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1.
J Vet Intern Med ; 37(3): 1223-1232, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocol for evaluation of the cardiac and respiratory systems in horses does not exist. OBJECTIVES: (a) Describe the windows of a POCUS protocol for cardiorespiratory assessment of horses (CRASH); (b) Estimate the number of acoustic windows that can be acquired by a sonographer-in-training; (c) Estimate the time required to complete the protocol for specific groups of horses; (d) Describe the sonographic abnormalities detected in horses presented with cardiovascular, respiratory, or systemic disease. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven healthy horses, 14 horses competing in athletic events, and 120 horses with clinical disease. METHOD: A pocket-sized ultrasound device was used to acquire 7 sonographic cardiorespiratory windows in various clinical scenarios. The duration of the examination was timed, and images were evaluated for diagnostic quality. Abnormalities in horses with clinical disease were determined by an expert sonographer. RESULTS: The CRASH protocol could be performed in healthy and diseased horses in hospital, barn, and competition settings between 5.5 ± 0.9 (athletic horses) and 6.9 ± 1.9 min (horses with clinical disease). Thoracic windows were obtained most consistently, followed by right parasternal long-axis echocardiographic windows. Frequently detected abnormalities were pleural fluid, lung consolidation, B-lines, and moderate-to-severe left-sided heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: The CRASH protocol was feasible using a pocket-sized ultrasound device in various groups of horses, could be completed rapidly in a variety of settings, and frequently identified sonographic abnormalities when evaluated by an expert sonographer. The diagnostic accuracy, observer agreement, and utility of the CRASH protocol merit further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Horses , Animals , Feasibility Studies , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Ultrasonography/methods , Echocardiography/veterinary
2.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 35(4): 349-353, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327314

ABSTRACT

Equine enterotyphlocolitis is an inflammatory process of the intestinal tract of horses that is associated with multiple etiologic agents and risk factors. Most clinical cases do not have an etiologic diagnosis. We describe here the pathogens detected and the histologic lesions found in horses with enterotyphlocolitis in Ontario that were submitted for postmortem examination, 2007-2019. We reviewed the medical records of 208 horses that fulfilled inclusion criteria. Cultures were positive in 67 of 208 (32%) equids for Clostridium perfringens, in 16 of 208 (8%) for Clostridioides difficile, and in 14 of 208 (7%) for Salmonella spp.; 6 of 208 (3%) were positive for Neorickettsia risticii by PCR assay. One horse was positive in a Rhodococcus equi PCR assay. All horses tested by PCR assay for equine coronavirus and Lawsonia intracellularis were negative. The histologic lesions were characterized as follows: 6 of 208 (3%) enteritis, 5 of 208 (2%) typhlitis, 104 of 208 (50%) colitis, 37 of 208 (18%) enterocolitis, 45 of 208 (22%) typhlocolitis, and 11 of 208 (5%) enterotyphlocolitis. We strongly recommend standardized testing of diarrheic horses during and/or after postmortem examination, as well as standardized reporting of histologic lesions in enterotyphlocolitis cases.


Subject(s)
Enteritis , Enterocolitis , Horse Diseases , Horses , Animals , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Autopsy/veterinary , Enterocolitis/veterinary , Enterocolitis/microbiology , Enteritis/diagnosis , Enteritis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/microbiology
3.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307619

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens affecting humans, particularly equines. These neuroarboviruses compromise the central nervous system and can be fatal in different hosts. Both have significantly influenced Colombia; however, few studies analyse its behaviour, and none develop maps using geographic information systems to characterise it. OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal-spatial distribution of those viruses in Colombia between 2008 and 2019. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study, based on weekly reports by municipalities of the ICA, of the surveillance of both arboviruses in equines, in Colombia, from 2008 to 2019. The data were converted into databases in Microsoft Access 365®, and multiple epidemiological maps were generated with the Kosmo RC1®3.0 software coupled to shape files of all municipalities in the country. RESULTS: In the study period, 96 cases of EEE and 70 of VEE were reported, with 58% of EEE cases occurring in 2016 and 20% of EEV cases in 2013. The most affected municipalities for EEE corresponded to the department of Casanare: Yopal (20), Aguazul (16), and Tauramena (10). In total, 40 municipalities in the country reported ≥1 case of EEE. CONCLUSIONS: The maps allow a quick appreciation of groups of neighbouring municipalities in different departments (1° political division) and regions of the country affected by those viruses, which helps consider the expansion of the disease associated with mobility and transport of equines between other municipalities, also including international borders, such as is the case with Venezuela. In that country, especially for EEV, municipalities in the department of Cesar are bordering and at risk for that arboviral infection. there is a high risk of equine encephalitis outbreaks, especially for VEE. This poses a risk also, for municipalities in the department of Cesar, bordering with Venezuela.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine , Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine , Horses , Animals , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Horses/virology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290490

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae with a negative-sense, single-stranded segmented RNA genome. They infect a wide range of animals, including humans. From 1918 to 2009, there were four influenza pandemics, which caused millions of casualties. Frequent spillover of animal influenza viruses to humans with or without intermediate hosts poses a serious zoonotic and pandemic threat. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic overshadowed the high risk raised by animal influenza viruses, but highlighted the role of wildlife as a reservoir for pandemic viruses. In this review, we summarize the occurrence of animal influenza virus in humans and describe potential mixing vessel or intermediate hosts for zoonotic influenza viruses. While several animal influenza viruses possess a high zoonotic risk (e.g., avian and swine influenza viruses), others are of low to negligible zoonotic potential (e.g., equine, canine, bat and bovine influenza viruses). Transmission can occur directly from animals, particularly poultry and swine, to humans or through reassortant viruses in "mixing vessel" hosts. To date, there are less than 3000 confirmed human infections with avian-origin viruses and less than 7000 subclinical infections documented. Likewise, only a few hundreds of confirmed human cases caused by swine influenza viruses have been reported. Pigs are the historic mixing vessel host for the generation of zoonotic influenza viruses due to the expression of both avian-type and human-type receptors. Nevertheless, there are a number of hosts which carry both types of receptors and can act as a potential mixing vessel host. High vigilance is warranted to prevent the next pandemic caused by animal influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Cattle , Horses , Humans , Swine , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza A virus/genetics , Birds
5.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 39(1): 55-71, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277137

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In equids, equine coronavirus has been associated with diarrhea in foals and lethargy, fever, anorexia, and occasional gastrointestinal signs in adult horses. Although horses seem to be susceptible to the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on the high homology to the ACE-2 receptor, they seem to be incidental hosts because of occasional SARS-CoV-2 spillover from humans. However, until more clinical and seroepidemiological data are available, it remains important to monitor equids for possible transmission from humans with clinical or asymptomatic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , COVID-19 , Horse Diseases , Horses , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Mammals
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249413

ABSTRACT

Myeloperoxidase is an enzyme released by neutrophils when neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed. Besides myeloperoxidase activity against pathogens, it was also linked to many diseases, including inflammatory and fibrotic ones. Endometrosis is a fibrotic disease of the mare endometrium, with a large impact on their fertility, where myeloperoxidase was shown to induce fibrosis. Noscapine is an alkaloid with a low toxicity, that has been studied as an anti-cancer drug, and more recently as an anti-fibrotic molecule. This work aims to evaluate noscapine inhibition of collagen type 1 (COL1) induced by myeloperoxidase in equine endometrial explants from follicular and mid-luteal phases, at 24 and 48 h of treatment. The transcription of collagen type 1 alpha 2 chain (COL1A2), and COL1 protein relative abundance were evaluated by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The treatment with myeloperoxidase increased COL1A2 mRNA transcription and COL1 protein, whereas noscapine was able to reduce this effect with respect to COL1A2 mRNA transcription, in a time/estrous cycle phase-dependent manner (in explants from the follicular phase, at 24 h of treatment). Our study indicates that noscapine is a promising drug to be considered as an anti-fibrotic molecule to prevent endometrosis development, making noscapine a strong candidate to be applied in future endometrosis therapies.


Subject(s)
Fibrosis , Noscapine , Peroxidase , Animals , Female , Collagen/metabolism , Endometrium/drug effects , Endometrium/metabolism , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/veterinary , Horses/metabolism , Noscapine/pharmacology , Noscapine/therapeutic use , Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Peroxidase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284535

ABSTRACT

Enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) shows increased activity in some brain regions after progression of Alzheimer's disease and is therefore one of the therapeutic targets for symptomatic treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder. The organoruthenium(II) complex [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(II)(1-hydroxy-3-methoxypyridine-2(1H)-thionato)pta]PF6 (C1) was designed based on the results of our previous structure-activity studies. Inhibitory activity toward cholinesterase enzymes shows that this complex selectively, competitively, and reversibly inhibits horse serum BChE (hsBChE) with an IC50 value of 2.88 µM. When tested at supra-pharmacological concentrations (30, 60, 90, and 120 µM), C1 had no significant effect on the maximal amplitude of nerve-evoked and directly elicited single-twitch and tetanic contractions. At the highest tested concentration (120 µM), C1 had no effect on resting membrane potential, but significantly decreased the amplitude of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP) without reducing their frequency. The same concentration of C1 had no effect on the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPP), however it shortened the half-decay time of MEPPs and EPPs. The decrease in the amplitude of MEPPs and shortening of the half-decay time of MEPPs and EPPs suggest a possible weak inhibitory effect on muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). These combined results show that, when applied at supra-pharmacological concentrations up to 120 µM, C1 does not importantly affect the physiology of neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle contraction.


Subject(s)
Butyrylcholinesterase , Neuromuscular Junction , Animals , Horses , Neuromuscular Junction/physiology , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Membrane Potentials , Muscle Contraction
8.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284048

ABSTRACT

The novel COVID-19 virus caused a global pandemic disrupting lives, industries, and economies. The result was an impact on prices due to challenges with production and supply chain distribution. This study investigates the financial strain COVID-19 had on equine owners and leasers, what the market for equine care would bear if costs for care increased, and what factors contribute to their willingness to pay (WTP) for increasing cost of equine care. An online survey was distributed for 4 weeks to adult U.S. residents. Respondents reported their involvement in the equine industry, financial response to COVID-19, and responses to a double-bound dichotomous choice question on their WTP for care given a randomized increase (1%-20%) in their current cost (n = 506). Data were analyzed using interval regression models where a = 0.05 (Stata15). Respondents were separated into three groups: owner keeping their horse at their residence, owner boarding their equids, and leaser. Boarders reported mean monthly payments of 23.33 ± 90.37 USD (n = 15) for free board, 236.47 ± 151.92 USD, (n = 75) for partial board, and 514.75 ± 291.71 USD (n = 181) for full board. Results show all owners, leaser, and boarders have different WTP values which range from 18.5% to 26.2% increase in current care costs which extends beyond the presented range due to many respondents responding "yes" to both WTP questions (71% of owners, 6% of boarders, 65% of leasers). Equine owners, with on farm equids from the southern US were WTP 11% less than from other regions (P = 0.015). The current boarding fees from owners that board their equids lowered their WTP by 0.01% (P = 0.029) for each additional dollar paid, whereas current care costs were not a significant factor for other owners (P = 0.370) or leasers (P = 0.395). Those that had a full lease for their equids, housed on farm or at a facility, were WTP 15% higher (P = 0.036) than those that had a partial or no lease. In comparison, boarding status (full, partial, or no boarding) did not significantly (P = 0.51) impact boarder's WTP. Age of respondent and annual household income heterogeneously affected WTP across all groups. These results indicate the market for equine care can bear the increases in cost associated with financial distress related to COVID-19, and may aid equine owners, caregivers, and associated individuals in making informed decisions regarding essential care. Results from this study should be taken in context of the global pandemic and the restrictions in place, or lack thereof, at the time the survey was administered.


COVID-19 had a substantial impact on markets and livelihoods. Jobs were affected and the cost of goods increased as products were in short supply, driving up prices for essential and nonessential equine care for owners, caretakers, and other associated individuals. A survey was used to better understand the financial impacts COVID-19 had on equine owners and leasers to determine what the market for equine care would bear if costs for care were to increase. Data collected through an online survey of U.S. residents involved in the equine industry (n = 762) were statistically analyzed. We found that equine owners and leasers were willing to pay at least 14% more for equine care as a result of the increases in cost associated with financial distress related to COVID-19. This accounts for differences across age, sex, number of horses owned or leased, and equine characteristics. This may indicate budget reallocation to maintain continuous equine care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Horse Diseases , Horses , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Surveys and Questionnaires , Decision Making
9.
J Virol Methods ; 315: 114694, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279621

ABSTRACT

The immunotherapy agents derived from horses are biological products that allow the neutralization of clinically relevant immunogens, such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19, or the neutralization of toxins present in the venoms of snakes, spiders, and other poisonous animals. Due to their importance, detecting adventitious viruses in equine hyperimmune serum (raw material in industrial processes) is a critical step to support the safety of products for human use, and, in consequence, it is a requirement for commercialization and distribution. The safety of the finished product is based on three complementary approaches: (i) testing of the source material (horse serum) donations, (ii) release of the starting material (i.e., pool of horse serum) based on non-reactivity for a range of human infectious or pathogenic viruses, and (iii) validate (selected) steps of the manufacturing process for their capacity to inactivate and/or remove a wide range of viruses potentially present in the starting material. Orthogonal approaches to reduce viral contamination risk include implementing a reliable and validated system for detecting adventitious viruses. Thus, it is necessary to establish trustworthy and sufficiently sensitive analytical methods to evidence the lack of viruses to assure the safety of the therapeutic product. Therefore, in this research, an analytical method based on end-point Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was developed, implemented, and validated in hyperimmune equine serum samples to detect Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Rabies virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine , Viruses , West Nile virus , Animals , Horses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/genetics
10.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1066730, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268658

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants stresses the continued need for broad-spectrum therapeutic antibodies. Several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies or cocktails have been introduced for clinical use. However, unremitting emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants showed reduced neutralizing efficacy by vaccine induced polyclonal antibodies or therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. In our study, polyclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments with strong affinity produced after equine immunization with RBD proteins produced strong affinity. Notably, specific equine IgG and F(ab')2 have broad and high neutralizing activity against parental virus, all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1,7, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, P.1, B.1.1.529 and BA.2, and all variants of interest (VOIs) including B.1.429, P.2, B.1.525, P.3, B.1.526, B.1.617.1, C.37 and B.1.621. Although some variants weaken the neutralizing ability of equine IgG and F(ab')2 fragments, they still exhibited superior neutralization ability against mutants compared to some reported monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, we tested the pre-exposure and post-exposure protective efficacy of the equine immunoglobulin IgG and F(ab')2 fragments in lethal mouse and susceptible golden hamster models. Equine immunoglobulin IgG and F(ab')2 fragments effectively neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, fully protected BALB/c mice from the lethal challenge, and reduced golden hamster's lung pathological change. Therefore, equine pAbs are an adequate, broad coverage, affordable and scalable potential clinical immunotherapy for COVID-19, particularly for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs or VOIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Horses , Humans , Mice , Rodentia , Mesocricetus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Immunoglobulin G , Mice, Inbred BALB C
11.
Am J Vet Res ; 84(3)2023 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286428

ABSTRACT

Nearly all of the American horses exported to Mexico and Canada are slaughtered for human consumption, and their meat is either exported around the world or consumed locally. Previous work showed that 18 Thoroughbred racehorses purchased by rescues that would have otherwise been sold for export for the sole purpose of slaughter to produce meat for human consumption were administered phenylbutazone. We report the number of American horses exported to Canada and Mexico from 2016 to 2021, the presence of contaminated horsemeat from Canadian slaughterhouses, and the human use and idiosyncratic effects of veterinary phenylbutazone and side effects of clenbuterol, 2 of the drugs that were found in contaminated Canadian horsemeat. The number of live American horses exported to Canada declined precipitously from 2016 to 2017, and a second decline occurred in 2020. All food-producing animals are under strict regulatory control to prevent animals administered banned drugs to enter the food chain. A major principle of this program is zero tolerance for banned drugs and testing for compliance. No regulatory process is in place to remove horses administered banned drugs such as phenylbutazone. The efficacy lasts for more than 24 hours as a result of the irreversible binding to cyclooxygenase, slow elimination, and long elimination half-life of its metabolite oxyphenbutazone. High or frequent doses of phenylbutazone result in disproportionately increased plasma concentrations, which result in the residual presence in tissues. It is this fact that underlies the ban of this drug in food-producing animals. No human clinical surveillance program is in place to monitor individuals on the possible short- and long-term consequences of banned drugs in contaminated horsemeat. If the United States is unable to put in place a regulatory program to remove horses administered banned drugs as exists for all food-producing animals, the exportation of American horses across both borders for the sole purpose of slaughter for human consumption must end.


Subject(s)
Phenylbutazone , Public Health , Horses , Humans , Animals , United States , Canada , Oxyphenbutazone
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 245: 114022, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, during the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, the hotspot of COVID-19 overlapped with the country's main livestock area, while in subsequent phases this distinct spatial pattern disappeared. Previous studies show that living near livestock farms influence human respiratory health and immunological responses. This study aimed to explore whether proximity to livestock was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The study population was the population of the Netherlands excluding the very strongly urbanised areas and border areas, on January 1, 2019 (12, 628, 244 individuals). The cases are the individuals reported with a laboratory-confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 test with onset before January 1, 2022 (2, 223, 692 individuals). For each individual, we calculated distance to nearest livestock farm (cattle, goat, sheep, pig, poultry, horse, rabbit, mink). The associations between residential (6-digit postal-code) distance to the nearest livestock farm and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was studied with multilevel logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for individuals' age categories, the social status of the postal code area, particulate matter (PM10)- and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-concentrations. We analysed data for the entire period and population as well as separately for eight time periods (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and Oct-Dec in 2020 and 2021), four geographic areas of the Netherlands (north, east, west and south), and for five age categories (0-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64 and > 65 years). RESULTS: Over the period 2020-2021, individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status was associated with living closer to livestock farms. This association increased from an Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.02) for patients living at a distance of 751-1000 m to a farm to an OR of 1.04 (95% CI 1.04-1.04), 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.07) and 1.11 (95% CI 1.10-1.12) for patients living in the more proximate 501-750 m, 251-500m and 0-250 m zones around farms, all relative to patients living further than 1000 m around farms. This association was observed in three out of four quarters of the year in both 2020 and 2021, and in all studied geographic areas and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study with individual SARS-CoV-2 notification data and high-resolution spatial data associations were found between living near livestock farms and individuals' SARS-CoV-2 status in the Netherlands. Verification of the results in other countries is warranted, as well as investigations into possible underlying exposures and mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Livestock , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , Farms , Horses , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Swine
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245819

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused extreme deviations from everyday life. The aim of this study was to investigate how these deviations affected adolescents' sense of coherence and their level of aggression, and whether this was influenced by their relationship with animals, especially horses. In two random samples of students from vocational schools in Hungary, taken in June 2018 and June 2020 (n1 = 525, n2 = 412), separate groups were drawn from those who had regularly engaged in equine-assisted activities (ES) and those who had not (OS) before the pandemic. Data were collected using an anonymous, paper-based questionnaire, and during the pandemic an online version of the Sense of Coherence (SOC13) and Bryant-Smith (B12) scales. During the pandemic, boys' sense of coherence weakened and their aggressiveness increased. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, regardless of gender and age group, increased time spent using the internet (p < 0.001), a lack of classmates (p = 0.017), reduced time spent outdoors (p = 0.026) and reduced physical activity (p < 0.038) during the pandemic significantly increased the tendency for aggressive behavior, whereas being with a horse or pet was beneficial (p < 0.001). The changes imposed by the curfew were rated as bad by 90% of the pupils, however, those with a strong sense of coherence felt less negatively about them. Schools should place a great emphasis on strengthening the students' sense of coherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sense of Coherence , Humans , Animals , Horses , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Aggression , Students
14.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240317

ABSTRACT

Within the viral genome, short stretches of homologous host pathogen sequences (SSHHPS) span the protease cleavage sites. To identify host proteins that may be cleaved during infection, we searched the human proteome for viral protease cleavage sites (~20 amino acids). We developed a sequence-to-symptom tool, automating the search and pairing process. We used the viral protein sequence, PHI-BLAST, and UniProt database for gene ontologies and disease relationships. We applied the tool to nine neuroinvasive viruses: Venezuelan and Eastern Equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, EEEV); severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, SARS-CoV-2); Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS); EV-71; Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV); West Nile (WNV); and Zika (ZIKV). A comparison of the hits identified a protein common to all nine viruses called ADGRA2 (GPR124). ADGRA2 was a predicted hit of the 3CL main protease and papain-like protease (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-2. ADGRA2 is an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor and a key endothelial regulator of brain-specific angiogenesis. It is a Wnt7A/Wnt7B specific coactivator of beta-catenin signaling and is essential for blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We show the cleavage of the predicted sequences in MYOM1, VWF by the SARS-CoV-2 PLpro; DNAH8 (dynein) by the MERS PLpro; ADGRA2 by the alphaviral VEEV nsP2 protease; and POT1 by the SARS-CoV-2 and MERS PLpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Horses , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Endopeptidases , Peptide Hydrolases
15.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 121: 104208, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229934

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of information on the number of horses shipped globally by air annually, the purpose of air travel and the routes of their journeys. This pilot study aimed to collect retrospective data on the international movements of horses by air from 2018 to 2021, describe their routes, and identify the possible effects of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Equine transport data was gathered from 7 of 15 international shipping companies (ISCs) and 5 of 8 airlines contacted by email. The seven ISCs performed a median of 10,401 horse movements annually, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand movements per company, most frequently in Europe (Western and Northern Europe), Middle East/Africa (Middle East, Southern Africa), Asia Pacific (Australia), and the Americas (North and South America). The five airlines performed a median of 10,656 horse movements annually, importing and exporting horses to and from Europe, North America, Australasia, and the Middle East. For all but one airline, the number of horse movements decreased in 2020. The number and journey characteristics of horses transported by air require further scientific studies focused on the epidemiological and welfare risks unique to this type of transport to enable the development and implementation of best practices and regulations based on objective evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Horse Diseases , Horses , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pilot Projects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Horse Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237157

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic antibodies-F(ab')2 obtained from hyperimmune equine plasma could treat emerging infectious diseases rapidly because of their high neutralization activity and high output. However, the small-sized F(ab')2 is rapidly eliminated by blood circulation. This study explored PEGylation strategies to maximize the half-life of equine anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific F(ab')2. Equine anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific F(ab')2 were combined with 10 KDa MAL-PEG-MAL in optimum conditions. Specifically, there were two strategies: Fab-PEG and Fab-PEG-Fab, F(ab')2 bind to a PEG or two PEG, respectively. A single ion exchange chromatography step accomplished the purification of the products. Finally, the affinity and neutralizing activity was evaluated by ELISA and pseudovirus neutralization assay, and ELISA detected the pharmacokinetic parameters. The results displayed that equine anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific F(ab')2 has high specificity. Furthermore, PEGylation F(ab')2-Fab-PEG-Fab had a longer half-life than specific F(ab')2. The serum half-life of Fab-PEG-Fab, Fab-PEG, and specific F(ab')2 were 71.41 h, 26.73 h, and 38.32 h, respectively. The half-life of Fab-PEG-Fab was approximately two times as long as the specific F(ab')2. Thus far, PEGylated F(ab')2 has been prepared with high safety, high specificity, and a longer half-life, which could be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Horses , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Half-Life , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
17.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143719

ABSTRACT

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the one of the most devastating diseases impacting the swine industry worldwide. Control and prevention methods rely on biosafety measures and vaccination. As an RNA virus with a high rate of mutation, vaccines are only partially effective against circulating and newly emerging strains. To reduce the burden of this disease, research on alternative control methods is needed. Here, we assess the in vitro antiviral effect of a novel platelet-rich plasma-derived biologic termed BIO-PLYTM (for the BIOactive fraction of Platelet-rich plasma LYsate) from both swine and equine origin. Our results show that BIO-PLYTM significantly reduces the amount of PRRSV viral load determined by RT-qPCR and the number of infectious viral particles measured by TCID50 in infected porcine alveolar and parenchymal macrophages. This study also showed limited toxicity of BIO-PLYTM in vitro and aspects of its immunomodulatory capacity evaluating the regulation of reactive oxygen species and cytokines production in infected cells. Finally, this study presents promising data on the effect of BIO-PLYTM on other RNA viruses such as human A influenza viruses and coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Humans , Swine , Animals , Horses , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Macrophages
18.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110275

ABSTRACT

While some companion animals have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, their role in the COVID-19 pandemic has remained poorly investigated. Equids are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 based on the similarity of the human ACE-2 receptor and reports of infection. Clinical disease and prevalence factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in equids have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and selected prevalence factors in 1186 equids presented for various conditions to a Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital over a two-year period. Blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using an ELISA targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Further, selected prevalence factors (season, age, breed, sex, presenting complaint) were retrieved from the medical records. No information was available on whether the horses had come into contact with COVID-19-positive individuals. Among the study animals, 42/1186 (3.5%) horses had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Amongst the prevalence factors investigated, only seasonality (spring) was associated with a greater frequency of seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2. Horses with medical and surgical complaints were more likely to test seropositive to SARS-CoV-2 compared to horses presented for routine health care procedures, suggesting more frequent and/or longer interactions with individuals with COVID-19. While horses can become infected with SARS-CoV-2 via the occasional spillover from COVID-19 individuals, clinical disease expression remains subclinical, making horses an unlikely contributor to the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , California , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Horses/virology , Hospitals, Teaching , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hospitals, Animal
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099525

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, triggering one of the most challenging pandemics in the human population. In light of the reporting of this virus in domestic and wild animals from several parts of the world, a systematic surveillance study was conceptualized to detect SARS-CoV-2 among species of veterinary importance. Nasal and/or rectal samples of 413 animals (dogs n= 195, cattle n = 64, horses n = 42, goats n = 41, buffaloes n = 39, sheep n = 19, cats n = 6, camels n = 6, and a monkey n = 1) were collected from different places in the Gujarat state of India. RNA was extracted from the samples and subjected to RT-qPCR-based quantification of the target sequences in viral nucleoprotein (N), spike (S), and ORF1ab genes. A total of 95 (23.79%) animals were found positive, comprised of n = 67 (34.35%) dogs, n= 15 (23.43%) cattle, and n = 13 (33.33%) buffaloes. Whole SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was done from one sample (ID-A4N, from a dog), where 32 mutations, including 29 single-nucleotide variations (SNV) and 2 deletions, were detected. Among them, nine mutations were located in the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein. The consequent changes in the amino acid sequence revealed T19R, G142D, E156-, F157-, A222V, L452R, T478K, D614G, and P681R mutations in the S protein and D63G, R203M, and D377Y in the N protein. The lineage assigned to this SARS-CoV-2 sequence is B.1.617.2. Thus, the present study highlights the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from human to animals and suggests being watchful for zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Horses , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Buffaloes , Pandemics , Mutation
20.
Open Vet J ; 12(5): 676-687, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090739

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause persistent epidemics and occasional human pandemics, leading to considerable economic losses. The ecology and epidemiology of IAV are very complex and the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges in the healthcare. IAV are characterized by genetic and antigenic variability resulting from a combination of high mutation rates and a segmented genome that provides the ability to rapidly change and adapt to new hosts. In this context, available scientific evidence is of great importance for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses. The present review summarizes original research papers and IAV infections reported in dogs all over the world. Reports of interspecies transmission of equine influenza viruses H3N2 from birds to dogs, as well as double and triple reassortant strains resulting from reassortment of avian, human, and canine strains have amplified the genetic variety of canine influenza viruses. A total of 146 articles were deemed acceptable by PubMed and the Google Scholar database and were therefore included in this review. The largest number of research articles (n = 68) were published in Asia, followed by the Americas (n = 44), Europe (n = 31), Africa (n = 2), and Australia (n = 1). Publications are conventionally divided into three categories. The first category (largest group) included modern articles published from 2011 to the present (n = 93). The second group consisted of publications from 2000 to 2010 (n = 46). Single papers of 1919, 1931, 1963, 1972, 1975, and 1992 were also used, which was necessary to emphasize the history of the study of the ecology and evolution of the IAV circulating among various mammalian species. The largest number of publications occurred in 2010 (n = 18) and 2015 (n = 11), which is associated with IAV outbreaks observed at that time in the dog population in America, Europe, and Asia. In general, these findings raise concerns that dogs may mediate the adaptation of IAVs to zoonotic transmission and therefore serve as alternative hosts for genetic reassortment of these viruses. The global concern and significant threat to public health from the present coronavirus diseases 2019 pandemic confirms the necessity for active surveillance of zoonotic viral diseases with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Horse Diseases , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Animals , Dogs , Horses , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Zoonoses , Disease Outbreaks , Birds , Mammals , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
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