de la vie sur terre. Si l'humanité ne peut pas faire face au défi de ces forces négatives combinées, elle pourrait tout simplement périr. Un tel ensemble - de défis qui s'entrecroisent sur plusieurs niveaux - ne s'est encore jamais produit dans l'histoire humaine. Ainsi nous devons être très vigilants à ce qui se passe, et à comment nous pouvons consciemment opérer une médiation de ces menaces, à la fois individuellement et collectivement. Cela représente également une opportunité sans précédent pour que l'humanité évolue et grandisse psychologiquement à la fois individuellement et collectivement, au niveau de la nation et globalement.


Lo que estamos atestiguando en el presente de la historia humana, en el año 2020, es un vórtice de pandemias entrecruzadas - revelaciones que sacuden y se despliegan con tremenda fuerza y energía - tanto que no podemos ignorarlas ni escapar de éstas. Estas incluyen la pandemia mundial del racismo, el COVID-19 y el cambio climático. El presente trabajo argumenta que todas estas turbulentas pandemias son manifestaciones del arquetipo del apocalipsis, el cual se está constelando en la actualidad de manera poderosa. Cualquiera de estos fenómenos podría tragarse a la humanidad entera como especie. Juntas representen un aparentemente abrumador desafío para nosotros, a confrontar durante el próximo siglo de vida en la tierra. Si la humanidad no puede afrontar los desafíos de estas fuerzas negativas combinadas, podría simplemente perecer. Nunca ha ocurrido en la historia humana, una intersección de desafíos como éstos, en múltiples niveles. Tenemos que estar muy alertas respecto a lo que está pasando, y sobre cómo podemos conscientemente mediar estas amenazas, ambas individual y colectivamente. También presenta una oportunidad sin precedentes para que la humanidad pueda evolucionar y crecer psicológicamente, tanto individual, como colectivamente, nacional y globalmente.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate Change , Homicide , Political Activism , Psychoanalytic Theory , Racism , Enslavement , Humans , Police , United States
13.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 750-762, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299061

ABSTRACT

George Floyd's death, the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change are on a continuum from the immediate shock of viewing a video-recorded murder, to millions dying worldwide from disease, to deaths related to climate change accumulating over a millennium. They participate in the powerful archetypes of death and inequality. 'Increase', Hexagram 42 in the I Ching, archetypically addresses inequalities at all levels - racial, economic, political and the profound imbalance between humans and the environment. Floyd's death highlights the consequences of systemic racism and income inequalities. The pandemic as 'nature's revenge' hits minority populations harder due to underlying health conditions resulting from poverty and greater exposure to the virus in the workplace. President Trump as Trickster showed Americans their shadow and his response to the pandemic amplified its severity. The pandemic has shocked our social, political and economic systems and paused our species rush into environmental disasters at many levels. The disruptions present opportunities for reflection, experimentation and developing new systems as old forms are challenged. The ecological dimensions of Jung's concepts emphasize interconnectedness at all levels and the paradigm shift he called a 'new age' provides a framework for altering the course of the Anthropocene Era.


La mort de George Floyd, la pandémie de COVID-19 et le changement climatique sont sur un continuum: du choc immédiat à la vue d'un meurtre enregistré sur une vidéo, aux millions de personnes dans le monde mourant de maladie, aux morts en lien avec les changements climatiques qui s'accumulent depuis plus de mille ans. Tout cela participe aux archétypes puissants de la mort et de l'inégalité. 'L'augmentation', l'Hexagramme 42 du Yi King, aborde de manière archétypale les inégalités à tous les niveaux - racial, économique, politique et le déséquilibre profond entre les humains et l'environnement. La mort de Floyd souligne les conséquences du racisme systémique et des inégalités de revenus. La pandémie en tant que 'revanche de la nature' frappe les minorités plus durement du fait de conditions de santé fragilisées par la pauvreté et l'exposition plus élevée au virus sur le lieu de travail. Le président Trump comme archétype du filou a montré leur ombre aux Américains, et sa réponse à la pandémie en a amplifié la sévérité. La pandémie a secoué nos systèmes sociaux, politiques et économiques et provoqué une pause dans la précipitation de notre espèce vers des désastres environnementaux à plusieurs niveaux. Les perturbations offrent des opportunités pour réfléchir, pour expérimenter et développer de nouveaux systèmes tandis que les vieilles formes sont mises en cause. Les dimensions écologiques des concepts de Jung mettent l'accent sur l'aspect interconnecté à tous niveaux et le changement de paradigme qu'il a appelé « nouvel âge ¼ fournit un cadre de travail pour modifier le cours de l'Ere de l'Anthropocène.


La muerte de George Floyd, la pandemia del COVID-19 y el cambio climático están en un continuum que va desde el shock de mirar una muerte a través de una cámara de video, a millones muriendo alrededor del mundo por una enfermedad, a muertes relacionadas con el cambio climático acumulándose a través de los milenios. Estos forman parte de los poderosos arquetipos de la muerte y de la desigualdad. "El Aumento", Hexagrama 42 en el I Ching, aborda arquetípicamente las desigualdades a todos los niveles - racial, económico, político y el desbalance profundo entre los humanos y el contexto. La muerte de Floyd evidencia las consecuencias de un racismo sistemático, y de las desigualdades en los ingresos. La pandemia, como 'venganza de la naturaleza' afecta más duramente a las poblaciones minoritarias debido a las condiciones básicas de salud resultantes de la pobreza y de una mayor exposición al virus en los lugares de trabajo. El presidente Trump como Trickster mostró su sombra a los americanos y su respuesta a la pandemia amplificó la severidad de esta. La pandemia ha impactado nuestros sistemas social, político y económico y detuvo, a muchos niveles, la carrera de nuestra especie hacia los desastres medioambientales. Las alteraciones presentan oportunidades para la reflexión, la experimentación y el desarrollo de nuevos sistemas a medida que son desafiadas las viejas formas. Las dimensiones ecológicas de los conceptos de Jung enfatizan la interconectividad a todos los niveles y el cambio de paradigma que denominó'nueva era' provee un marco de referencia para alterar el curso de la Era Antropoceno.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homicide , Police , Psychoanalytic Theory , Racism , Socioeconomic Factors , Humans , United States
15.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 40(2): 139-150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174782

ABSTRACT

When millions saw footage of George Floyd's murder by police during the COVID-19 pandemic where marginalized groups had higher death rates, increased awareness and action arose because Black people are treated differently in the United States. Many libraries subsequently created statements and committees to commit to reduce inequities in libraries; however, Black bodies are still being harmed. Therefore, this editorial details the Start and End with I concept and provides concrete steps for making change. It is time to center the voices that have been dismissed and ignored for too long. Are you willing to do what it takes?


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Libraries , Racism/prevention & control , Famous Persons , Homicide , Humans , Minnesota , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
16.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(3): 419-421, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172401

ABSTRACT

It has been demonstrated in a number of communities that the rates of serious crimes such as homicides and intimate partner violence have increased as a result of lockdowns due to COVID-19. To ascertain whether this is a universal trend the electronic autopsy files at Forensic Science South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, were searched for all homicides occurring between January 2015 and December 2020. There were 92 cases with 17 homicides in 2015 out of a total of 1356 cases (1.3%),18 in 2016 (18/1340 = 1.3%), 23 in 2017 (23/1419 = 1.6%); 14 in 2018 (14/1400 = 1.0%), 15 in 2019 (15/1492 = 1.0%) but in 2020 there were only 5 (5/1374 = 0.4%) (p < 0.02). Thus the incidence of homicides has fallen significantly in South Australia since the beginning of the pandemic. As the occurrence of serious crimes of violence and homicide has not followed a standard pattern in different communities it will be important to evaluate specific populations and subgroups rather than merely relying on accrued national data or extrapolating from one country to another. Pathologists, epidemiologists and health officials will need to specifically monitor local trends to understand more clearly what effects, if any, the pandemic has had on particular subgroups of deaths in order to more clearly understand causal relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Cause of Death , Communicable Disease Control , Homicide , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113879, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157737

ABSTRACT

In this critical literature review we develop a five-part agenda for pandemic-era research into mass shootings and multiple-victim homicides that promotes understanding the psychologies of individual shooters within larger structures and systems. We show how the momentous events set in motion by the COVID-19 virus, and the structural drivers of inequity and racism that its spread exposed, challenge mental health research on gun trauma to better account for broader terrains of race and place, as well as the tensions, politics, and assumptions that surround guns in the U.S. more broadly. Doing so will broaden mental-health interventions into epidemics of U.S. gun trauma, and challenge mental health research better recognize structural biases inherent in its own purview. We frame the agenda through the rubric of structural competency, an emerging framework that systematically trains health care professionals and others to recognize ways that institutions, neighborhood conditions, market forces, public policies, and health care delivery systems shape symptoms and diseases. Developing a structural framework around research into U.S. gun violence addresses the risks, traumas, meanings, and consequences that firearms represent for all communities-and highlights the importance of a renewed focus on mental health and safety for communities of color. Recognizing how gun violence reflects and encapsulates structures helps mental health experts address common sense gun policies within broader contexts-by fighting against structural racism or racially inflected gun policies for instance, or against economic policies that undermine access to mental health care more broadly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Homicide , Humans , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(2): 4-6, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082204

Subject(s)
Racism , Homicide , Humans
19.
J Gen Psychol ; 148(3): 305-326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044252

ABSTRACT

Psychologist Eric Miller of Kent State University has termed COVID-19 "the Loss and Trauma Event of Our Time." In this paper, I would like to problematize the public health response to the virus outbreak in light of two consequential and preventable traumas that shadow the COVID-19 calamity: femicide and suicide. As public health reaction to the pandemic is seen to negatively increase rates of domestic violence and suicidality this research accessed rapidly available data using Google Date Range analysis by utilizing queries from pre- and post-pandemic comprising the months of March-August in the years 2019 and 2020. The aim of this rapid-response research is to glimpse the possible presence of psychological stress in online searches that relate to debilitation in the four foundational strata of Maslow's Hierarchy of Human needs (basic and psychological needs). To search basic needs related to COVID-19 the following categories were utilized in online search phrases in Google (US): precarity and insecurity. To search basic and psychological needs related to suicide the following categories were utilized in online search phrases in Google (US): despondency and helplessness. Finally, to search basic and psychological needs related to femicide the following categories were utilized in online search phrases in Google (US): indicative male violence and intentional male violence. Results show an overwhelming upsurge from all six categories from 31% to 106%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Homicide/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Helplessness, Learned , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Research , Risk Factors , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological/complications
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