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1.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 285-288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238469

ABSTRACT

As the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to cause higher mortality and hospitalization rates among older adults, strategies such as frailty screening have been suggested for resource allocation and clinical management. Frailty is a physiologic condition characterized by a decreased reserve to stressors and is associated with disability, hospitalization, and death. Measuring frailty can be a useful tool to determine the risk and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the acute setting, and to provide higher quality of care for vulnerable individuals in the outpatient setting. A literature review was conducted to examine current research regarding frailty and COVID-19. Frailty can inform holistic care of COVID-19 patients, and further investigation is needed to elucidate how measuring frailty should guide treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Frailty/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Mass Screening , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 56(3): 221-230, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Indonesia, during which the Delta variant predominated, took place after a vaccination program had been initiated in the country. This study was conducted to assess the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes including hospitalization, severe COVID-19, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death using a real-world model. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study involved patients with COVID-19 aged ≥18 years who presented to the COVID-19 emergency room at a secondary referral teaching hospital between June 1, 2021 and August 31, 2021. We used a binary logistic regression model to assess the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes, with age, sex, and comorbidities as confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 716 patients were included, 32.1% of whom were vaccinated. The elderly participants (≥65 years) had the lowest vaccine coverage among age groups. Vaccination had an effectiveness of 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 66) for preventing hospitalization, 97% (95% CI, 77 to 99) for preventing severe COVID-19, 95% (95% CI, 56 to 99) for preventing ICU admission, and 90% (95% CI, 22 to 99) for preventing death. Interestingly, patients with type 2 diabetes had a 2-fold to 4-fold elevated risk of unfavorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults, COVID-19 vaccination has a moderate preventive impact on hospitalization but a high preventive impact on severe COVID-19, ICU admission, and death. The authors suggest that relevant parties increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage, especially in the elderly population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Humans , Aged , Adolescent , Indonesia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Hospitalization
4.
Ter Arkh ; 94(11): 1315-1319, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241532

ABSTRACT

Two clinical cases of perforation of a previously undiagnosed colon diverticulum in patients with coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus treated at the Hospital №1 of Nalchik. Both patients were elderly, overweight, had a lot of chronic concomitant diseases. Patients received hormone therapy and were targeted: the first patient twice (tocilizumab on the first day of hospitalization and olokizumab on the 7th day of inpatient treatment). The second patient received levilimab on the 3rd day of his stay in the hospital. A short time after targeting, both patients developed acute diffuse abdominal pain, the patients were transferred to the surgical department and operated on. During the operation, both patients were found to have previously undiagnosed diverticular disease, complicated by diverticular perforation and peritonitis on the background of immunosuppression. Both patients died. Thus, when using targeted therapy for patients with COVID-19, it is necessary to take into account that they may have previously undiagnosed chronic diseases that can cause fatal complications against the background of immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diverticulitis, Colonic , Diverticulitis , Peritonitis , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Diverticulitis/complications , Diverticulitis/surgery , Hospitalization , Peritonitis/complications , Peritonitis/surgery , Diverticulitis, Colonic/complications , Diverticulitis, Colonic/diagnosis , Diverticulitis, Colonic/therapy
5.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286700, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an overall drop in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalizations. Additionally, there is a well-known association between ACS and socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the COVID-19 effect on ACS admissions in France during the first national lockdown and investigate the factors associated with its spatial heterogeneity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we used the French hospital discharge database (PMSI) to estimate ACS admission rates in all public and private hospitals in 2019 and 2020. A negative binomial regression explored the nationwide change in ACS admissions during lockdown compared with 2019. A multivariate analysis explored the factors associated with the ACS admission incidence rate ratio (IRR, 2020 incidence rate/2019 incidence rate) variation at the county level. RESULTS: We found a significant but geographically heterogeneous nationwide reduction in ACS admissions during lockdown (IRR 0·70 [0·64-0·76]). After adjustment for cumulative COVID-19 admissions and the ageing index, a higher share of people on short-term working arrangements during lockdown at the county level was associated with a lower IRR, while a higher share of individuals with a high school degree and a higher density of acute care beds were associated with a higher ratio. CONCLUSIONS: During the first national lockdown, there was an overall decrease in ACS admissions. Local provision of inpatient care and socioeconomic determinants linked to occupation were independently associated with the variation in hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization , Socioeconomic Factors , France/epidemiology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2315902, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240740

ABSTRACT

Importance: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) enrollees receive care for COVID-19 in both VHA and non-VHA (ie, community) hospitals, but little is known about the frequency or outcomes of care for veterans with COVID-19 in VHA vs community hospitals. Objective: To compare outcomes among veterans admitted for COVID-19 in VHA vs community hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used VHA and Medicare data from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021, on hospitalizations for COVID-19 in 121 VHA and 4369 community hospitals in the US among a national cohort of veterans (aged ≥65 years) enrolled in both the VHA and Medicare with VHA care in the year prior to hospitalization for COVID-19 based on the primary diagnosis code. Exposure: Admission to VHA vs community hospitals. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were 30-day mortality and 30-day readmission. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance observable patient characteristics (eg, demographic characteristics, comorbidity, mechanical ventilation on admission, area-level social vulnerability, distance to VHA vs community hospitals, and date of admission) between VHA and community hospitals. Results: The cohort included 64 856 veterans (mean [SD] age, 77.6 [8.0] years; 63 562 men [98.0%]) dually enrolled in the VHA and Medicare who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Most (47 821 [73.7%]) were admitted to community hospitals (36 362 [56.1%] admitted to community hospitals via Medicare, 11 459 [17.7%] admitted to community hospitals reimbursed via VHA's Care in the Community program, and 17 035 [26.3%] admitted to VHA hospitals). Admission to community hospitals was associated with higher unadjusted and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality compared with admission to VHA hospitals (crude mortality, 12 951 of 47 821 [27.1%] vs 3021 of 17 035 [17.7%]; P < .001; risk-adjusted odds ratio, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.21-1.55]; P < .001). Readmission within 30 days was less common after admission to community compared with VHA hospitals (4898 of 38 576 [12.7%] vs 2006 of 14 357 [14.0%]; risk-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.86-0.92]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that most hospitalizations for COVID-19 among VHA enrollees aged 65 years or older were in community hospitals and that veterans experienced higher mortality in community hospitals than in VHA hospitals. The VHA must understand the sources of the mortality difference to plan care for VHA enrollees during future COVID-19 surges and the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Male , Humans , Aged , United States/epidemiology , Medicare , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Veterans Health , Hospitalization , Hospitals
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9064, 2023 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240546

ABSTRACT

Prognostic scales may help to optimize the use of hospital resources, which may be of prime interest in the context of a fast spreading pandemics. Nonetheless, such tools are underdeveloped in the context of COVID-19. In the present article we asked whether accurate prognostic scales could be developed to optimize the use of hospital resources. We retrospectively studied 467 files of hospitalized patients after COVID-19. The odds ratios for 16 different biomarkers were calculated, those that were significantly associated were screened by a Pearson's correlation, and such index was used to establish the mathematical function for each marker. The scales to predict the need for hospitalization, intensive-care requirement and mortality had enhanced sensitivities (0.91 CI 0.87-0.94; 0.96 CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96 CI 0.94-0.98; all with p < 0.0001) and specificities (0.74 CI 0.62-0.83; 0.92 CI 0.87-0.96 and 0.91 CI 0.86-0.94; all with p < 0.0001). Interestingly, when a different population was assayed, these parameters did not change considerably. These results show a novel approach to establish the mathematical function of a marker in the development of highly sensitive prognostic tools, which in this case, may aid in the optimization of hospital resources. An online version of the three algorithms can be found at: http://benepachuca.no-ip.org/covid/index.php.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Critical Care , Biomarkers , Probability
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240084

ABSTRACT

Globally, the coexistence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and HIV has become an important public health problem, putting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients at risk for severe manifestations and higher mortality. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients using secondary data from the Department of Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study included 15,151 patient clinical records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Data on MetS was extracted in the form of a cluster of metabolic factors. These included abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and impaired fasting glucose captured on an information sheet. Spatial distribution of mortality among patients was observed; overall (21-33%), hypertension (32-43%), diabetes (34-47%), and HIV (31-45%). A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Mortality among COVID-19 patients was associated with being older (≥50+ years), male, and HIV positive. Having hypertension and diabetes reduced the duration from admission to death. Being transferred from a primary health facility (PHC) to a referral hospital among COVID-19 patients was associated with ventilation and less chance of being transferred to another health facility when having HIV plus MetS. Patients with MetS had a higher mortality rate within seven days of hospitalization, followed by those with obesity as an individual component. MetS and its components such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity should be considered a composite predictor of COVID-19 fatal outcomes, mostly, increased risk of mortality. The study increases our understanding of the common contributing variables to severe manifestations and a greater mortality risk among COVID-19 hospitalized patients by investigating the influence of MetS, its components, and HIV coexistence. Prevention remains the mainstay for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The findings underscore the need for improvement of critical care resources across South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity , Hospitalization , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Risk Factors
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(21): 579-588, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238754

ABSTRACT

On September 1, 2022, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a single bivalent mRNA COVID-19 booster dose for persons aged ≥12 years who had completed at least a monovalent primary series. Early vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates among adults aged ≥18 years showed receipt of a bivalent booster dose provided additional protection against COVID-19-associated emergency department and urgent care visits and hospitalizations compared with that in persons who had received only monovalent vaccine doses (1); however, insufficient time had elapsed since bivalent vaccine authorization to assess the durability of this protection. The VISION Network* assessed VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations by time since bivalent vaccine receipt during September 13, 2022-April 21, 2023, among adults aged ≥18 years with and without immunocompromising conditions. During the first 7-59 days after vaccination, compared with no vaccination, VE for receipt of a bivalent vaccine dose among adults aged ≥18 years was 62% (95% CI = 57%-67%) among adults without immunocompromising conditions and 28% (95% CI = 10%-42%) among adults with immunocompromising conditions. Among adults without immunocompromising conditions, VE declined to 24% (95% CI = 12%-33%) among those aged ≥18 years by 120-179 days after vaccination. VE was generally lower for adults with immunocompromising conditions. A bivalent booster dose provided the highest protection, and protection was sustained through at least 179 days against critical outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission or in-hospital death. These data support updated recommendations allowing additional optional bivalent COVID-19 vaccine doses for certain high-risk populations. All eligible persons should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality , mRNA Vaccines , Vaccines, Combined
10.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2976, 2023 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237769

ABSTRACT

Studies of comparative mRNA booster effectiveness among high-risk populations can inform mRNA booster-specific guidelines. The study emulated a target trial of COVID-19 vaccinated U.S. Veterans who received three doses of either mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccines. Participants were followed for up to 32 weeks between July 1, 2021 to May 30, 2022. Non-overlapping populations were average and high risk; high-risk sub-groups were age ≥65 years, high-risk co-morbid conditions, and immunocompromising conditions. Of 1,703,189 participants, 10.9 per 10,000 persons died or were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia over 32 weeks (95% CI: 10.2, 11.8). Although relative risks of death or hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia were similar across at-risk groups, absolute risk varied when comparing three doses of BNT162b2 with mRNA-1273 (BNT162b2 minus mRNA-1273) between average-risk and high-risk populations, confirmed by the presence of additive interaction. The risk difference of death or hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia for high-risk populations was 2.2 (0.9, 3.6). Effects were not modified by predominant viral variant. In this work, the risk of death or hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia over 32 weeks was lower among high-risk populations who received three doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine instead of BNT162b2 vaccine; no difference was found among the average-risk population and age >65 sub-group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , Aged , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Hospitalization , RNA, Messenger
11.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(5): e20220642, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the evidence about the impact of the post-acute COVID-19 Syndrome (PACS) reports individual symptoms without correlations with related imaging. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cardiopulmonary symptoms, their predictors and related images in COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital. METHODS: Consecutive patients who survived COVID-19 were contacted 90 days after discharge. The Clinic Outcome Team structured a questionnaire evaluating symptoms and clinical status (blinded for hospitalization data). A multivariate analysis was performed to address the course of COVID-19, comorbidities, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress during hospitalization, and cardiac rehabilitation after discharge. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: A total of 480 discharged patients with COVID-19 (age: 59±14 years, 67.5% males) were included; 22.3% required mechanical ventilation. The prevalence of patients with PACS-related cardiopulmonary symptoms (dyspnea, tiredness/fatigue, cough, and chest discomfort) was 16.3%. Several parameters of chest computed tomography and echocardiogram were similar in patients with and without cardiopulmonary symptoms. The multivariate analysis showed that PACS-related cardiopulmonary-symptoms were independently related to female sex (OR 3.023; 95% CI 1.319-6.929), in-hospital deep venous thrombosis (OR 13.689; 95% CI 1.069-175.304), elevated troponin I (OR 1.355; 95% CI 1.048-1.751) and C-reactive protein during hospitalization (OR 1.060; 95% CI 1.023-1.097) and depression (OR 6.110; 95% CI 2.254-16.558). CONCLUSION: PACS-related cardiopulmonary symptoms 90 days post-discharge are common and multifactorial. Beyond thrombotic and markers of inflammation/myocardial injury during hospitalization, female sex and depression were independently associated with cardiopulmonary-related PACS. These results highlighted the need for a multifaceted approach targeting susceptible patients.


FUNDAMENTO: A maioria da evidência sobre o impacto da síndrome COVID pós-aguda (PACS, do inglês, post-acute COVID-19 syndrome) descreve sintomas individuais sem correlacioná-los com exames de imagens. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar sintomas cardiopulmonares, seus preditores e imagens relacionadas em pacientes com COVID-19 após alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Pacientes consecutivos, que sobreviveram à COVID-19, foram contatados 90 dias após a alta hospitalar. A equipe de desfechos clínicos (cega quanto aos dados durante a internação) elaborou um questionário estruturado avaliando sintomas e estado clínico. Uma análise multivariada foi realizada abordando a evolução da COVID-19, comorbidades, ansiedade, depressão, e estresse pós-traumático durante a internação, e reabilitação cardíaca após a alta. O nível de significância usado nas análises foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 480 pacientes (idade 59±14 anos, 67,5% do sexo masculino) que receberam alta hospitalar por COVID-19; 22,3% necessitaram de ventilação mecânica. A prevalência de pacientes com sintomas cardiopulmonares relacionados à PACS (dispneia, cansaço/fadiga, tosse e desconforto no peito) foi de 16,3%. Vários parâmetros de tomografia computadorizada do tórax e de ecocardiograma foram similares entre os pacientes com e sem sintomas cardiopulmonares. A análise multivariada mostrou que sintomas cardiopulmonares foram relacionados de maneira independente com sexo feminino (OR 3,023; IC95% 1,319-6,929), trombose venosa profunda durante a internação (OR 13,689; IC95% 1,069-175,304), nível elevado de troponina (OR 1,355; IC95% 1,048-1,751) e de proteína C reativa durante a internação (OR 1,060; IC95% 1,023-1,097) e depressão (OR 6,110; IC95% 2,254-16,558). CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas cardiopulmonares relacionados à PACS 90 dias após a alta hospitalar são comuns e multifatoriais. Além dos marcadores trombóticos, inflamatórios e de lesão miocárdica durante a internação, sexo feminino e depressão foram associados independentemente com sintomas cardiopulmonares relacionados à PACS. Esses resultados destacaram a necessidade de uma abordagem multifacetada direcionada a pacientes susceptíveis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Aftercare , Hospitalization , Hospitals
12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102589, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major cardiovascular events (MACEs) have been described with dengue infection. Among these MACEs, heart failure (HF) is the most common but has not been thoroughly assessed. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dengue and HF. METHODS: Under the self-controlled case-series study design, we used the Notifiable Infectious Disease dataset linkage with the National Health Insurance claims data to obtain the study subjects. All laboratory-confirmed dengue cases who were hospitalized for HF after dengue infection within one year between 2009 and 2015 in Taiwan were included. We identified the first 7 and 14 days after dengue infection as the risk intervals. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for HF were estimated by conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among the 65,906 dengue patients, 230 had admission for HF after dengue infection within one year. The IRR of HF admission within the first week after dengue infection was 56.50 (95% C.I. 43.88-72.75). This risk was highest in >60 years (IRR = 59.32, 95% C.I. 45.43-77.43) and lower in 0-40 years (IRR = 25.82, 95% C.I. 2.89-231.02). The risk was nearly nine times higher among admission (for dengue infection) than among nonadmission cases (IRR 75.35 vs. 8.61, p < 0.0001). The risks increased slightly in the second week 8.55 and became less obvious after the third and fourth week. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dengue infection have a risk of developing acute heart failure within one week, especially in >60 years, men, and dengue admission subjects. The findings emphasize the awareness of diagnosis and further appropriate treatment of HF.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Heart Failure , Male , Humans , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Hospitalization , Research , Incidence , Dengue/complications , Dengue/epidemiology
13.
Lancet ; 401(10376): 568-576, 2023 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On the basis of low-quality evidence, international critical care nutrition guidelines recommend a wide range of protein doses. The effect of delivering high-dose protein during critical illness is unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a higher dose of protein provided to critically ill patients would improve their clinical outcomes. METHODS: This international, investigator-initiated, pragmatic, registry-based, single-blinded, randomised trial was undertaken in 85 intensive care units (ICUs) across 16 countries. We enrolled nutritionally high-risk adults (≥18 years) undergoing mechanical ventilation to compare prescribing high-dose protein (≥2·2 g/kg per day) with usual dose protein (≤1·2 g/kg per day) started within 96 h of ICU admission and continued for up to 28 days or death or transition to oral feeding. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to high-dose protein or usual dose protein, stratified by site. As site personnel were involved in both prescribing and delivering protein dose, it was not possible to blind clinicians, but patients were not made aware of the treatment assignment. The primary efficacy outcome was time-to-discharge-alive from hospital up to 60 days after ICU admission and the secondary outcome was 60-day morality. Patients were analysed in the group to which they were randomly assigned regardless of study compliance, although patients who dropped out of the study before receiving the study intervention were excluded. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03160547. FINDINGS: Between Jan 17, 2018, and Dec 3, 2021, 1329 patients were randomised and 1301 (97·9%) were included in the analysis (645 in the high-dose protein group and 656 in usual dose group). By 60 days after randomisation, the cumulative incidence of alive hospital discharge was 46·1% (95 CI 42·0%-50·1%) in the high-dose compared with 50·2% (46·0%-54·3%) in the usual dose protein group (hazard ratio 0·91, 95% CI 0·77-1·07; p=0·27). The 60-day mortality rate was 34·6% (222 of 642) in the high dose protein group compared with 32·1% (208 of 648) in the usual dose protein group (relative risk 1·08, 95% CI 0·92-1·26). There appeared to be a subgroup effect with higher protein provision being particularly harmful in patients with acute kidney injury and higher organ failure scores at baseline. INTERPRETATION: Delivery of higher doses of protein to mechanically ventilated critically ill patients did not improve the time-to-discharge-alive from hospital and might have worsened outcomes for patients with acute kidney injury and high organ failure scores. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Critical Illness , Adult , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial , Registries
14.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 56(3): 248-254, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Measuring the quality of care is paramount to inform policies for healthcare services. Nevertheless, little is known about the quality of primary care and acute care provided in Korea. This study investigated trends in the quality of primary care and acute care. METHODS: Case-fatality rates and avoidable hospitalization rates were used as performance indicators to assess the quality of primary care and acute care. Admission data for the period 2008 to 2020 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Claims Database. Case-fatality rates and avoidable hospitalization rates were standardized by age and sex to adjust for patients' characteristics over time, and significant changes in the rates were identified by joinpoint regression. RESULTS: The average annual percent change in age-/sex-standardized case-fatality rates for acute myocardial infarction was -2.3% (95% confidence interval, -4.6 to 0.0). For hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, the age-/sex-standardized case-fatality rates were 21.8% and 5.9%, respectively in 2020; these rates decreased since 2008 (27.1 and 8.7%, respectively). The average annual percent change in age-/sex-standardized avoidable hospitalization rates ranged from -9.4% to -3.0%, with statistically significant changes between 2008 and 2020. In 2020, the avoidable hospitalization rates decreased considerably compared with the 2019 rate because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The avoidable hospitalization rates and case-fatality rates decreased overall during the past decade, but they were relatively high compared with other countries. Strengthening primary care is an essential requirement to improve patient health outcomes in the rapidly aging Korean population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Primary Health Care , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
15.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 64(1): E3-E8, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236267

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by a new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) throughout the pandemic period has been characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, courses, and outcomes. In particular, most patients with severe or critical symptoms re-quired hospitalization. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients upon admission to the hospital, as well as pre-existing medical conditions, seem to have affected the clinical out-come. Predictive factors of inauspicious outcome in non-Intensive Care Unit hospitalized patients were investigated. Methods: A retrospective, single-centre, observational study of 239 patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted during the first waves of the pandemic to the Infectious Disease Operative Unit of a hospital in Southern Italy was conducted. Demographic characteristics, under-lying diseases, and clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were collected from the patient's medical records. Information about in-hospital medications, days of admission, and out-come were also considered. Inferential statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between patients' characteristics upon hospital admission and during in-hospital length of stay and death. Results: Mean age was 67.8 ± 15.8 years; 137/239 (57.3%) patients were males, and 176 (73.6%) had at least one comorbidity. More than half of patients (55.3%) suffered from hypertension. The length of stay in hospital was 16.5 ± 9.9 days and mortality rate of 12.55%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, predictors of mortality of COVID-19 patients included age (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.04-1.15), Chronic Kidney Disease (OR, 4.04; CI, 1.38-11.85), and need of High Flow Oxygen therapy (OR, 18.23; CI, 5.06-65.64). Conclusions: Patients who died in the hospital had shorted length of stay than that of the surviving patients. Older age, pre-existent chronic renal disease and need of supplemental oxygen represented independent predictors of mortality in patients hospitalized in non-Intensive Care Unit with COVID-19. The determination of these factors allows retrospectively a greater understanding of the disease also in comparison with the successive epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Oxygen , Intensive Care Units
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(6): e1011432, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 emerged as a new coronavirus causing COVID-19, and it has been responsible for more than 760 million cases and 6.8 million deaths worldwide until March 2023. Although infected individuals could be asymptomatic, other patients presented heterogeneity and a wide range of symptoms. Therefore, identifying those infected individuals and being able to classify them according to their expected severity could help target health efforts more effectively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Therefore, we wanted to develop a machine learning model to predict those who will develop severe disease at the moment of hospital admission. We recruited 75 individuals and analysed innate and adaptive immune system subsets by flow cytometry. Also, we collected clinical and biochemical information. The objective of the study was to leverage machine learning techniques to identify clinical features associated with disease severity progression. Additionally, the study sought to elucidate the specific cellular subsets involved in the disease following the onset of symptoms. Among the several machine learning models tested, we found that the Elastic Net model was the better to predict the severity score according to a modified WHO classification. This model was able to predict the severity score of 72 out of 75 individuals. Besides, all the machine learning models revealed that CD38+ Treg and CD16+ CD56neg HLA-DR+ NK cells were highly correlated with the severity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Elastic Net model could stratify the uninfected individuals and the COVID-19 patients from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, these cellular subsets presented here could help to understand better the induction and progression of the symptoms in COVID-19 individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Flow Cytometry , Hospitals
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8544, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235903

ABSTRACT

Hospital admissions due to acute cardiovascular events dropped during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population; however, evidence for residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) is sparse. We investigated rates of hospital admissions and deaths due to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in LTCF residents during the pandemic. Our nationwide cohort study used claims data. The sample comprised 1,140,139 AOK-ensured LTCF residents over 60 years of age (68.6% women; age 85.3 ± 8.5 years) from the largest statutory health insurance in Germany (AOK), which is not representative for all LTCF residents. We included MI and stroke admission and compared numbers of in-hospital deaths from January 2020 to end of April 2021 (i.e., during the first three waves of the pandemic) with the number of incidences in 2015-2019. To estimate incidence risk ratios (IRR), adjusted Poisson regression analyses were applied. During the observation period (2015-2021), there were 19,196 MI and 73,953 stroke admissions. MI admissions declined in the pandemic phase by 22.5% (IRR = 0.68 [CI 0.65-0.72]) compared to previous years. This decline was slightly more pronounced for NSTEMI than for STEMI. MI fatality risks remained comparable across years (IRR = 0.97 [CI95% 0.92-1.02]). Stroke admissions dropped by 15.1% (IRR = 0.75 [CI95% 0.72-0.78]) in the pandemic. There was an elevated case fatality risk for haemorrhagic stroke (IRR = 1.09 [CI95% 1.03-1.15]) but not for other stroke subtypes compared to previous years. This study provides first evidence of declines in MI and stroke admissions and in-hospital deaths among LTCF residents during the pandemic. The figures are alarming given the acute nature of the conditions and the vulnerability of the residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Long-Term Care , Hospitalization , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Hospitals
18.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28819, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235863

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the midterm sequelae in COVID-19 and their association with corticosteroids use are needed. Between March and July 2020, we evaluated 1227 survivors of COVID-19, 3 months posthospitalization, of whom 213 had received corticosteroids within 7 days of admission. Main outcome was any midterm sequelae (oxygen therapy, shortness of breath, one major clinical sign, two minor clinical signs or three minor symptoms). Association between corticosteroids use and midterm sequelae was assessed using inverse propensity-score weighting models. Our sample included 753 (61%) male patients, and 512 (42%) were older than 65 years. We found a higher rate of sequelae among users than nonusers of corticosteroids (42% vs. 35%, odds ratio [OR] 1.40 [1.16-1.69]). Midterm sequelae were more frequent in users of low-dose corticosteroids than nonusers (64% vs. 51%, OR 1.60 [1.10-2.32]), whereas no association between higher doses (≥20 mg/day equivalent of dexamethasone) and sequelae was evidenced (OR 0.95 [0.56-1.61]). Higher risk of sequelae with corticosteroids use was observed among subjects with propensity score below the 90th percentile. Our study suggest that corticosteroids use during hospitalization for COVID-19 is associated with higher risk of midterm sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Disease Progression , Survivors
19.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 77: 103413, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235801
20.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3093, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235796

ABSTRACT

In this work, we aim to accurately predict the number of hospitalizations during the COVID-19 pandemic by developing a spatiotemporal prediction model. We propose HOIST, an Ising dynamics-based deep learning model for spatiotemporal COVID-19 hospitalization prediction. By drawing the analogy between locations and lattice sites in statistical mechanics, we use the Ising dynamics to guide the model to extract and utilize spatial relationships across locations and model the complex influence of granular information from real-world clinical evidence. By leveraging rich linked databases, including insurance claims, census information, and hospital resource usage data across the U.S., we evaluate the HOIST model on the large-scale spatiotemporal COVID-19 hospitalization prediction task for 2299 counties in the U.S. In the 4-week hospitalization prediction task, HOIST achieves 368.7 mean absolute error, 0.6 [Formula: see text] and 0.89 concordance correlation coefficient score on average. Our detailed number needed to treat (NNT) and cost analysis suggest that future COVID-19 vaccination efforts may be most impactful in rural areas. This model may serve as a resource for future county and state-level vaccination efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Databases, Factual , Hospitalization
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