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2.
Rev Invest Clin ; 74(5): 268-275, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100851

ABSTRACT

Background: Prognostic factors in previously healthy young patients with COVID-19 remained understudied. Objectives: The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with in-hospital death or need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in young (aged ≤ 65 years) and previously healthy patients with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study that included patients admitted with COVID-19. The primary outcome was in-hospital death/need for IMV. Secondary outcomes included need for IMV during follow-up, days on IMV, length of stay (LOS), hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP), and pulmonary embolism (PE). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: Among 92 patients, primary outcome occurred in 16 (17%), death in 12 (13%), need for IMV in 16 (17%), HAP/VAP in 7 (8%), and PE in 2 (2%). Median LOS and IMV duration were 7 and 12 days, respectively. Independent associations were found between the primary outcome and male sex (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.1, 95%CI 1.1-46.0, p < 0.05), D-dimer levels > 1000ng/mL (aOR 9.0, 95%CI 1.6-49.1, p < 0.05), and RT-PCR Ct-value ≤ 24 on initial swab samples (aOR 14.3, 95%CI 2.0-101.5, p < 0.01). Conclusions: In young and non-comorbid COVID-19 patients, male sex, higher levels of D-dimer, and low SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Ct-value on an initial nasopharyngeal swab were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality or need for IMV. (Rev Invest Clin. 2022;74(5):268-75).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospital Mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial
3.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 29(11): 1571-1587, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100246

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Declines in cardiovascular diseases during the first surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. With the repeating surges of COVID-19, we aim to investigate the medium-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the practice of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis of rates of PCIs, utilizing administrative data in Japan. Changes in the proportion of severe cases and in-hospital mortality since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were investigated using interrupted time series (ITS) analyses. RESULTS: From April 2018 to February 2021, 38,696 and 28,585 cases of elective and emergency PCIs, respectively, were identified. The rates of PCIs decreased during the first and third COVID-19 surges. The ratios of monthly rates of elective PCIs to that in the corresponding months during the previous 2 years were 50.3% in May 2020 and 76.1% in January 2021. The decrease in rates of emergency PCIs was smaller than that of elective PCIs. The ITS analyses did not identify any significant changes in the proportion of severe cases and in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the impacts of COVID-19 on PCIs were larger in the first surge than in the subsequent and larger in the elective than in the emergency; this continued over the medium-term. During the COVID-19 pandemic, in-hospital mortality of cases undertaking emergency PCIs did not change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality
4.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(2): 445-455, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular diseases. ENDOCARDITIS-TR study aims to evaluate the compliance of the diagnostic and therapeutic methods being used in Turkey with current guidelines. METHODS: The ENDOCARDITIS-TR trial is a multicentre, prospective, observational study consisting of patients admitted to tertiary centres with a definite diagnose of IE. In addition to the demographic, clinical, microbiological, and echocardiographic findings of the patients, adverse events, indications for surgery, and in-hospital mortality were recorded during a 2-year time interval. RESULTS: A total of 208 IE patients from 7 tertiary centres in Turkey were enrolled in the study. The study population included 125 (60.1%) native valve IE (NVE), 65 (31.3%) prosthetic IE (PVIE), and 18 (8.7%) intracardiac device-related IE (CDRIE). One hundred thirty-five patients (64.9%) were culture positive, and the most frequent pathogenic agent was methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (18.3%). Among 155 (74.5%) patients with an indication for surgery, only 87 (56.1%) patients underwent surgery. The all-cause mortality rate was 29.3% in-hospital follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that absence of surgery when indicated (HR: 3.29 95% CI: 0.93-11.64 p = 0.05), albumin level at admission (HR: 0.46 95% CI: 0.29-0.73 P < 0.01), abscess formation (HR: 2.11 95% CI: 1.01-4.38 p = 0.04) and systemic embolism (HR: 1.78 95% CI: 1.05-3.02 p = 0.03) were ascertained independent predictors of in-hospital all-cause mortality. DISCUSSION: The short-term results of the ENDOCARDITIS-TR trial showed the high frequency of staphylococcal IE, relatively high in-hospital mortality rates, shortage of surgical treatment despite guideline-based surgical indications and low usage of novel imaging techniques. The results of this study will provide a better insight to physicians in respect to their adherence to clinical practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Albumins , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Methicillin , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 66, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for validated clinical risk scores to identify patients at risk of severe disease and to guide decision-making during the covid-19 pandemic. The National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) is widely used in emergency medicine, but so far, no studies have evaluated its use in patients with covid-19. We aimed to study the performance of NEWS2 and compare commonly used clinical risk stratification tools at admission to predict risk of severe disease and in-hospital mortality in patients with covid-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in a public non-university general hospital in the Oslo area, Norway, including a cohort of all 66 patients hospitalised with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from the start of the pandemic; 13 who died during hospital stay and 53 who were discharged alive. Data were collected consecutively from March 9th to April 27th 2020. The main outcome was the ability of the NEWS2 score and other clinical risk scores at emergency department admission to predict severe disease and in-hospital mortality in covid-19 patients. We calculated sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NEWS2 scores ≥5 and ≥ 6, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score ≥ 2, ≥2 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and CRB-65 score ≥ 2. Areas under the curve (AUCs) for the clinical risk scores were compared using DeLong's test. RESULTS: In total, 66 patients (mean age 67.9 years) were included. Of these, 23% developed severe disease. In-hospital mortality was 20%. Tachypnoea, hypoxemia and confusion at admission were more common in patients developing severe disease. A NEWS2 score ≥ 6 at admission predicted severe disease with 80.0% sensitivity and 84.3% specificity (Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.822, 95% CI 0.690-0.953). NEWS2 was superior to qSOFA score ≥ 2 (AUC 0.624, 95% CI 0.446-0.810, p < 0.05) and other clinical risk scores for this purpose. CONCLUSION: NEWS2 score at hospital admission predicted severe disease and in-hospital mortality, and was superior to other widely used clinical risk scores in patients with covid-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Early Warning Score , Hospital Mortality , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 813, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) is the largest health care provider in Mexico, covering about 48% of the Mexican population. In this report, we describe the epidemiological patterns related to confirmed cases, hospitalizations, intubations, and in-hospital mortality due to COVID-19 and associated factors, during five epidemic waves recorded in the IMSS surveillance system. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed cases from the Online Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINOLAVE) from March 29th, 2020, to August 27th, 2022. We constructed weekly epidemic curves describing temporal patterns of confirmed cases and hospitalizations by age, gender, and wave. We also estimated hospitalization, intubation, and hospital case fatality rates. The mean days of in-hospital stay and hospital admission delay were calculated across five pandemic waves. Logistic regression models were employed to assess the association between demographic factors, comorbidities, wave, and vaccination and the risk of severe disease and in-hospital death. RESULTS: A total of 3,396,375 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were recorded across the five waves. The introduction of rapid antigen testing at the end of 2020 increased detection and modified epidemiological estimates. Overall, 11% (95% CI 10.9, 11.1) of confirmed cases were hospitalized, 20.6% (95% CI 20.5, 20.7) of the hospitalized cases were intubated, and the hospital case fatality rate was 45.1% (95% CI 44.9, 45.3). The mean in-hospital stay was 9.11 days, and patients were admitted on average 5.07 days after symptoms onset. The most recent waves dominated by the Omicron variant had the highest incidence. Hospitalization, intubation, and mean hospitalization days decreased during subsequent waves. The in-hospital case fatality rate fluctuated across waves, reaching its highest value during the second wave in winter 2020. A notable decrease in hospitalization was observed primarily among individuals ≥ 60 years. The risk of severe disease and death was positively associated with comorbidities, age, and male gender; and declined with later waves and vaccination status. CONCLUSION: During the five pandemic waves, we observed an increase in the number of cases and a reduction in severity metrics. During the first three waves, the high in-hospital fatality rate was associated with hospitalization practices for critical patients with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospital Mortality , Mexico/epidemiology , Hospitalization
7.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221131802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate in-hospital mortality rates in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) according to enoxaparin and heparin use. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 962 patients admitted to two hospitals in Kuwait with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Cumulative all-cause mortality rate was the primary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients (males, 196 [64.9%]; mean age, 57.2 ± 14.6 years; mean body mass index, 29.8 ± 6.5 kg/m2) received anticoagulation therapy. Patients receiving anticoagulation treatment tended to have pneumonia (n = 275 [91.1%]) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 106 [35.1%]), and high D-dimer levels (median [interquartile range]: 608 [523;707] ng/mL). The mortality rate in this group was high (n = 63 [20.9%]). Multivariable logistic regression, the Cox proportional hazards, and Kaplan-Meier models revealed that the use of therapeutic anticoagulation agents affected the risk of all-cause cumulative mortality. CONCLUSION: Age, hypertension, pneumonia, therapeutic anticoagulation, and methylprednisolone use were found to be strong predictors of in-hospital mortality. In elderly hypertensive COVID-19 patients on therapeutic anticoagulation were found to have 2.3 times higher risk of in-hospital mortality. All cause in-hospital mortality rate in the therapeutic anticoagulation group was up to 21%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Heparin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Anticoagulants , Methylprednisolone
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17508, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077109

ABSTRACT

Since January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has severely affected hospital systems worldwide. In Europe, the first 3 epidemic waves (periods) have been the most severe in terms of number of infected and hospitalized patients. There are several descriptions of the demographic and clinical profiles of patients with COVID-19, but few studies of their hospital pathways. We used transition matrices, constructed from Markov chains, to illustrate the transition probabilities between different hospital wards for 90,834 patients between March 2020 and July 2021 managed in Paris area. We identified 3 epidemic periods (waves) during which the number of hospitalized patients was significantly high. Between the 3 periods, the main differences observed were: direct admission to ICU, from 14 to 18%, mortality from ICU, from 28 to 24%, length of stay (alive patients), from 9 to 7 days from CH and from 18 to 10 days from ICU. The proportion of patients transferred from CH to ICU remained stable. Understanding hospital pathways of patients is crucial to better monitor and anticipate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17313, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077092

ABSTRACT

We investigated the association between a wide range of comorbidities and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality and assessed the influence of multi morbidity on the risk of COVID-19-related death using a large, regional cohort of 6036 hospitalized patients. This retrospective cohort study was conducted using Patient Administration System Admissions and Discharges data. The International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10) diagnosis codes were used to identify common comorbidities and the outcome measure. Individuals with lymphoma (odds ratio [OR], 2.78;95% CI,1.64-4.74), metastatic cancer (OR, 2.17; 95% CI,1.25-3.77), solid tumour without metastasis (OR, 1.67; 95% CI,1.16-2.41), liver disease (OR: 2.50, 95% CI,1.53-4.07), congestive heart failure (OR, 1.69; 95% CI,1.32-2.15), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.43; 95% CI,1.18-1.72), obesity (OR, 5.28; 95% CI,2.92-9.52), renal disease (OR, 1.81; 95% CI,1.51-2.19), and dementia (OR, 1.44; 95% CI,1.17-1.76) were at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality. Asthma was associated with a lower risk of death compared to non-asthma controls (OR, 0.60; 95% CI,0.42-0.86). Individuals with two (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.47-2.20; P < 0.001), and three or more comorbidities (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.43-2.27; P < 0.001) were at increasingly higher risk of death when compared to those with no underlying conditions. Furthermore, multi morbidity patterns were analysed by identifying clusters of conditions in hospitalised COVID-19 patients using k-mode clustering, an unsupervised machine learning technique. Six patient clusters were identified, with recognisable co-occurrences of COVID-19 with different combinations of diseases, namely, cardiovascular (100%) and renal (15.6%) diseases in patient Cluster 1; mental and neurological disorders (100%) with metabolic and endocrine diseases (19.3%) in patient Cluster 2; respiratory (100%) and cardiovascular (15.0%) diseases in patient Cluster 3, cancer (5.9%) with genitourinary (9.0%) as well as metabolic and endocrine diseases (9.6%) in patient Cluster 4; metabolic and endocrine diseases (100%) and cardiovascular diseases (69.1%) in patient Cluster 5; mental and neurological disorders (100%) with cardiovascular diseases (100%) in patient Cluster 6. The highest mortality of 29.4% was reported in Cluster 6.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Neoplasms , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Multimorbidity , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Preexisting Condition Coverage , Retrospective Studies
10.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 16(4): 228-237, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073693

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As a multisystem illness, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage different organs. This study investigated the effect of electrolyte imbalance (EI), with or without concomitant renal dysfunction, on the prognosis of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: We evaluated 499 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, without a history of chronic kidney disease. The patients' demographic data, laboratory values, and outcomes were retrospectively collected from the hospital information system. Serumelectrolytes including sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus abnormalities were analyzed on admission and during the hospitalization period. The outcomes of this study were the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after the first week of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rate. Multivariate analyses were carried out to obtain the independent risk of each EI on mortality, by adjusting for age, gender, and AKI occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 499 COVID-19 patients (60.9% male), AKI occurred in 168 (33.7%) and mortality in 92 (18.4%) cases. Hypocalcemia (38%) and hyponatremia (22.6%) were the most prevalent EIs, and all EIs were more common in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. Hyponatremia (Adjusted Odds ratio [AOR] = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.30 to 4.18), hypernatremia (AOR = 8.52, 95% CI: 1.95 to 37.32), and hyperkalemia (AOR = 4.63, 95% CI: 1.65 to 13) on admission were associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, hyponatremia (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.28 to 7.15) and hyperphosphatemia (AOR = 5.12, 95% CI: 1.24 to 21.09) on admission were associated with late AKI occurrence. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the role of hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia in poor prognosis of COVID-19. According to the independent effect of EI on late AKI and mortality, we recommend physicians to raise awareness to closely monitor and correct EI during hospitalization.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6904.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperkalemia , Hypernatremia , Hyperphosphatemia , Hyponatremia , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Electrolytes , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071430

ABSTRACT

During the first lockdown in Israel, citizens were instructed to visit community clinics only for urgent cases. However, they were not informed that emergency departments (EDs) were safe. Reports from the National Ambulance Services showed a 22% increase in at-home deaths during the lockdown. Perhaps, the reason is because some critically ill patients postponed referrals and came "at the last minute". After the first lockdown, the Ministry of Health (MOH) declared that hospital EDs were safe. The objective of the study was to examine the rates of admission from EDs to hospital wards, and non-COVID-19 in-hospital deaths during the first lockdown in Israel, compared with the second and third lockdowns. From the business intelligence software of the Rambam Medical Center in Israel, we collected data about the rates of admission to the ED, the non-COVID-19 in-hospital deaths during the three lockdowns, during the same periods in the previous three years, and the main five causes of non-COVID-19 deaths. Data comparison was done using multiple chi-square tests. ED admission numbers were significantly higher during the first lockdown than during the second (χ2 (1, n = 36,245) = 24.774, p = 0.00001) and third lockdowns (χ2 (1, n = 36,547) = 8.7808, p = 0.0030). We found a significantly higher number of non-COVID-19 in-hospital deaths vs. discharges during the first lockdown than in the second and third lockdowns (χ2 (2, n = 26,268) = 7.794, p = 0.0203) The number of deaths due to respiratory diseases was significantly higher during the first lockdown than in the second lockdown (χ2 (1, n = 572) = 8.8185, p = 0.0029) and in the third lockdown (χ2 (1, n = 624) = 9.0381, p = 0.0026), and deaths from infectious diseases were higher during the first lockdown than during both the second and third lockdowns (χ2 (1, n = 566) = 5.9479, p = 0.0147, and χ2 (1, n = 624) = 9.5978, p = 0.0019), respectively. The onset of CVA and CVD are abrupt, while respiratory and infectious diseases may have an insidious pattern; this may have led patients to postpone referrals to hospitals to the "last minute" during the first lockdown, perhaps due to fears of contracting COVID-19, and as a result of vague instructions. Citizens and policymakers must be made aware of this point during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Israel/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(9): 1297-1302, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065226

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index on in-hospital mortality in nondiabetic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with myocardial injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which included 218 nondiabetic COVID-19 patients who had myocardial injury. The TyG index was derived using the following equation: log [serum triglycerides (mg/dL) ×fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)/2]. RESULTS: Overall, 49 (22.4%) patients died during hospitalization. Patients who did not survive had a higher TyG index than survivors. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, it was found that the TyG index was independently associated with in-hospital death. A TyG index cutoff value greater than 4.97 was predicted in-hospital death in nondiabetic COVID-19 patients with myocardial damage, with 82% sensitivity and 66% specificity. A pairwise evaluation of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the TyG index (AUC: 0.786) had higher discriminatory performance than both triglyceride (AUC: 0.738) and fasting blood glucose (AUC: 0.660) in predicting in-hospital mortality among these patients. CONCLUSIONS: The TyG index might be used to identify high-risk nondiabetic COVID-19 patients with myocardial damage.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Glucose , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Triglycerides
13.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223303, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: we intend to demonstrate the clinical alterations and the postoperative evolution in patients with acute abdomen non-traumatic in conservative or surgical treatment during the pandemic compared to a similar period in the last year. METHOD: a single-center retrospective study, including patients who received clinical-surgical treatment at Hospital do Trabalhador diagnosed with acute abdomen between March and August 2020 and a similar period in 2019.Variables studied ranged from demographic data to indices of social isolation. RESULTS: 515 patients were included, 291 received treatment in a pre-pandemic period and 224 during. There was not statistical difference in relation to comorbidities (p=0.0685), time to diagnosis and seeking medical help. No statistical differences were observed in terms of days of hospitalization (p = 0.4738) and ICU need (p=0.2320). Regarding in-hospital deaths, there was statistical relevance in the age above 60 years (p=0.002) and there were more deaths during the pandemic period (p=0.032). However, when we analyze the factors associated with the number of days until diagnosis by a physician, there was no statistical difference. CONCLUSION: the analyzed data showed that the pandemic period and age over 60 years were the variables that increased the odds ratio for the in-hospital death outcome. However, the length of stay, days in intensive care unit and postoperative surgical complications showed no significant difference.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , COVID-19 , Abdomen, Acute/epidemiology , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274158, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065118

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 infections continue to cause hospital admissions around the world, there is a continued need to accurately assess those at highest risk of death to guide resource use and clinical management. The ISARIC 4C mortality score provides mortality risk prediction at admission to hospital based on demographic and physiological parameters. Here we evaluate dynamic use of the 4C score at different points following admission. Score components were extracted for 6,373 patients admitted to Barts Health NHS Trust hospitals between 1st August 2020 and 19th July 2021 and total score calculated every 48 hours for 28 days. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) statistics were used to evaluate discrimination of the score at admission and subsequent inpatient days. Patients who were still in hospital at day 6 were more likely to die if they had a higher score at day 6 than others also still in hospital who had the same score at admission. Discrimination of dynamic scoring in those still in hospital was superior with the area under the curve 0.71 (95% CI 0.69-0.74) at admission and 0.82 (0.80-0.85) by day 8. Clinically useful changes in the dynamic parts of the score are unlikely to be associated with subject-level measurements. Dynamic use of the ISARIC 4C score is likely to provide accurate and timely information on mortality risk during a patient's hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 667-673, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063070

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute surge events result in health capacity strain, which can result in deviations from normal care, activation of contingencies and decisions related to resource allocation. This review discusses the impact of health capacity strain on patient centered outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: This manuscript discusses the lack of validated metrics for ICU strain capacity and a need for understanding the complex interrelationships of strain with patient outcomes. Recent work through the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has shown that acute surge events are associated with significant increase in hospital mortality. Though causal data on the differential impact of surge actions and resource availability on patient outcomes remains limited the overall signal consistently highlights the link between ICU strain and critical care outcomes in both normal and surge conditions. SUMMARY: An understanding of ICU strain is fundamental to the appropriate clinical care for critically ill patients. Accounting for stain on outcomes in critically ill patients allows for minimization of variation in care and an ability of a given healthcare system to provide equitable, and quality care even in surge scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality
19.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 301, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if the impact of frailty on mortality differs between patients with viral pneumonitis due to COVID-19 or other causes. We aimed to determine if a difference exists between patients with and without COVID-19 pneumonitis. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study using the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database included patients aged ≥ 16 years admitted to 153 ICUs between 01/012020 and 12/31/2021 with admission diagnostic codes for viral pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The primary outcome was hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4620 patients were studied, and 3077 (66.6%) had COVID-19. The patients with COVID-19 were younger (median [IQR] 57.0 [44.7-68.3] vs. 66.1 [52.0-76.2]; p < 0.001) and less frail (median [IQR] CFS 3 [2-4] vs. 4 [3-5]; p < 0.001) than non-COVID-19 patients. The overall hospital mortality was similar between the patients with and without COVID-19 (14.7% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.82). Frailty alone as a predictor of mortality showed only moderate discrimination in differentiating survivors from those who died but was similar between patients with and without COVID-19 (AUROC 0.68 vs. 0.66; p = 0.42). Increasing frailty scores were associated with hospital mortality, after adjusting for Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death score and sex. However, the effect of frailty was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.19-1.41 vs. OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11-1.37). CONCLUSION: The presence of frailty was an independent risk factor for mortality. However, the impact of frailty on outcomes was similar in COVID-19 patients compared to other causes of viral pneumonitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Data Analysis , Frailty/complications , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(10): e008942, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) is perceived as a risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We sought to determine whether CVD is associated with in-hospital death and cardiovascular events in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This study used data from a multicenter cohort of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at 68 centers across the United States from March 1 to July 1, 2020. The primary exposure was CVD, defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or atrial fibrillation/flutter. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission defined as a troponin I or T level above the 99th percentile upper reference limit of normal was a secondary exposure. The primary outcome was 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular events (cardiac arrest, new-onset arrhythmias, new-onset heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, or stroke) within 14 days. RESULTS: Among 5133 patients (3231 male [62.9%]; mean age 61 years [SD, 15]), 1174 (22.9%) had preexisting CVD. A total of 1178 (34.6%) died, and 920 (17.9%) had a cardiovascular event. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, history of smoking, and comorbidities, preexisting CVD was associated with a 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.34) higher odds of death. No independent association was observed between preexisting CVD and cardiovascular events. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission was associated with higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.61-2.31]) and cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.24]), regardless of the presence of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: CVD risk factors, rather than CVD itself, were the major contributors to outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The occurrence of myocardial injury, regardless of CVD, and its association with outcomes suggests it is likely due to multiorgan injury related to acute inflammation rather than exacerbation of preexisting CVD. REGISTRATION: NCT04343898; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04343898.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Troponin I , Hospital Mortality , Risk Factors
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