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1.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1653-1658, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526880

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: COVID-19 has now become a global pandemic. Understanding the routes of transmission is vital in the mitigation and suppression of the disease. Istanbul has become one of the disease's epicenters. This study aims to describe the first COVID-19 case and contact tracing efforts around it in Istanbul. Materials and methods: The descriptive study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey. The first COVID-19 cases and those associated with them were investigated with contact tracing, and primary and secondary cases were described. Results: The source case was an individual who returned to Turkey from international travel at the beginning of March and tested PCR (­). The index case is the brother of the source case and is considered the first PCR (+) case diagnosed in Istanbul. Contact tracing revealed 23 PCR (+) cases, 14 of which resulted in hospitalization and three deaths. Conclusions: This study described cases of the first COVID-19 cluster in Istanbul. Moreover, contact tracing was used in this first cluster. This contributed to contact tracing algorithms in Turkey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey , Young Adult
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1608-1612, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524680

ABSTRACT

Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health care delivery system in Oregon and Washington, incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, vaccine product, age, race, and ethnicity. Infection after full vaccination was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized COVID-19 vaccination series.* During the July-September 2021 surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred among 4,146 of 137,616 unvaccinated persons (30.1 per 1,000 persons) and 3,009 of 344,848 fully vaccinated persons (8.7 per 1,000). Incidence was higher among unvaccinated persons than among vaccinated persons across all demographic strata. Unvaccinated persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more than twice as likely to receive ED care (18.5%) or to be hospitalized (9.0%) than were vaccinated persons with COVID-19 (8.1% and 3.9%, respectively). The crude mortality rate was also higher among unvaccinated patients (0.43 per 1,000) than in fully vaccinated patients (0.06 per 1,000). These data support CDC recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination, including additional and booster doses, to protect individual persons and communities against COVID-19, including illness and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oregon/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E96, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512982

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the impact of behaviors on COVID-19 severity can improve health promotion strategies. We investigated the association between health-related behaviors and odds of hospitalization for COVID-19 in a cohort of military personnel. METHODS: This case-controlled study compared all active-duty US Air Force service members hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 5, 2020, and March 10, 2021 (cases), with their geographically matched peers who had COVID-19 and were treated as outpatients (controls). We used logistic regression to compare cases and controls according to self-reported sleep duration, physical activity, dietary factors, binge alcohol consumption, and tobacco use - with and without adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, physical fitness level, pertinent disease history, and psychological distress - resulting in crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. The trend between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and hospitalization odds was assessed by using the Cochran-Armitage test. RESULTS: Ninety-three hospitalized cases were matched to 372 ambulatory controls. Adjusting for baseline characteristics and other health-related behaviors, cases were more likely than controls to report fewer than 7 hours of sleep, compared with 7 to 9 hours (OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.07-3.16), and were more likely than controls to consume 3 or more SSBs per week, compared with fewer than 3 SSBs (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.03-2.92). In a dose-response relationship, higher SSB consumption was associated with greater odds of being hospitalized (P value for trend = .02). CONCLUSION: Interventions that address short sleep duration and SSB consumption may reduce morbidity from COVID-19 among military service members and potentially in the broader US population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Hospitalization , Military Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Military Personnel/psychology , Odds Ratio
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27228, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501195

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Remdesivir is the only antiviral approved for lower respiratory tract infection produced by SARS-CoV-2. The main objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate, readmissions, mean hospital stay, need for higher levels of oxygen support, and adverse effect-induced abandonment rate in hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated with remdesivir (RDSV). The secondary objective was to determine mortality-related risk factors in these patients.The study included a prospective cohort of patients admitted to a third level Spanish hospital between July 5, 2020 and February 3, 2021 for COVID-19 diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction and/or antigen test and treated with RDSV.Remdesivir was received by 185 patients (69.7% males) with a mean age of 62.5 years, median Charlson index of 3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-4), and median ambient air oxygen saturation of 91% (IQR: 90-93); 61.6% of patients had hyper-inflammatory syndrome at admission. Median time with symptoms before RDSV treatment was 5 days (IQR: 3-6) and the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR: 7-15); 19 patients (10.3%) died after a median stay of 13.5 days (IQR: 9.7-24 days), 58 patients (12.9%) were admitted to ICU, 58 (31.4%) needed higher levels of oxygen support, 0.5% abandoned the treatment due to adverse effects, and there were no readmissions. The only mortality-related factor was the need for higher levels of oxygen support (odds ratio 12.02; 95% confidence interval 2.25-64.2).All studied patients were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and in respiratory failure, needing initial low-flow oxygen support, and all received RDSV within 1 week of symptom onset. The percent mortality was lower in these patients than was observed in all patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to our center (10.3% vs 20.3%, respectively). Despite receiving RDSV, 1 in 3 patients needed higher levels of oxygen support, the sole mortality-related factor.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21526, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500514

ABSTRACT

Earlier in 2020, seven Italian regions, which cover 62% of the Italian population, set up the Mimico-19 network to monitor the side effects of the restrictive measures against Covid-19 on volumes and quality of care. To this aim, we retrospectively analysed hospital discharges data, computing twelve indicators of volume and performance in three clinical areas: cardiology, oncology, and orthopaedics. Weekly indicators for the period January-July 2020 were compared with the corresponding average for 2018-2019; comparisons were performed within 3 sub-periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. The weekly trend of hospitalisations for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) showed a 40% reduction, but the proportion of STEMI patients with a primary PTCA did not significantly change from previous years. Malignant neoplasms surgery volumes differed substantially by site, with a limited reduction for lung cancer (< 20%) and greater declines (30-40%) for breast and prostate cancers. The percentage of timely surgery for femoral neck in the elderly remained constantly higher than the previous 2 years whereas hip and knee replacements fell dramatically. Hospitalisations have generally decreased, but the capacity of a timely and effective response in time-dependent pathways of care was not jeopardized throughout the period. General trends did not show important differences across regions, regardless of the different burden of Covid-19. Preventive and primary care services should adopt a pro-active approach, moving towards the identification of at-risk conditions that were neglected during the pandemic and timely addressing patients to the secondary care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/statistics & numerical data , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Italy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/pathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21472, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500505

ABSTRACT

Acute healthcare services are extremely important, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, as healthcare demand has rapidly intensified, and resources have become insufficient. Studies on specific prepandemic hospitalization and emergency department visit (EDV) trends in proximity to death are limited. We examined time-trend specificities based on sex, age, and cause of death in the last 2 years of life. Datasets containing all hospitalizations and EDVs of elderly residents in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy (N = 411,812), who died between 2002 and 2014 at ≥ 65 years, have been collected. We performed subgroup change-point analysis of monthly trends in the 2 years preceding death according to sex, age at death (65-74, 75-84, 85-94, and ≥ 95 years), and main cause of death (cancer, cardiovascular, or respiratory disease). The proportion of decedents (N = 142,834) accessing acute healthcare services increased exponentially in proximity to death (hospitalizations = 4.7, EDVs = 3.9 months before death). This was inversely related to age, with changes among the youngest and eldest decedents at 6.6 and 3.5 months for hospitalizations and at 4.6 and 3.3 months for EDVs, respectively. Healthcare use among cancer patients intensified earlier in life (hospitalizations = 6.8, EDVs = 5.8 months before death). Decedents from respiratory diseases were most likely to access hospital-based services during the last month of life. No sex-based differences were found. The greater use of acute healthcare services among younger decedents and cancer patients suggests that policies potentiating primary care support targeting these at-risk groups may reduce pressure on hospital-based services.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cause of Death , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Terminal Care
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1553-1559, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502903

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might not acquire the same level of protection from COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as do immunocompetent adults (3,4). To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) among immunocompromised adults, data from the VISION Network* on hospitalizations among persons aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness from 187 hospitals in nine states during January 17-September 5, 2021 were analyzed. Using selected discharge diagnoses,† VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization conferred by completing a 2-dose series of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine ≥14 days before the index hospitalization date§ (i.e., being fully vaccinated) was evaluated using a test-negative design comparing 20,101 immunocompromised adults (10,564 [53%] of whom were fully vaccinated) and 69,116 immunocompetent adults (29,456 [43%] of whom were fully vaccinated). VE of 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was lower among immunocompromised patients (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74%-80%) than among immunocompetent patients (90%; 95% CI = 89%-91%). This difference persisted irrespective of mRNA vaccine product, age group, and timing of hospitalization relative to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance in the state of hospitalization. VE varied across immunocompromising condition subgroups, ranging from 59% (organ or stem cell transplant recipients) to 81% (persons with a rheumatologic or inflammatory disorder). Immunocompromised persons benefit from mRNA COVID-19 vaccination but are less protected from severe COVID-19 outcomes than are immunocompetent persons, and VE varies among immunocompromised subgroups. Immunocompromised persons receiving mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should receive 3 doses and a booster, consistent with CDC recommendations (5), practice nonpharmaceutical interventions, and, if infected, be monitored closely and considered early for proven therapies that can prevent severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1539-1544, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502901

ABSTRACT

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared the odds of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and thus having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, between unvaccinated patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring 90-179 days before COVID-19-like illness hospitalization, and patients who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 90-179 days before hospitalization with no previous documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness were included if they had received testing at least twice: once associated with a COVID-19-like illness hospitalization during January-September 2021 and at least once earlier (since February 1, 2020, and ≥14 days before that hospitalization). Among COVID-19-like illness hospitalizations in persons whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, the odds of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics) among unvaccinated, previously infected adults were higher than the odds among fully vaccinated recipients of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with no previous documented infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.75-10.99). These findings suggest that among hospitalized adults with COVID-19-like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23442-23458, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyperamylasemia was found in a group of patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization. However, the evolution and the clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in COVID-19, is not well characterized. DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, treatment and outcome information of 1,515 COVID-19 patients with available longitudinal amylase records collected from electronic medical system were analyzed to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in this infection. Associated variables with hyperamylasemia in COVID-19 were also analyzed. RESULTS: Of 1,515 patients, 196 (12.9%) developed hyperamylasemia, among whom 19 (1.3%) greater than 3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) and no clinical acute pancreatitis was seen. Multivariable ordered logistic regression implied older age, male, chronic kidney disease, several medications (immunoglobin, systemic corticosteroids, and antifungals), increased creatinine might be associated with hyperamylasemia during hospitalization. Restricted cubic spline analysis indicated hyperamylasemia had a J-shaped association with all-cause mortality and the estimated hazard ratio per standard deviation was 2.85 (2.03-4.00) above ULN. Based on the multivariable mixed-effect cox or logistic regression model taking hospital sites as random effects, elevated serum amylase during hospitalization was identified as an independent risk factor associated with in-hospital death and intensive complications, including sepsis, cardiac injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum amylase was independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Since early intervention might change the outcome, serum amylase should be monitored dynamically during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Amylases/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Hyperamylasemia/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperamylasemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1513-1519, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498053

ABSTRACT

In mid-June 2021, B.1.671.2 (Delta) became the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, circulating in the United States. As of July 2021, the Delta variant was responsible for nearly all new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United States.* The Delta variant is more transmissible than previously circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants (1); however, whether it causes more severe disease in adults has been uncertain. Data from the CDC COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a population-based surveillance system for COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, were used to examine trends in severe outcomes in adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during periods before (January-June 2021) and during (July-August 2021) Delta variant predominance. COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among all adults declined during January-June 2021 (pre-Delta period), before increasing during July-August 2021 (Delta period). Among sampled nonpregnant hospitalized COVID-19 patients with completed medical record abstraction and a discharge disposition during the pre-Delta period, the proportion of patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), or died while hospitalized did not significantly change from the pre-Delta period to the Delta period. The proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were aged 18-49 years significantly increased, from 24.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.2%-26.3%) of all hospitalizations in the pre-Delta period, to 35.8% (95% CI = 32.1%-39.5%, p<0.01) during the Delta period. When examined by vaccination status, 71.8% of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in the Delta period were in unvaccinated adults. Adults aged 18-49 years accounted for 43.6% (95% CI = 39.1%-48.2%) of all hospitalizations among unvaccinated adults during the Delta period. No difference was observed in ICU admission, receipt of IMV, or in-hospital death among nonpregnant hospitalized adults between the pre-Delta and Delta periods. However, the proportion of unvaccinated adults aged 18-49 years hospitalized with COVID-19 has increased as the Delta variant has become more predominant. Lower vaccination coverage in this age group likely contributed to the increase in hospitalized patients during the Delta period. COVID-19 vaccination is critical for all eligible adults, including those aged <50 years who have relatively low vaccination rates compared with older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 458-464, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497875

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine the predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. This retrospective, single-center study included patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia (laboratory and radiologically confirmed) between March 9 and April 8, 2020. The composite endpoint was ICU admission or in-hospital mortality. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors associated with the composite endpoint. A total of 336 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. The median age was 54 years (interquartile range: 21), and 187 (55.7%) were men. Fifty-one (15.2%) patients were admitted to the ICU. In-hospital mortality occurred in 33 patients (9.8%). In the univariate analysis, 17 parameters were associated with the composite endpoint, and procalcitonin had the highest odds ratio (odds ratio [OR] = 36.568, confidence interval [CI] = 5.145-259.915). Our results revealed that body temperature (OR = 1.489, CI = 1.023-2.167, P = 0.037), peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) (OR = 0.835, CI = 0.773-0.901, P < 0.001), and consolidation (> 25%) on chest computed tomography (OR = 3.170, CI = 1.218-8.252, P = 0.018) at admission were independent predictors. As a result, increased body temperature, decreased SpO2, a high level of procalcitonin, and degree of consolidation on chest computed tomography may predict a poor prognosis and have utility in the management of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
14.
CMAJ ; 193(42): E1619-E1625, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between February and June 2021, the initial wild-type strains of SARS-CoV-2 were supplanted in Ontario, Canada, by new variants of concern (VOCs), first those with the N501Y mutation (i.e., Alpha/B1.1.17, Beta/B.1.351 and Gamma/P.1 variants) and then the Delta/B.1.617 variant. The increased transmissibility of these VOCs has been documented, but knowledge about their virulence is limited. We used Ontario's COVID-19 case data to evaluate the virulence of these VOCs compared with non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 strains, as measured by risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. METHODS: We created a retrospective cohort of people in Ontario who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were screened for VOCs, with dates of test report between Feb. 7 and June 27, 2021. We constructed mixed-effect logistic regression models with hospitalization, ICU admission and death as outcome variables. We adjusted models for age, sex, time, vaccination status, comorbidities and pregnancy status. We included health units as random intercepts. RESULTS: Our cohort included 212 326 people. Compared with non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 strains, the adjusted elevation in risk associated with N501Y-positive variants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42%-63%) for hospitalization, 89% (95% CI 67%-117%) for ICU admission and 51% (95% CI 30%-78%) for death. Increased risk with the Delta variant was more pronounced at 108% (95% CI 78%-140%) for hospitalization, 235% (95% CI 160%-331%) for ICU admission and 133% (95% CI 54%-231%) for death. INTERPRETATION: The increasing virulence of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs will lead to a considerably larger, and more deadly, pandemic than would have occurred in the absence of the emergence of VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Distribution , COVID-19/transmission , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258918, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496517

ABSTRACT

The objective was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the two different epidemic periods. Prospective, observational, cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19. A total of 421 consecutive patients were included, 188 during the first period (March-May 2020) and 233 in the second wave (July-December 2020). Clinical, epidemiological, prognostic and therapeutic data were compared. Patients of the first outbreak were older and more comorbid, presented worse PaO2/FiO2 ratio and an increased creatinine and D-dimer levels at hospital admission. The hospital stay was shorter (14.5[8;29] vs 8[6;14] days, p<0.001), ICU admissions (31.9% vs 13.3%, p<0.001) and the number of patients who required mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.12 [0.05-10.26]; p<0.001) were reduced. There were no significant differences in hospital and 30-day after discharge mortality (adjusted HR = 1.56; p = 0.1056) or hospital readmissions. New treatments and clinical strategies appear to improve hospital length, ICU admissions and the requirement for mechanical ventilation. However, we did not observe differences in mortality or readmissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends inpatient hospital treatment of young infants up to two months old with any sign of possible serious infection. However, each sign may have a different risk of death. The current study aims to calculate the case fatality ratio for infants with individual or combined signs of possible serious infection, stratified by inpatient or outpatient treatment. METHODS: We analysed data from the African Neonatal Sepsis Trial conducted in five sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Trained study nurses classified sick infants as pneumonia (fast breathing in 7-59 days old), severe pneumonia (fast breathing in 0-6 days old), clinical severe infection [severe chest indrawing, high (> = 38°C) or low body temperature (<35.5°C), stopped feeding well, or movement only when stimulated] or critical illness (convulsions, not able to feed at all, or no movement at all), and referred them to a hospital for inpatient treatment. Infants whose caregivers refused referral received outpatient treatment. The case fatality ratio by day 15 was calculated for individual and combined clinical signs and stratified by place of treatment. An infant with signs of clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia was recategorised as having low- (case fatality ratio ≤2%) or moderate- (case fatality ratio >2%) mortality risk. RESULTS: Of 7129 young infants with a possible serious infection, fast breathing (in 7-59 days old) was the most prevalent sign (26%), followed by high body temperature (20%) and severe chest indrawing (19%). Infants with pneumonia had the lowest case fatality ratio (0.2%), followed by severe pneumonia (2.0%), clinical severe infection (2.3%) and critical illness (16.9%). Infants with clinical severe infection had a wide range of case fatality ratios for individual signs (from 0.8% to 11.0%). Infants with pneumonia had similar case fatality ratio for outpatient and inpatient treatment (0.2% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.74). Infants with clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia had a lower case fatality ratio among those who received outpatient treatment compared to inpatient treatment (1.9% vs. 6.5%, p<0.0001). We recategorised infants into low-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio ≤2%) of clinical severe infection (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing) or severe pneumonia and moderate-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio >2%) (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection). We found that both categories had four times lower case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient than inpatient treatment, i.e., 1.0% vs. 4.0% (p<0.0001) and 5.3% vs. 22.4% (p<0.0001), respectively. In contrast, infants with signs of critical illness had nearly two times higher case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient versus inpatient treatment (21.7% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.097). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk differs with clinical signs. Young infants with a possible serious infection can be grouped into those with low-mortality risk signs (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing or severe pneumonia); moderate-mortality risk signs (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection), or high-mortality risk signs (signs of critical illness). New treatment strategies that consider differential mortality risks for the place of treatment and duration of inpatient treatment could be developed and evaluated based on these findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under ID ACTRN 12610000286044.


Subject(s)
Fever/complications , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality/trends , Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/epidemiology , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology
17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 155, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We defined the frequency of respiratory community-acquired bacterial co-infection in patients with COVID-19, i.e. patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or a COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) score ≥ 4, based on a complete clinical assessment, including prior antibiotic use, clinical characteristics, inflammatory markers, chest computed tomography (CT) results and microbiological test results. METHODS: Our retrospective study was conducted within a cohort of prospectively included patients admitted for COVID-19 in our tertiary medical centres between 1-3-2020 and 1-6-2020. A multidisciplinary study team developed a diagnostic protocol to retrospectively categorize patients as unlikely, possible or probable bacterial co-infection based on clinical, radiological and microbiological parameters in the first 72 h of admission. Within the three categories, we summarized patient characteristics and antibiotic consumption. RESULTS: Among 281 included COVID-19 patients, bacterial co-infection was classified as unlikely in 233 patients (82.9%), possible in 35 patients (12.4%) and probable in 3 patients (1.1%). Ten patients (3.6%) could not be classified due to inconclusive data. Within 72 h of hospital admission, 81% of the total study population and 78% of patients classified as unlikely bacterial co-infection received antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients are unlikely to have a respiratory community-acquired bacterial co-infection. This study underpins recommendations for restrictive use of antibacterial drugs in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 148, 2020 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza-related incidence data are limited in many countries in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance. This study aimed to address the information gap by estimating the burden and seasonality of medically attended influenza like illness in Ethiopia. METHOD: Influenza sentinel surveillance data collected from 3 influenza like illness (ILI) and 5 Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) sites from 2012 to 2017 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were applied for simple analysis. The proportion of medically attended influenza positive cases and incidence rate of ILI was determined using total admitted patients and catchment area population. Seasonality was estimated based on weekly trend of ILI and predicted threshold was done by applying the "Moving Epidemic Method (MEM)". RESULT: A total of 5715 medically attended influenza suspected patients who fulfills ILI and SARI case definition (77% ILI and 23% SARI) was enrolled. Laboratory confirmed influenza virus (influenza positive case) among ILI and SARI suspected case was 25% (1130/4426) and 3% (36/1289). Of which, 65% were influenza type A. The predominantly circulating influenza subtype were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (n = 455, 60%) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 293, 38.81%). The estimated mean annual influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population. The Incidence rate of ILI was higher in the age group of 15-44 years of age ['Incidence rate (R) = 254.6 per 100,000 population', 95% CI; 173.65, 335.55] and 5-14 years of age [R = 49.5, CI 95%; 31.47, 130.43]. The seasonality of influenza has two peak seasons; in a period from October-December and from April-June. CONCLUSION: Significant morbidity of influenza like illness was observed with two peak seasons of the year and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) remains the predominantly circulating influenza subtype. Further study need to be considered to identify potential risks and improving the surveillance system to continue early detection and monitoring of circulating influenza virus in the country has paramount importance.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance , Young Adult
20.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 14(5): 530-540, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza is an acute infection affecting all age groups; however, elderly patients are at an increased risk. We aim to describe the clinical characteristics and the circulation of influenza virus types in elderly patients admitted for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to a tertiary care hospital in Bucharest, Romania, part of the I-MOVE+ hospital network. METHODS: We conducted an active surveillance study at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr Matei Balș," Bucharest, Romania, during three consecutive influenza seasons: 2015/16, 2016/17, and 2017/18. All patients aged 65 and older admitted to our hospital for SARI were tested for influenza by PCR. RESULTS: A total of 349 eligible patients were tested during the study period, and 149 (42.7%) were confirmed with influenza. Most patients, 321 (92.5%) presented at least one underlying condition at the time of hospital admission, the most frequent being cardiovascular disease, 270 (78.3%). The main influenza viral subtype circulating in 2015/16 was A(H1N1)pdm09, followed by A(H3N2) in 2016/17 and B influenza in 2017/18. Case fatality was highest in the 2015/16 season (3.7%), 0% in 2016/17, and 1.0% in 2017/18. Vaccination coverage in elderly patients with SARI from our study population was 22 (6.3%) over the three seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has highlighted a high burden of comorbidities in elderly patients presenting with SARI during winter season in Romania. The influenza vaccine coverage rate needs to be substantially increased in the elderly population, through targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Male , Romania/epidemiology , Seasons , Tertiary Healthcare
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