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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(2)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625399

ABSTRACT

The mRNA vaccine Comirnaty and the inactivated vaccine CoronaVac are both available in Hong Kong's COVID-19 vaccination programme. We observed waning antibody levels in 850 fully vaccinated (at least 14 days passed after second dose) blood donors using ELISA and surrogate virus neutralisation test. The Comirnaty-vaccinated group's (n = 593) antibody levels remained over the ELISA and sVNT positive cut-offs within the first 6 months. The CoronaVac-vaccinated group's (n = 257) median antibody levels began to fall below the cut-offs 4 months after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Hong Kong , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 793533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599113

ABSTRACT

Background: Along with individual-level factors, vaccination-related characteristics are important in understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to determine the influence of these characteristics on vaccine acceptance to formulate promotion strategies after considering differences among respondents with different characteristics. Methods: An online discrete choice experiment was conducted among people aged 18-64 years in Hong Kong, China, from 26 to 28 February 2021. Respondents were asked to make choices regarding hypothetical vaccination programmes described by vaccination-related characteristics-the attributes derived from a prior individual interview. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify the differences in vaccination-related characteristics among respondents with different personal characteristics. Results: A total of 1,773 respondents provided valid responses. The vaccine efficacy and brand were the most important factors affecting acceptance, followed by the exemption of quarantine for vaccinated travelers, safety, venue for vaccination, vaccine uptake of people in their lives, and recommendations by general physicians or government. Frequent exposure to vaccination information on social media has been associated with increasing vaccine refusal. Substantial preference heterogeneity for the attributes was found among people of different ages, incomes, chronic conditions, and previous acceptance of influenza vaccines. Conclusion: The findings provided evidence to formulate interventions to promote vaccine uptake, including the provision of vaccination at housing estate or workplaces, involvement of general physicians and interpersonal communication in vaccine promotion and information dissemination, and exemption of quarantine for vaccinated people. Moreover, social media is a significant information channel that cannot be neglected in the dissemination of official information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e055909, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the attenuated impact of reported avoidance behaviours adherence on the transmission of COVID-19 through cross-sectional surveys in Hong Kong, in order to make up for the lack of research on avoidance behaviours fatigue. DESIGN: 40 cross-sectional telephone surveys. SETTING: All districts in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: 31 332 Cantonese or English-speaking participants at age of 18 years or above. METHODS: We collected data on behaviours and estimated the average effective reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) among the Hong Kong adult population during the COVID-19 epidemic wave in November-December 2020 and compared with the preceding epidemic in June-July 2020. RESULTS: We observed a reduction in adherence to voluntary avoidance behaviours due to pandemic fatigue, but continued adherence to regulated avoidance behaviours. The average [Formula: see text] during the post-work from home period was higher in November-December wave with estimated [Formula: see text] of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.87) compared with the June-July wave with an [Formula: see text] of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: The declined effectiveness of social distancing interventions in reducing COVID-19 transmission was associated with fatigue with voluntary avoidance behaviours in Hong Kong population, implying a need for the government to reinvigorate the public to maintain effective pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Avoidance Learning , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/prevention & control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 62-68, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581411

ABSTRACT

To determine the effects of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for coronavirus disease on pediatric hospitalizations for infection with respiratory viruses other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, we analyzed hospital data for 2017-2021. Compared with 2017-2019, age-specific hospitalization rates associated with respiratory viruses greatly decreased in 2020, when NPIs were in place. Also when NPIs were in place, rates of hospitalization decreased among children of all ages for infection with influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus/enterovirus. Regression models adjusted for age and seasonality indicated that hospitalization rates for acute febrile illness/respiratory symptoms of any cause were reduced by 76% and by 85%-99% for hospitalization for infection with these viruses. NPIs in Hong Kong were clearly associated with reduced pediatric hospitalizations for respiratory viruses; implementing NPIs and reopening schools were associated with only a small increase in hospitalizations for rhinovirus/enterovirus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 247-250, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581409

ABSTRACT

We sequenced ≈50% of coronavirus disease cases imported to Hong Kong during March-July 2021 and identified 70 cases caused by Delta variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The genomic diversity detected in Hong Kong was similar to global diversity, suggesting travel hubs can play a substantial role in surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 763292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581338

ABSTRACT

The cytokine release syndrome has been proposed as the driver of inflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies on longitudinal cytokine profiles in patients across the whole severity spectrum of COVID-19 are lacking. In this prospective observational study on adult COVID-19 patients admitted to two Hong Kong public hospitals, cytokine profiling was performed on blood samples taken during early phase (within 7 days of symptom onset) and late phase (8 to 12 days of symptom onset). The primary objective was to evaluate the difference in early and late cytokine profiles among patient groups with different disease severity. The secondary objective was to assess the associations between cytokines and clinical endpoints in critically ill patients. A total of 40 adult patients (mild = 8, moderate = 15, severe/critical = 17) hospitalized with COVID-19 were included in this study. We found 22 cytokines which were correlated with disease severity, as proinflammatory Th1-related cytokines (interleukin (IL)-18, interferon-induced protein-10 (IP-10), monokine-induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and IL-10) and ARDS-associated cytokines (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and IL-8) were progressively elevated with increasing disease severity. Furthermore, 11 cytokines were consistently different in both early and late phases, including seven (growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GRO-α), IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IP-10, and MIG) that increased and four (FGF-2, IL-5, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), and MIP-1α) that decreased from mild to severe/critical patients. IL-8, followed by IP-10 and MDC were the best performing early biomarkers to predict disease severity. Among critically ill patients, MCP-1 predicted the duration of mechanical ventilation, highest norepinephrine dose administered, and length of intensive care stay.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) contributed to increasing prevalence of depressive symptoms and other psychological repercussions, particularly in the disease population in Hong Kong. Nonetheless, the caregiver burden of caregivers of persons with dementia (CGPWD), has been under-investigated. AIMS: This study examined the psychological impact and its correlates on the CGPWD in Hong Kong amid the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: CGPWD referred from rehabilitation clinics and online seminar were used to recruit participants to complete an online questionnaire by the end of the second-wave of the COVID-19 outbreak (June 2021). To be eligible, either full-time or part-time CGPWD, aged 18 or above, can understand Cantonese, currently reside in Hong Kong and offering care to PWD for at least one year, were recruited. Those CGPWD diagnosed with any type of psychiatric disorder were excluded from this study. The Chinese Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-22), and Nonattachment Scale (NAS-7) were used to measure participants' depression, perceived stress, anxiety symptoms, caregiver burden and wisdom in subjective feelings of internal stress. The modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (mMOS-SS) and the SARS Appraisal Inventory (SAI) were also administered to measure participants' perceived support and coping efficacy. Follow-up responses were gathered by the end of third-wave outbreak (October 2021). RESULTS: A total of 51 CGPWD participated, of which, 33 (64.7%) suffered from probable depression (CES-D score ≥ 16). Participants also showed a significant increase in depression symptom scores at the three-month follow-up period (t = 2.25, p = 0.03). CGPWD with probable depression had less non-attachment awareness and higher scores in anxiety, stress, caregiving burden, and coronavirus impact (all p < 0.05) than those without. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of depressive symptoms was noted among our CGPWD sample and these symptoms seemed to worsen substantially. Contingent online mental health support should be prioritized to those CGPWD to reduce psychiatric morbidity and the global disease burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580812

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and social unrest have posed a unique set of challenges to Hong Kong. During these two social events, parents of children with special educational needs (SEN) who were already experiencing caregiving pressure, likely coped with additional stressors; they were at a higher risk of mental health problems. A pre-registered, cross-sectional survey study was carried out among 234 Hong Kong parents of children with SEN, investigating the associations of stigmatized identity, perceived discrimination, and subjective well-being under the impact of these social events. Utilizing the Bayesian modelling, we found that highly self-stigmatized parents not only perceived more daily-life discriminating behaviors against them, but also reported having higher distress, more negative emotions, and lower life satisfaction. A higher perceived impact of social events and more discrimination were also associated with lower well-being. Additionally, stigmatized identity, perceived discrimination, and perceived impact of social events demonstrated unique associations with well-being variables, indicating they were substantial stressors. The study called out for public attention to the mental health conditions among parents of children with SEN and other disadvantaged groups in society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26570, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-related information on social media is overabundant and sometimes questionable, resulting in an "infodemic" during the pandemic. While previous studies suggest social media usage increases the risk of developing anxiety symptoms, how induced anxiety affects attitudes and behaviors is less discussed, let alone during a global pandemic. Little is known about the relationship between older adults using social media during a pandemic and their anxiety, their attitudes toward social trust in information, and behaviors to avoid contracting COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between using social media for COVID-19-related information and anxiety symptoms as well as the mediation effect of anxiety symptoms on social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors among older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong between May and August 2020. A rapid warm-call protocol was developed to train social workers and volunteers from participant nongovernmental organizations to conduct the telephone surveys. Questions related to COVID-safe behaviors, social trust in information, social media use, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information were asked. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases at the community level was used to account for the risk of contracting COVID-19. Ordinary least squares regressions examined the associations between social media use and anxiety symptoms, and how they were associated with social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors. Structural equation modeling further mapped out these relationships to identify the mediation effects of anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: This study collected information regarding 3421 adults aged 60 years and older. Use of social media for COVID-19-related information was associated with more anxiety symptoms and lower social trust in information but had no significant relationship with COVID-safe behaviors. Anxiety symptoms predicted lower social trust in information and higher COVID-safe behaviors. Lower social trust in information was predicted by using social media for COVID-19 information, mediated by anxiety symptoms, while no mediation effect was found for COVID-safe behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who rely on social media for COVID-19-related information exhibited more anxiety symptoms, while showing mixed effects on attitudes and behaviors. Social trust in information may be challenged by unverified and contradictory information online. The negligible impact on COVID-safe behaviors suggested that social media may have caused more confusion than consolidating a consistent effort against the pandemic. Media literacy education is recommended to promote critical evaluation of COVID-19-related information and responsible sharing among older adults.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Education , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , Trust , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 421, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To promote public health and resume university activities, COVID-19 vaccination has been mandated from an increasing number of universities worldwide. The objective of the study is to understand the factors that impact preference and willingness to take the vaccine among university students in Hong Kong universities utilizing an online questionnaire. The findings will be imperative for health education and the success of the vaccination program. RESULTS: We conducted a discrete choice experiment survey among university students in Hong Kong and applied conditional logit regression to estimate their vaccine preference and the weight of each attribute. Regression results showed adverse reactions, efficacy, origin of the vaccine, required number of doses and out-of-pocket price are significant determinants for the choice of vaccine, ranked from the most to least important. Similar preference weighting results were observed after adjusting age, sex, monthly household income, studying medical-related subjects and recent influenza vaccination. Safety, efficacy and origin of the vaccine are key drivers for vaccination decisions among young adults in Hong Kong. Health education and communication focused on these factors are urgently needed to overcome vaccine hesitancy and improve the vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22480, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526099

ABSTRACT

Monitoring community psychological and behavioural responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important for informing policy making and risk communication to sustain public compliance with challenging precautionary behaviours and mitigating the psychological impacts. Monthly telephone-based cross-sectional surveys in January-April 2020 and then weekly surveys from May through December 2020 were conducted to monitor changes in public risk perception of COVID-19, personal efficacy in self-protection, confidence in government's ability to control the pandemic, precautionary behaviours, perceived impact of precautionary behaviours, psychological fatigue and distress in Hong Kong, and examine their inter-relationships. While worry about contracting COVID-19 increased, personal efficacy and confidence in government declined as the community incidence of COVID-19 increased. The public maintained high compliance with most precautionary behaviours throughout but relaxed behaviours that were more challenging when disease incidence declined. Public confidence in government was persistently low throughout, of which, a lower level was associated with more psychological fatigue, lower compliance with precautionary behaviours and greater psychological distress. Perceived greater negative impact of precautionary behaviours was also associated with more psychological fatigue which in turn was associated with relaxation of precautionary behaviours. Female, younger and unemployed individuals reported greater psychological distress throughout different stages of the pandemic. Risk communication should focus on promoting confidence in self-protection and pandemic control to avoid helplessness to act when the pandemic resurges. Policy making should prioritize building public trust, enhancing support for sustaining precautionary behaviours, and helping vulnerable groups to adapt to the stress during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e31707, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a disproportionate effect on ethnic minorities. Across countries, greater vaccine hesitancy has been observed among ethnic minorities. After excluding foreign domestic helpers, South Asians make up the largest proportion of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong. It is necessary to plan for COVID-19 vaccination promotional strategies that cater to the unique needs of South Asians in Hong Kong. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among a sample of South Asians in Hong Kong. We examined the effects of sociodemographic data and factors at individual level (perceptions), interpersonal level (information exposure on social media), and sociostructural level (cultural) based on the socioecological model. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted on May 1-31, 2021. Participants were South Asian people aged 18 years or older living in Hong Kong; able to comprehend English, Hindi, Nepali, or Urdu; and having access to a smartphone. Three community-based organizations providing services to South Asians in Hong Kong facilitated the data collection. The staff of the community-based organizations posted the study information in WhatsApp groups involving South Asian clients and invited them to participate in a web-based survey. Logistic regression models were fit for data analysis. RESULTS: Among 245 participants, 81 (33.1%) had taken at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (one dose, 62/245, 25.2%; and both doses, 19/245, 7.9%). After adjusting for significant background characteristics, cultural and religious reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were associated with lower COVID-19 vaccine uptake (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.97; P=.02). At the individual level, having more positive attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.55; P=.002), perceived support from significant others (AOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.60; P=.03), and perceived higher behavioral control to receive COVID-19 vaccination (AOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.65-4.19; P<.001) were associated with higher COVID-19 vaccine uptake, while a negative association was found between negative attitudes and the dependent variable (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.85; P<.001). Knowing more peers who had taken the COVID-19 vaccine was also associated with higher uptake (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.11-1.74; P=.01). At the interpersonal level, higher exposure to information about deaths and other serious conditions caused by COVID-19 vaccination was associated with lower uptake (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.86; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, one-third (81/245) of our participants received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Cultural or religious reasons, perceptions, information exposure on social media, and influence of peers were found to be the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among South Asians. Future programs should engage community groups, champions, and faith leaders, and develop culturally competent interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132923, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516695

ABSTRACT

Importance: Seroprevalence studies inform the extent of infection and assist evaluation of mitigation strategies for the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of unidentified SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population of Hong Kong. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Hong Kong after each major wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 21 to July 7, 2020; September 29 to November 23, 2020; and January 15 to April 18, 2021). Adults (age ≥18 years) who had not been diagnosed with COVID-19 were recruited during each period, and their sociodemographic information, symptoms, travel, contact, quarantine, and COVID-19 testing history were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on spike (S1/S2) protein, followed by confirmation with a commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay based on the receptor binding domain of spike protein. Results: The study enrolled 4198 participants (2539 [60%] female; median age, 50 years [IQR, 25 years]), including 903 (22%), 1046 (25%), and 2249 (53%) during April 21 to July 7, 2020; during September 29 to November 23, 2020; and during January 15 to April 18, 2021, respectively. The numbers of participants aged 18 to 39 years, 40 to 59 years, and 60 years or older were 1328 (32%), 1645 (39%), and 1225 (29%), respectively. Among the participants, 2444 (58%) stayed in Hong Kong since November 2019 and 2094 (50%) had negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results. Only 170 (4%) reported ever having contact with individuals with confirmed cases, and 5% had been isolated or quarantined. Most (2803 [67%]) did not recall any illnesses, whereas 737 (18%), 212 (5%), and 385 (9%) had experienced respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or both, respectively, before testing. Six participants were confirmed to be positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG; the adjusted prevalence of unidentified infection was 0.15% (95% CI, 0.06%-0.32%). Extrapolating these findings to the whole population, there were fewer than 1.9 unidentified infections for every recorded confirmed case. The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Hong Kong before the roll out of vaccination was less than 0.45%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of participants from the general public in Hong Kong, the prevalence of unidentified SARS-CoV-2 infection was low after 3 major waves of the pandemic, suggesting the success of the pandemic mitigation by stringent isolation and quarantine policies even without complete city lockdown. More than 99.5% of the general population of Hong Kong remain naive to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the urgent need to achieve high vaccine coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have studied the link between risk perception and sleep in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of our study is to propose and test a theoretical model to understand the relationships between COVID-19 risk appraisals-risk perception and perception of collective coordinated defense (PCCD) in particular-and subjective sleep quality in Chinese adults in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19-related fear and rumination were examined as potential mediators of the relationships. METHODS: Data were collected using a self-report online questionnaire from a convenience sample of 224 Chinese adults during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. RESULTS: Risk perception and PCCD were found to predict poor sleep quality. Mediation analysis showed that both fear and rumination mediated the relationship between risk perception and sleep quality, whereas only fear mediated the relationship between PCCD and sleep quality. The model was an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 44% of the variance in sleep quality in Chinese adults. This study indicated that both perception of high risks of contracting COVID-19 and anticipations of collective disease preventive efforts had adverse effects on subjective sleep quality via increasing COVID-19-related fear. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need for addressing sleep problems induced by psychological consequences of the pandemic. While policy makers often deliver public messaging campaigns that frame disease prevention as a collective goal, developing evidence-based coping strategies to combat COVID-19 adverse impacts on psychological health is equally important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
15.
Chaos ; 31(10): 101104, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493328

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for contact suppression have been widely used worldwide, which impose harmful burdens on the well-being of populations and the local economy. The evaluation of alternative NPIs is needed to confront the pandemic with less disruption. By harnessing human mobility data, we develop an agent-based model that can evaluate the efficacies of NPIs with individualized mobility simulations. Based on the model, we propose data-driven targeted interventions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong without city-wide NPIs. We develop a data-driven agent-based model for 7.55×106 Hong Kong residents to evaluate the efficacies of various NPIs in the first 80 days of the initial outbreak. The entire territory of Hong Kong has been split into 4905 500×500m2 grids. The model can simulate detailed agent interactions based on the demographics data, public facilities and functional buildings, transportation systems, and travel patterns. The general daily human mobility patterns are adopted from Google's Community Mobility Report. The scenario without any NPIs is set as the baseline. By simulating the epidemic progression and human movement at the individual level, we propose model-driven targeted interventions which focus on the surgical testing and quarantine of only a small portion of regions instead of enforcing NPIs in the whole city. The effectiveness of common NPIs and the proposed targeted interventions are evaluated by 100 extensive simulations. The proposed model can inform targeted interventions, which are able to effectively contain the COVID-19 outbreak with much lower disruption of the city. It represents a promising approach to sustainable NPIs to help us revive the economy of the city and the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Big Data , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2666-2668, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486735

ABSTRACT

We sequenced 10% of imported severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections detected in travelers to Hong Kong and revealed the genomic diversity of regions of origin, including lineages not previously reported from those countries. Our results suggest that international or regional travel hubs might be useful surveillance sites to monitor sequence diversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Imported , Genetic Variation , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 has affected over 220 countries by October 2021, there is limited research examining the patterns and determinants of adherence to infection control measures over time. AIMS: Our study examines the sociodemographic factors associated with changes in the frequency of adherence to personal hygiene and social distancing behaviors in Hong Kong. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional telephone survey in the general population was conducted during the first (March 2020) (n = 765) and third wave (December 2020) (n = 651) of the local outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents were asked about their level of compliance with various personal hygiene and social distancing recommendations. RESULTS: By the third wave, mask use increased to 100%, and throughout the study periods, >90% practiced frequent hand hygiene. However, adherence to social distancing measures significantly waned over time: avoidance of social gatherings (80.5% to 72.0%), avoidance of public places/public transport (53.3% to 26.0%), avoidance of international travel (85.8% to 76.6%) (p < 0.05). The practice of ordering food takeout/home delivery, however, increased, particularly among high-income respondents. Higher education, female gender and employment status were the most consistently associated factors with adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices in the multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: In urban areas of this region, interventions to improve personal hygiene in a prolonged pandemic should target males and those with low education. In addition to these groups, the working population needs to be targeted in order to improve adherence to social distancing guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1878, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to pandemic that affected almost all countries in the world. Many countries have implemented border restriction as a public health measure to limit local outbreak. However, there is inadequate scientific data to support such a practice, especially in the presence of an established local transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To apply a metapopulation Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model with inspected migration to investigate the effect of border restriction as a public health measure to limit outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We apply a modified metapopulation SEIR model with inspected migration with simulating population migration, and incorporating parameters such as efficiency of custom inspection in blocking infected travelers in the model. The population sizes were retrieved from government reports, while the number of COVID-19 patients were retrieved from Hong Kong Department of Health and China Centre for Disease Control (CDC) data. The R0 was obtained from previous clinical studies. RESULTS: Complete border closure can help to reduce the cumulative COVID-19 case number and mortality in Hong Kong by 13.99% and 13.98% respectively. To prevent full occupancy of isolation facilities in Hong Kong; effective public health measures to reduce local R0 to below 1.6 was necessary, apart from having complete border closure. CONCLUSIONS: Early complete travel restriction is effective in reducing cumulative cases and mortality. However, additional anti-COVID-19 measures to reduce local R0 to below 1.6 are necessary to prevent COVID-19 cases from overwhelming hospital isolation facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
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