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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little evidence exists on the differential health effects of COVID-19 on disadvantaged population groups. Here we characterise the differential risk of hospitalisation and death in São Paulo state, Brazil, and show how vulnerability to COVID-19 is shaped by socioeconomic inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using hospitalised severe acute respiratory infections notified from March to August 2020 in the Sistema de Monitoramento Inteligente de São Paulo database. We examined the risk of hospitalisation and death by race and socioeconomic status using multiple data sets for individual-level and spatiotemporal analyses. We explained these inequalities according to differences in daily mobility from mobile phone data, teleworking behaviour and comorbidities. RESULTS: Throughout the study period, patients living in the 40% poorest areas were more likely to die when compared with patients living in the 5% wealthiest areas (OR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.74) and were more likely to be hospitalised between April and July 2020 (OR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). Black and Pardo individuals were more likely to be hospitalised when compared with White individuals (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.46; OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.28, respectively), and were more likely to die (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19; 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.10, respectively) between April and July 2020. Once hospitalised, patients treated in public hospitals were more likely to die than patients in private hospitals (OR: 1.40%, 95% CI 1.34% to 1.46%). Black individuals and those with low education attainment were more likely to have one or more comorbidities, respectively (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.39; 1.36, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Low-income and Black and Pardo communities are more likely to die with COVID-19. This is associated with differential access to quality healthcare, ability to self-isolate and the higher prevalence of comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral , Poverty Areas , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1439-1450, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of ICU surge on mortality and to explore clinical and sociodemographic predictors of mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: NYC Health + Hospitals ICUs. PATIENTS: Adult ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted between March 24, and May 12, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hospitals reported surge levels daily. Uni- and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors impacting in-hospital mortality. Mortality in Hispanic patients was higher for high/very high surge compared with low/medium surge (69.6% vs 56.4%; p = 0.0011). Patients 65 years old and older had similar mortality across surge levels. Mortality decreased from high/very high surge to low/medium surge in, patients 18-44 years old and 45-64 (18-44 yr: 46.4% vs 27.3%; p = 0.0017 and 45-64 yr: 64.9% vs 53.2%; p = 0.002), and for medium, high, and very high poverty neighborhoods (medium: 69.5% vs 60.7%; p = 0.019 and high: 71.2% vs 59.7%; p = 0.0078 and very high: 66.6% vs 50.7%; p = 0.0003). In the multivariable model high surge (high/very high vs low/medium odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8), race/ethnicity (Black vs White odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0 and Asian vs White odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3; other vs White odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0-2.3), age (45-64 vs 18-44 odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.5 and 65-74 vs 18-44 odds ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-8.0 and 75+ vs 18-44 odds ratio, 6.8; 95% CI, 4.7-10.1), payer type (uninsured vs commercial/other odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; medicaid vs commercial/other odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), neighborhood poverty (medium vs low odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI, 1.0-2.4 and high vs low odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5), comorbidities (diabetes odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0 and asthma odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8 and heart disease odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.0-3.3), and interventions (mechanical ventilation odds ratio, 8.8; 95% CI, 6.1-12.9 and dialysis odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9-4.7) were significant predictors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted to ICUs with higher surge scores were at greater risk of death. Impact of surge levels on mortality varied across sociodemographic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256763, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact in the United States, particularly for Black populations, and has heavily burdened the healthcare system. Hospitals have created protocols to allocate limited resources, but there is concern that these protocols will exacerbate disparities. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is a tool often used in triage protocols. In these protocols, patients with higher SOFA scores are denied resources based on the assumption that they have worse clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess whether using SOFA score as a triage tool among COVID-positive patients would exacerbate racial disparities in clinical outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from a retrospective cohort of hospitalized COVID-positive patients in the Yale-New Haven Health System. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and peak overall/24-hour SOFA score, in-hospital mortality, and ICU admission. Other predictors of interest were age, sex, primary language, and insurance status. We used one-way ANOVA and chi-square tests to assess differences in SOFA score across racial/ethnic groups and linear and logistic regression to assess differences in clinical outcomes by sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Our final sample included 2,554 patients. Black patients had higher SOFA scores compared to patients of other races. However, Black patients did not have significantly greater in-hospital mortality or ICU admission compared to patients of other races. CONCLUSION: While Black patients in this sample of hospitalized COVID-positive patients had higher SOFA scores compared to patients of other races, this did not translate to higher in-hospital mortality or ICU admission. Results demonstrate that if SOFA score had been used to allocate care, Black COVID patients would have been denied care despite having similar clinical outcomes to white patients. Therefore, using SOFA score to allocate resources has the potential to exacerbate racial inequities by disproportionately denying care to Black patients and should not be used to determine access to care. Healthcare systems must develop and use COVID-19 triage protocols that prioritize equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Connecticut , Female , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Triage/methods , Young Adult
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021204, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352600

ABSTRACT

Background Limited information is available regarding in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in patients with COVID-19. Methods and Results We leveraged the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease (AHA COVID-19 CVD) Registry to conduct a cohort study of adults hospitalized for COVID-19. IHCA was defined as those with documentation of cardiac arrest requiring medication or electrical shock for resuscitation. Mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to identify independent predictors of IHCA and mortality while accounting for clustering at the hospital level. The study cohort included 8518 patients (6080 not in the intensive care unit [ICU]) with mean age of 61.5 years (SD 17.5). IHCA occurred in 509 (5.9%) patients overall with 375 (73.7%) in the ICU and 134 (26.3%) patients not in the ICU. The majority of patients at the time of ICHA were not in a shockable rhythm (76.5%). Independent predictors of IHCA included older age, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.4; P<0.001), and non-Hispanic Black race (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.1-1.9; P=0.004). Other predictors included oxygen use on admission, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on admission, and hypertension. Overall, 35 (6.9%) patients with IHCA survived to discharge, with 9.1% for ICU and 0.7% for non-ICU patients. Conclusions Older age, Black race, and Hispanic ethnicity are independent predictors of IHCA in patients with COVID-19. Although the incidence is much lower than in ICU patients, approximately one-quarter of IHCA events in patients with COVID-19 occur in non-ICU settings, with the latter having a substantially lower survival to discharge rate.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest/ethnology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Patient Admission , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/ethnology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Race Factors , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2346-2354, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular deaths increased during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. However, it is unclear whether diverse racial/ethnic populations have experienced a disproportionate rise in heart disease and cerebrovascular disease deaths. METHODS: We used the National Center for Health Statistics to identify heart disease and cerebrovascular disease deaths for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, and Hispanic individuals from March to August 2020 (pandemic period), as well as for the corresponding months in 2019 (historical control). We determined the age- and sex-standardized deaths per million by race/ethnicity for each year. We then fit a modified Poisson model with robust SEs to compare change in deaths by race/ethnicity for each condition in 2020 versus 2019. RESULTS: There were a total of 339 076 heart disease and 76 767 cerebrovascular disease deaths from March through August 2020, compared with 321 218 and 72 190 deaths during the same months in 2019. Heart disease deaths increased during the pandemic in 2020, compared with the corresponding period in 2019, for non-Hispanic White (age-sex standardized deaths per million, 1234.2 versus 1208.7; risk ratio for death [RR], 1.02 [95% CI, 1.02-1.03]), non-Hispanic Black (1783.7 versus 1503.8; RR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.17-1.20]), non-Hispanic Asian (685.7 versus 577.4; RR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.15-1.22]), and Hispanic (968.5 versus 820.4; RR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.16-1.20]) populations. Cerebrovascular disease deaths also increased for non-Hispanic White (268.7 versus 258.2; RR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.03-1.05]), non-Hispanic Black (430.7 versus 379.7; RR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.10-1.17]), non-Hispanic Asian (236.5 versus 207.4; RR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]), and Hispanic (264.4 versus 235.9; RR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.08-1.16]) populations. For both heart disease and cerebrovascular disease deaths, Black, Asian, and Hispanic populations experienced a larger relative increase in deaths than the non-Hispanic White population (interaction term, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, Black, Hispanic, and Asian populations experienced a disproportionate rise in deaths caused by heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting that these groups have been most impacted by the indirect effects of the pandemic. Public health and policy strategies are needed to mitigate the short- and long-term adverse effects of the pandemic on the cardiovascular health of diverse populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Heart Diseases/mortality , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/ethnology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/pathology , Female , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/ethnology , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
7.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2332-2342, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the United States. We aimed to identify racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the United States between January 17, 2020, and July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization alone. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. RESULTS: Among 7868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios for mortality were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median odds ratio across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for major adverse cardiovascular events. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Although in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity because of their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2112842, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274639

ABSTRACT

Importance: Black patients hospitalized with COVID-19 may have worse outcomes than White patients because of excess individual risk or because Black patients are disproportionately cared for in hospitals with worse outcomes for all. Objectives: To examine differences in COVID-19 hospital mortality rates between Black and White patients and to assess whether the mortality rates reflect differences in patient characteristics by race or by the hospitals to which Black and White patients are admitted. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assessed Medicare beneficiaries admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19 to 1188 US hospitals from January 1, 2020, through September 21, 2020. Exposure: Hospital admission for a diagnosis of COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary composite outcome was inpatient death or discharge to hospice within 30 days of admission. We estimated the association of patient-level characteristics (including age, sex, zip code-level income, comorbidities, admission from a nursing facility, and days since January 1, 2020) with differences in mortality or discharge to hospice among Black and White patients. To examine the association with the hospital itself, we adjusted for the specific hospitals to which patients were admitted. We used simulation modeling to estimate the mortality among Black patients had they instead been admitted to the hospitals where White patients were admitted. Results: Of the 44 217 Medicare beneficiaries included in the study, 24 281 (55%) were women; mean (SD) age was 76.3 (10.5) years; 33 459 participants (76%) were White, and 10 758 (24%) were Black. Overall, 2634 (8%) White patients and 1100 (10%) Black patients died as inpatients, and 1670 (5%) White patients and 350 (3%) Black patients were discharged to hospice within 30 days of hospitalization, for a total mortality-equivalent rate of 12.86% for White patients and 13.48% for Black patients. Black patients had similar odds of dying or being discharged to hospice (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.12) in an unadjusted comparison with White patients. After adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic patient characteristics, Black patients were more likely to die or be discharged to hospice (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19). This difference became indistinguishable when adjustment was made for the hospitals where care was delivered (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.10). In simulations, if Black patients in this sample were instead admitted to the same hospitals as White patients in the same distribution, their rate of mortality or discharge to hospice would decline from the observed rate of 13.48% to the simulated rate of 12.23% (95% CI for difference, 1.20%-1.30%). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that Black patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had higher rates of hospital mortality or discharge to hospice than White patients after adjustment for the personal characteristics of those patients. However, those differences were explained by differences in the hospitals to which Black and White patients were admitted.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospice Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Medicare , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2346-2354, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular deaths increased during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. However, it is unclear whether diverse racial/ethnic populations have experienced a disproportionate rise in heart disease and cerebrovascular disease deaths. METHODS: We used the National Center for Health Statistics to identify heart disease and cerebrovascular disease deaths for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, and Hispanic individuals from March to August 2020 (pandemic period), as well as for the corresponding months in 2019 (historical control). We determined the age- and sex-standardized deaths per million by race/ethnicity for each year. We then fit a modified Poisson model with robust SEs to compare change in deaths by race/ethnicity for each condition in 2020 versus 2019. RESULTS: There were a total of 339 076 heart disease and 76 767 cerebrovascular disease deaths from March through August 2020, compared with 321 218 and 72 190 deaths during the same months in 2019. Heart disease deaths increased during the pandemic in 2020, compared with the corresponding period in 2019, for non-Hispanic White (age-sex standardized deaths per million, 1234.2 versus 1208.7; risk ratio for death [RR], 1.02 [95% CI, 1.02-1.03]), non-Hispanic Black (1783.7 versus 1503.8; RR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.17-1.20]), non-Hispanic Asian (685.7 versus 577.4; RR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.15-1.22]), and Hispanic (968.5 versus 820.4; RR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.16-1.20]) populations. Cerebrovascular disease deaths also increased for non-Hispanic White (268.7 versus 258.2; RR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.03-1.05]), non-Hispanic Black (430.7 versus 379.7; RR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.10-1.17]), non-Hispanic Asian (236.5 versus 207.4; RR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]), and Hispanic (264.4 versus 235.9; RR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.08-1.16]) populations. For both heart disease and cerebrovascular disease deaths, Black, Asian, and Hispanic populations experienced a larger relative increase in deaths than the non-Hispanic White population (interaction term, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, Black, Hispanic, and Asian populations experienced a disproportionate rise in deaths caused by heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting that these groups have been most impacted by the indirect effects of the pandemic. Public health and policy strategies are needed to mitigate the short- and long-term adverse effects of the pandemic on the cardiovascular health of diverse populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Heart Diseases/mortality , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/ethnology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/pathology , Female , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/ethnology , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
10.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(4): e241-e249, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite wide use of severity scoring systems for case-mix determination and benchmarking in the intensive care unit (ICU), the possibility of scoring bias across ethnicities has not been examined. Guidelines on the use of illness severity scores to inform triage decisions for allocation of scarce resources, such as mechanical ventilation, during the current COVID-19 pandemic warrant examination for possible bias in these models. We investigated the performance of the severity scoring systems Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa (APACHE IVa), Oxford Acute Severity of Illness Score (OASIS), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) across four ethnicities in two large ICU databases to identify possible ethnicity-based bias. METHODS: Data from the electronic ICU Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD) and the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) database, built from patient episodes in the USA from 2014-15 and 2001-12, respectively, were analysed for score performance in Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White people after appropriate exclusions. Hospital mortality was the outcome of interest. Discrimination and calibration were determined for all three scoring systems in all four groups, using area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve for different ethnicities to assess discrimination, and standardised mortality ratio (SMR) or proxy measures to assess calibration. FINDINGS: We analysed 166 751 participants (122 919 eICU-CRD and 43 832 MIMIC-III). Although measurements of discrimination were significantly different among the groups (AUROC ranging from 0·86 to 0·89 [p=0·016] with APACHE IVa and from 0·75 to 0·77 [p=0·85] with OASIS), they did not display any discernible systematic patterns of bias. However, measurements of calibration indicated persistent, and in some cases statistically significant, patterns of difference between Hispanic people (SMR 0·73 with APACHE IVa and 0·64 with OASIS) and Black people (0·67 and 0·68) versus Asian people (0·77 and 0·95) and White people (0·76 and 0·81). Although calibrations were imperfect for all groups, the scores consistently showed a pattern of overpredicting mortality for Black people and Hispanic people. Similar results were seen using SOFA scores across the two databases. INTERPRETATION: The systematic differences in calibration across ethnicities suggest that illness severity scores reflect statistical bias in their predictions of mortality. FUNDING: There was no specific funding for this study.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Intensive Care Units , Racism , Risk Assessment/ethnology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 78, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicators, and assess efficacy of treatment interventions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of clinical features and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients admitted over a 52-day period at the height of the pandemic in the United States. This study was performed at an urban academic medical center in New York City, declared a COVID-only facility, serving a majority Black population. RESULTS: Of the 1103 consecutive patients who tested positive for COVID-19, 529 required hospitalization and were included in the study. 88% of patients were Black; and a majority (52%) were 61-80 years old with a mean body mass index in the "obese" range. 98% had one or more comorbidities. Hypertension was the most common (79%) pre-existing condition followed by diabetes mellitus (56%) and chronic kidney disease (17%). Patients with chronic kidney disease who received hemodialysis were found to have lower mortality, than those who did not receive it, suggesting benefit from hemodialysis Age > 60 years and coronary artery disease were independent predictors of mortality in multivariate analysis. Cox proportional hazards modeling for time to death demonstrated a significantly high ratio for COPD/Asthma, and favorable effects on outcomes for pre-admission ACE inhibitors and ARBs. CRP (180, 283 mg/L), LDH (551, 638 U/L), glucose (182, 163 mg/dL), procalcitonin (1.03, 1.68 ng/mL), and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (8.3:10.0) were predictive of mortality on admission and at 48-96 h. Of the 529 inpatients 48% died, and one third of them died within the first 3 days of admission. 159/529patients received invasive mechanical ventilation, of which 86% died and of the remaining 370 patients, 30% died. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients in our predominantly Black neighborhood had higher in-hospital mortality, likely due to higher prevalence of comorbidities. Early dialysis and pre-admission intake of ACE inhibitors/ARBs improved patient outcomes. Early escalation of care based on comorbidities and key laboratory indicators is critical for improving outcomes in African-American patients.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Public Health ; 192: 15-20, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted inequalities in access to healthcare systems, increasing racial disparities and worsening health outcomes in these populations. This study analysed the association between sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was conducted on quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed hospitalised adult patients with COVID-19 with a defined outcome (i.e. hospital discharge or death) in Brazil. Data were retrieved from the national surveillance system database (SIVEP-Gripe) between February 16 and August 8, 2020. METHODS: Clinical characteristics, sociodemographic variables, use of hospital resources and outcomes of hospitalised adult patients with COVID-19, stratified by self-reported race, were investigated. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The association between self-reported race and in-hospital mortality, after adjusting for clinical characteristics and comorbidities, was evaluated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, Brazil had 3,018,397 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 100,648 deaths. The study population included 228,196 COVID-19-positive adult in-hospital patients with a defined outcome; the median age was 61 years, 57% were men, 35% (79,914) self-reported as Black/Brown and 35.4% (80,853) self-reported as White. The total in-hospital mortality was 37% (85,171/228,196). Black/Brown patients showed higher in-hospital mortality than White patients (42% vs 37%, respectively), were admitted less frequently to the intensive care unit (ICU) (32% vs 36%, respectively) and used more invasive mechanical ventilation (21% vs 19%, respectively), especially outside the ICU (17% vs 11%, respectively). Black/Brown race was independently associated with high in-hospital mortality after adjusting for sex, age, level of education, region of residence and comorbidities (odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised Brazilian adults with COVID-19, Black/Brown patients showed higher in-hospital mortality, less frequently used hospital resources and had potentially more severe conditions than White patients. Racial disparities in health outcomes and access to health care highlight the need to actively implement strategies to reduce inequities caused by the wider health determinants, ultimately leading to a sustainable change in the health system.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
13.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2332-2342, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the United States. We aimed to identify racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the United States between January 17, 2020, and July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization alone. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. RESULTS: Among 7868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios for mortality were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median odds ratio across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for major adverse cardiovascular events. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Although in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity because of their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States
14.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(1): 57-65, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on clinical, laboratory, and radiographic characteristics and risk factors for in-hospital mortality of lung cancer patients with COVID-19 are scarce. Here, we aimed to characterize the early clinical features of lung cancer patients with COVID-19 and identify risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: All consecutive lung cancer patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in Hubei province, China, from 3 January to 6 May 2020 were included in the study. Patients without definite clinical outcomes during the period were excluded. Data on initial clinical, laboratory and radiographic findings were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 45 lung cancer patients (median [interquartile range] age, 66 [58-74] years; 68.9% males) included, 34 (75.6%) discharged and 11 (24.4%) died. Fever (73.3%) and cough (53.3%) were the dominant initial symptoms, and respiratory symptoms were common. Lung cancer patients also presented atypical appearances of COVID-19. In the multivariable analysis, prolonged prolongation prothrombin time (PT) (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.00-4.41, P = 0.0497) and elevated high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TNI) (OR = 7.65, 95% CI: 1.24-47.39, P = 0.0287) were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung cancer patients with COVID-19 have high in-hospital mortality. Prolonged PT and elevated hs-TNI are independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. KEY POINTS: SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: Lung cancer patients with COVID-19 have atypical early symptoms and imaging features. The prolonged prothrombin time and elevated high sensitivity cardiac troponin I are independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This study characterizes the early clinical features of lung cancer patients with COVID-19 in China, and identifies the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality of lung cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Rate
15.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(12): 3086-3096, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Electrocardiographic characteristics in COVID-19-related mortality have not yet been reported, particularly in racial/ethnic minorities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed demographics, laboratory and cardiac tests, medications, and cardiac rhythm proximate to death or initiation of comfort care for patients hospitalized with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in three New York City hospitals between March 1 and April 3, 2020 who died. We described clinical characteristics and compared factors contributing toward arrhythmic versus nonarrhythmic death. Of 1258 patients screened, 133 died and were enrolled. Of these, 55.6% (74/133) were male, 69.9% (93/133) were racial/ethnic minorities, and 88.0% (117/133) had cardiovascular disease. The last cardiac rhythm recorded was VT or fibrillation in 5.3% (7/133), pulseless electrical activity in 7.5% (10/133), unspecified bradycardia in 0.8% (1/133), and asystole in 26.3% (35/133). Most 74.4% (99/133) died receiving comfort measures only. The most common abnormalities on admission electrocardiogram included abnormal QRS axis (25.8%), atrial fibrillation/flutter (14.3%), atrial ectopy (12.0%), and right bundle branch block (11.9%). During hospitalization, an additional 17.6% developed atrial ectopy, 14.7% ventricular ectopy, 10.1% atrial fibrillation/flutter, and 7.8% a right ventricular abnormality. Arrhythmic death was confirmed or suspected in 8.3% (11/133) associated with age, coronary artery disease, asthma, vasopressor use, longer admission corrected QT interval, and left bundle branch block (LBBB). CONCLUSIONS: Conduction, rhythm, and electrocardiographic abnormalities were common during COVID-19-related hospitalization. Arrhythmic death was associated with age, coronary artery disease, asthma, longer admission corrected QT interval, LBBB, ventricular ectopy, and usage of vasopressors. Most died receiving comfort measures.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/ethnology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Time Factors
16.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(5): 1161-1167, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Investigate whether or not race is associated with differences in hospitalization and survival to discharge among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) at the height of the pandemic in New York City (NYC). METHODS: Single-center retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at our university-affiliated NYC hospital from 3/10/20 through 4/13/20 with follow-up to 5/1/20. Our primary endpoint was hospitalization rate among patients with confirmed COVID-19 compared with the regional population based on race. Our secondary endpoint survival to discharge among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. NYC Department of Health data were used to calculate hospitalization odds ratios. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare categorial and continuous variables, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression and predictive analysis were used to investigate our endpoints further. RESULTS: Our cohort of 734 patients included 355 women (48.4%), 372 Blacks (50.7%), 214 Whites (29.2%), and 92 Hispanics (12.5%) in our analysis. Blacks were nearly twice as likely as Whites to require hospitalization for COVID-19 (OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.59-2.24, p < 0.001). Hispanics were also more likely to suffer in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 compared with Whites (HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.21-2.80; p = 0.005). There was a non-significant increased hazard of in-hospital mortality among Blacks when compared with Whites (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.95-1.78; p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Blacks were more likely than Whites to require hospitalization for COVID-19 while Hispanics were more likely to experience in-hospital mortality. Further investigation into the socioeconomic factors underlying racial disparities in COVID-19 survival and severity requiring hospitalization is needed on a national scale.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2018039, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718305

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: While current reports suggest that a disproportionate share of US coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths are among Black residents, little information is available regarding how race is associated with in-hospital mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of race, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors, on all-cause, in-hospital mortality for patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study included 11 210 adult patients (age ≥18 years) hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) between February 19, 2020, and May 31, 2020, in 92 hospitals in 12 states: Alabama (6 hospitals), Maryland (1 hospital), Florida (5 hospitals), Illinois (8 hospitals), Indiana (14 hospitals), Kansas (4 hospitals), Michigan (13 hospitals), New York (2 hospitals), Oklahoma (6 hospitals), Tennessee (4 hospitals), Texas (11 hospitals), and Wisconsin (18 hospitals). EXPOSURES: Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Death during hospitalization was examined overall and by race. Race was self-reported and categorized as Black, White, and other or missing. Cox proportional hazards regression with mixed effects was used to evaluate associations between all-cause in-hospital mortality and patient characteristics while accounting for the random effects of hospital on the outcome. RESULTS: Of 11 210 patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting to hospitals, 4180 (37.3%) were Black patients and 5583 (49.8%) were men. The median (interquartile range) age was 61 (46 to 74) years. Compared with White patients, Black patients were younger (median [interquartile range] age, 66 [50 to 80] years vs 61 [46 to 72] years), were more likely to be women (2259 [49.0%] vs 2293 [54.9%]), were more likely to have Medicaid insurance (611 [13.3%] vs 1031 [24.7%]), and had higher median (interquartile range) scores on the Neighborhood Deprivation Index (-0.11 [-0.70 to 0.56] vs 0.82 [0.08 to 1.76]) and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (21 [0 to 44] vs 22 [0 to 46]). All-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized White and Black patients was 23.1% (724 of 3218) and 19.2% (540 of 2812), respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, insurance, comorbidities, neighborhood deprivation, and site of care, there was no statistically significant difference in risk of mortality between Black and White patients (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.09). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although current reports suggest that Black patients represent a disproportionate share of COVID-19 infections and death in the United States, in this study, mortality for those able to access hospital care did not differ between Black and White patients after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(8): e1018-e1026, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Brazil ranks second worldwide in total number of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Understanding the possible socioeconomic and ethnic health inequities is particularly important given the diverse population and fragile political and economic situation. We aimed to characterise the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and assess variations in mortality according to region, ethnicity, comorbidities, and symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of COVID-19 hospital mortality using data from the SIVEP-Gripe (Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe) dataset to characterise the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. In the study, we included hospitalised patients who had a positive RT-PCR test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and who had ethnicity information in the dataset. Ethnicity of participants was classified according to the five categories used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics: Branco (White), Preto (Black), Amarelo (East Asian), Indígeno (Indigenous), or Pardo (mixed ethnicity). We assessed regional variations in patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital by state and by two socioeconomically grouped regions (north and central-south). We used mixed-effects Cox regression survival analysis to estimate the effects of ethnicity and comorbidity at an individual level in the context of regional variation. FINDINGS: Of 99 557 patients in the SIVEP-Gripe dataset, we included 11 321 patients in our study. 9278 (82·0%) of these patients were from the central-south region, and 2043 (18·0%) were from the north region. Compared with White Brazilians, Pardo and Black Brazilians with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital had significantly higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·45, 95% CI 1·33-1·58 for Pardo Brazilians; 1·32, 1·15-1·52 for Black Brazilians). Pardo ethnicity was the second most important risk factor (after age) for death. Comorbidities were more common in Brazilians admitted to hospital in the north region than in the central-south, with similar proportions between the various ethnic groups. States in the north had higher HRs compared with those of the central-south, except for Rio de Janeiro, which had a much higher HR than that of the other central-south states. INTERPRETATION: We found evidence of two distinct but associated effects: increased mortality in the north region (regional effect) and in the Pardo and Black populations (ethnicity effect). We speculate that the regional effect is driven by increasing comorbidity burden in regions with lower levels of socioeconomic development. The ethnicity effect might be related to differences in susceptibility to COVID-19 and access to health care (including intensive care) across ethnicities. Our analysis supports an urgent effort on the part of Brazilian authorities to consider how the national response to COVID-19 can better protect Pardo and Black Brazilians, as well as the population of poorer states, from their higher risk of dying of COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 93, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to report the clinical features and outcomes of Black/African American (AA) and Latino Hispanic patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized in an inter-city hospital in the state of New Jersey. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of AA and Latino Hispanic patients with COVID-19 admitted to a 665-bed quaternary care, teaching hospital located in Newark, New Jersey. The study included patients who had completed hospitalization between March 10, 2020, and April 10, 2020. We reviewed demographics, socioeconomic variables and incidence of in-hospital mortality and morbidity. Logistic regression was used to identify predictor of in-hospital death. RESULTS: Out of 416 patients, 251 (60%) had completed hospitalization as of April 10, 2020. The incidence of In-hospital mortality was 38.6% (n = 97). Most common symptoms at initial presentation were dyspnea 39% (n = 162) followed by cough 38%(n = 156) and fever 34% (n = 143). Patients were in the highest quartile for population's density, number of housing units and disproportionately fell into the lowest median income quartile for the state of New Jersey. The incidence of septic shock, acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) was 24% (n = 59), 21% (n = 52), 33% (n = 82) respectively. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were older age, lower serum Hemoglobin < 10 mg/dl, elevated serum Ferritin and Creatinine phosphokinase levels > 1200 U/L and > 1000 U/L. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from an inter-city hospital's experience with COVID-19 among underserved minority populations showed that, more than one of every three patients were at risk for in-hospital death or morbidity. Older age and elevated inflammatory markers at presentation were associated with in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , New Jersey/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
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