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1.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 241: 113949, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757396

ABSTRACT

Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion was estimated to cause 2.31 million deaths worldwide in 2019; cardiovascular disease is a substantial contributor to the global burden. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between household air pollution (24-h gravimetric kitchen and personal particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC)) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured in dried blood spots among 107 women in rural Honduras using wood-burning traditional or Justa (an engineered combustion chamber) stoves. A suite of 6 additional markers of systemic injury and inflammation were considered in secondary analyses. We adjusted for potential confounders and assessed effect modification of several cardiovascular-disease risk factors. The median (25th, 75th percentiles) 24-h-average personal PM2.5 concentration was 115 µg/m3 (65,154 µg/m3) for traditional stove users and 52 µg/m3 (39, 81 µg/m3) for Justa stove users; kitchen PM2.5 and BC had similar patterns. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 and BC were associated with higher levels of CRP (e.g., a 25% increase in personal PM2.5 was associated with a 10.5% increase in CRP [95% CI: 1.2-20.6]). In secondary analyses, results were generally consistent with a null association. Evidence for effect modification between pollutant measures and four different cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., high blood pressure) was inconsistent. These results support the growing evidence linking household air pollution and cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , C-Reactive Protein , Cooking/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Wood/analysis , Wood/chemistry
3.
Hisp Health Care Int ; 19(4): 230-238, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473601

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of moral injury and Light Triad (LT) personality traits on anxiety and depression symptoms of health-care personnel during the coronavirus-2019 pandemic. A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was used, the study included a sample of 169 health-care workers from Honduras. Data was gathered through the Moral Injury Symptom Scale for Health Professionals (MISS-HP), Light Triad Scale (LTS), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and the Patient-Health Questionnaire-9. Results suggest that almost 9 out of 10 respondents experienced at least one potentially morally injurious event, 45.6% were at significant risk of impairment related to moral injury. Working with limited staff and resources, and the implications of it, was the most common potentially morally injurious situation reported by the respondents. Results suggest that MISS-HP Mistrust has significant negative correlations with LT traits. A hierarchical regression model determined that Moral Injury, but not LT traits, significantly affected depression symptoms. On the other hand, anxiety symptoms were significantly predicted by Moral Injury, as did LTS-Humanism. The results were discussed according to their implications for public health policy in Latin America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e476-e483, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Few reports exist in Latin America, a current epicenter of transmission. Here, we aim to describe the epidemiology and outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Honduras. METHODS: Baseline clinical and epidemiological information of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases detected between 17 March-4 May in the San Pedro Sula Metropolitan area was collected; for hospitalized cases, clinical data were abstracted. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the factors associated with hospitalization. RESULTS: We identified 877 COVID-19 cases, of which 25% (n = 220) were hospitalized. The 19-44-year age group (57.8%) and males (61.3%) were predominant in overall COVID-19 cases. Of the cases, 34% (n = 299) had at least 1 preexisting medical condition. Individuals aged 45-69 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.85-5.76) or ≥70 years (aOR = 9.12; 95% CI, 5.24-15.86), of male sex (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21-2.44), and those with a preexisting condition (aOR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.43-3.14) had higher odds of hospitalization. Of inpatients, 50% were hospitalized more than 7 days. The median length of hospitalization was 13 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8-29) among individuals aged 19-44 years, and 17 days (IQR, 11-24.6) among those aged 45-69. Of the fatal cases, 42% occurred among adults under 60 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a high proportion of COVID-19 cases in Honduras occurred among younger adults, who also constituted a significant proportion of severe and fatal cases. Preexisting conditions were associated with severe outcomes independently from age and were highly prevalent in Honduran COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Honduras/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113933, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189014

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of coronavirus awareness, psychological stress responses, and sociodemographic variables on mental health indicators (somatization, depression, and anxiety) in residents of Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. METHODS: The study used a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. Data was collected online using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18); the Coronavirus Awareness Scale-6 (CAS-6) and a questionnaire that included psychological and sociodemographic questions. The total sample size consisted of 1559 respondents from Honduras (34%), Chile (29%), Costa Rica (17%), Mexico (11%), and Spain (9%). RESULTS: The most common stress domains correspond to family (22.97%), financial (22.53%), academic (16.47%), leisure time constraints (14.23%), health (12.48%), peer group (7.63%), and religious concerns (3.69%). These domains are significantly associated with the respondent's country, sex, employment status, and being or not a health worker. Respondents who reported confinement stress also reported higher scores in anxiety, depression, and somatization. The Global Severity Index was significantly predicted by confinement stress, health, academic, and leisure time-related stress, sex, age, being a health worker, COVID-19 Personal Concern, and Perceived Seriousness. Non-significant predictors were employment status, the number of people at home, presence of older adults and children at home, financial, peer group, family, and religious concerns; the regression model had an R2 of 0.26. Similar analyses were conducted for somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has adverse effects on the mental health of the general population, particularly regarding anxiety, depression, and somatization. Specific populations, such as women and healthcare workers, are at particular risk of suffering a deterioration in mental wellbeing. The implications of the study for public policy are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Chile , Costa Rica/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has multifaceted presentations with rising evidence of immune-mediated mechanisms underplay. We sought to explore the outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients treated with a multi-mechanism approach (MMA) in addition to standard-of-care (SC) versus patients who only received SC treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This observational cohort study was performed at five institutions, 3 in the United States and 2 in Honduras. Patients were stratified for MMA vs. SC treatment during ICU stay. MMA treatment consists of widely available medications started immediately upon hospitalization. These interventions target immunomodulation, anticoagulation, viral suppression, and oxygenation. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) for the index hospitalization and were measured using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 86 patients admitted, 65 (76%) who had severe COVID-19 were included in the study; 30 (46%) patients were in SC group, compared with 35 (54%) patients treated with MMA group. Twelve (40%) patients in the SC group died, compared with 5 (14%) in the MMA group (p-value = 0.01, Chi squared test). After adjustment for gender, age, treatment group, Q-SOFA score, the MMA group had a mean length of stay 8.15 days, when compared with SC group with 13.55 days. ICU length of stay was reduced by a mean of 5.4 days (adjusted for a mean age of 54 years, p-value 0.03) and up to 9 days (unadjusted for mean age), with no significant reduction in overall adjusted mortality rate, where the strongest predictor of mortality was the use of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The finding that MMA decreases the average ICU length of stay by 5.4 days and up to 9 days in older patients suggests that implementation of this treatment protocol could allow a healthcare system to manage 60% more COVID-19 patients with the same number of ICU beds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): e297-e298, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054331

ABSTRACT

A recently published article of this journal stated that informatics solutions can guide better public health decision-making during the COVID 19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic. Honduras is a country facing the COVID-19 pandemic with a weak health surveillance system while also fighting a dengue epidemic and the aftermath of two hurricanes that struck its territory in November 2020. In response, we as academics started a COVID-19 and Dengue Observatory combining several technological platforms and developing multidisciplinary research to help the country navigate the crisis. Mapping the pandemic and the natural disasters showed us that technology can be applied toward epidemiology to benefit communities in a time of need by quickly building a basic digital health surveillance system for Honduras.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclonic Storms , Dengue , Dengue/epidemiology , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013223

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has multifaceted presentations with rising evidence of immune-mediated mechanisms underplay. We sought to explore the outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients treated with a multi-mechanism approach (MMA) in addition to standard-of-care (SC) versus patients who only received SC treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This observational cohort study was performed at five institutions, 3 in the United States and 2 in Honduras. Patients were stratified for MMA vs. SC treatment during ICU stay. MMA treatment consists of widely available medications started immediately upon hospitalization. These interventions target immunomodulation, anticoagulation, viral suppression, and oxygenation. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) for the index hospitalization and were measured using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 86 patients admitted, 65 (76%) who had severe COVID-19 were included in the study; 30 (46%) patients were in SC group, compared with 35 (54%) patients treated with MMA group. Twelve (40%) patients in the SC group died, compared with 5 (14%) in the MMA group (p-value = 0.01, Chi squared test). After adjustment for gender, age, treatment group, Q-SOFA score, the MMA group had a mean length of stay 8.15 days, when compared with SC group with 13.55 days. ICU length of stay was reduced by a mean of 5.4 days (adjusted for a mean age of 54 years, p-value 0.03) and up to 9 days (unadjusted for mean age), with no significant reduction in overall adjusted mortality rate, where the strongest predictor of mortality was the use of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The finding that MMA decreases the average ICU length of stay by 5.4 days and up to 9 days in older patients suggests that implementation of this treatment protocol could allow a healthcare system to manage 60% more COVID-19 patients with the same number of ICU beds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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