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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(43): e308, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of isolating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in general wards, we compared the rates of COVID-19 infection in nurses and nursing assistants working in COVID-19 designated wards and in general wards of our hospital from 1 October 2021 to 21 April 2022. METHODS: This study was conducted in a 2,700-bed tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. Designated wards comprised single, negative pressure rooms and a 100% outdoor air system. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 2,698 nurses and nursing assistants were employed at our hospital, of whom 310 (11%) were working in the designated wards, and the remaining 2,388 (89%) in the general wards, and among whom 1,158 (43%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The healthcare workers (HCWs) in the designated wards were less frequently diagnosed with COVID-19 than those in the general wards (31% vs. 45%, P < 0.001). During the period before patients with COVID-19 were isolated in general wards, and during the period after these cases were isolated in general ward, HCWs in designated wards were less frequently infected with the virus than those in general wards (7% vs. 11%, P = 0.039; and 23% vs. 33%, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: HCWs in designated wards have a lower rate of contracting COVID-19 than those in general wards. A lack of exposure to undiagnosed cases and their caregivers, greater care with social distancing outside the hospital, higher rates of 3-dose vaccinations, and the use of isolation rooms with negative pressure may be associated with this finding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patients' Rooms , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Hospitals
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e38604, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virtual care use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of that shift on patient and provider experiences is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient and provider experiences with virtual visits across an academic, ambulatory hospital in Toronto, Canada and assessed predictors of positive experience with virtual care. METHODS: Survey data were analyzed from consenting patients who attended at least one virtual visit (video or telephone) and from consenting providers who delivered at least one virtual visit. Distributions for demographic variables and responses to survey questions are reported, with statistical significance assessed using chi-square tests and t tests. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to identify any patient predictors of responses. RESULTS: During the study period, 253 patients (mean age 45.1, SD 15.6 years) completed 517 video visit surveys, and 147 patients (mean age 41.6, SD 16.4 years) completed 209 telephone visit surveys. A total of 75 and 94 providers completed the survey in June 2020 and June 2021, respectively. On a scale from 1 to 10 regarding likelihood to recommend virtual care to others, fewer providers rated a score of 8 or above compared with patients (providers: 62/94, 66% for video and 49/94, 52% for telephone; patients: 415/517, 80% for video and 150/209, 72% for telephone). Patients of non-White ethnicity had lower odds of rating a high score of 9 or 10 compared with White patients (odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Patient experiences with virtual care were generally positive, but provider experiences were less so. Findings suggest potential differences in patient experience by ethnicity, warranting further investigation into equity concerns with virtual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ontario/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care , Hospitals
3.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 31(1): e2021836, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile and temporal variation of hospital admissions and deaths due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by COVID-19 in Piauí, Brazil, according to place of hospitalization. METHODS: We performed a descriptive study using data from the Influenza Surveillance Information System between 2020 and 2021. Case fatality ratio among hospital records with outcome and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS: We included 12,649 individuals who were mostly male (57.1%), Black (61.2%) and had one or two comorbidities (30.5%). Case fatality ratio among hospital records with outcome was higher in the state's interior region than in its capital, with proportion of 44.1% (95%CI 42.0;46.3) for those who were hospitalized, 82.3% (95%CI 79.7;84.8) for those admitted to intensive care units and 96.6% (95%CI 94.9;97.8) for those undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The study enabled characterization of the profile of SARS hospitalizations due to COVID-19 in Piauí and demonstrated high case fatality ratio, among hospital records with outcome, which remained high during the study period, especially in the interior of the state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275381, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109318

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: One of the stages of reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 is the S-protein glycosylation to facilitate penetration into target cells. It has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2 is able to enter erythrocytes, interact with heme and porphyrin, which could influence HbA1c levels. Assessment of HbA1c levels in individuals with acute COVID-19 and after recovery may show clinical relevance of this hypothesis. AIM: To assess HbA1c levels in patients with COVID-19 in the acute phase and in early (6-8 weeks) and late (52±2 weeks) periods after recovery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter prospective study, which included patients hospitalized in Endocrinology Research Centre and the City Clinical Hospital № 52" diagnosed with COVID-19, virus identified/ not identified. Patients were divided into three groups according to baseline HbA1c level and the presence or absence of previous history of diabetes previous history of diabetes mellitus (DM): HbA1c ≤ 6.0%, HbA1c > 6.0% and patients with DM. Patients were examined during the acute COVID-19 phase and in early (6-8 weeks) and late (52±2 weeks) periods after recovery. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed in the group with initial HbA1c > 6.0% to clarify the diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 194 patients in the study. During the follow-up, 52 patients were examined in 6-8 week period: 7 with HbA1c ≤ 6.0%, 34 with HbA1c > 6.0%, 11-with previously diagnosed DM. Carbohydrate metabolism assessment in the later stages (52±2 weeks) after recovery was performed in 78 patients: 33 patients with HbA1c ≤ 6.0%, 36 patients with HbA1c > 6.0% and 9 patients with previously established diabetes. HbA1c median in patients with HbA1c ≤ 6.0% was 5.7% [5.3;5.8], with HbA1c>6.0% -6.4% [6.2; 6.6], with previously diagnosed DM-7.7% [7.2; 8.9]. Statistically significant decrease in HbA1c over time 6-8 weeks after extracts were obtained in both groups of individuals without a history of DM (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). After 52±2 weeks we observed HbA1c decrease in all three groups (Fridman test, p<0.05): in patients with HbA1c ≤ 6.0% median HbA1c was 5.5[5.3;5.7], with HbA1c>6.0% - 6.1[6.15;6.54], with previously diagnosed DM-7.8 [5.83; 8.08]. Development of DM after 52±2 weeks was recorded in 7.24% of all examined patients without a history of DM, which is 16.6% of the total number of patients examined in dynamics with HbA1c > 6.0%. CONCLUSION: HbA1c elevation during the acute phase of COVID-19 may be false due to the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on hemoglobin kinetics and/or detection on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virion highly glycosylated S-proteins by high performance liquid chromatography determinations. Upon detection HbA1c > 6.0% in patients with COVID-19 in the active phase of the disease without concomitant hyperglycemia re-determine the level of HbA1c after recovery is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Survivors
5.
Global Health ; 18(1): 92, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amidst the climate crisis, a key goal of the medical sector is to reduce its large carbon footprint. Although the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic greatly impacted the medical sector, its influence on carbon footprints remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the carbon footprint of a university hospital with a medical research centre over the past 10 years. METHODS: Data on electricity, gas, and water usage, pharmaceutical and medical supply costs, and waste amounts were recorded for Nagoya University Hospital from April 2010 to March 2021. The relevant emission factors were obtained from the Japanese government and the overall monthly carbon footprint was reported according to the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the carbon footprint was then compared for three types of emission sources. Moreover, a regression model was used to plot quadratic functions as approximate functions using monthly carbon emissions and monthly average external temperatures. Finally, the monthly carbon footprint was calculated per hospital admission. RESULTS: The overall carbon footprint of the hospital was 73,546 tCO2e in 2020, revealing an increase of 26.60% over the last 10 years. Carbon emissions from electricity consumption represented 26% of total emissions. The individual carbon footprints of pharmaceuticals, medical supplies, waste, and water usage also increased from 2010 to 2020. The overall monthly carbon footprint was positively correlated with the average monthly temperature (R2 = 0.7566, p < 0.001). Compared with 2019, the overall carbon footprint decreased by 2.19% in 2020. Moreover, the monthly carbon footprint per hospital admission increased significantly between 2018 (0.24 tCO2e/admission) and 2020 (0.26 tCO2e/admission) (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The overall carbon footprint of the hospital generally increased over the last decade. During the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020, the carbon footprint decreased slightly, likely because of the reduced number of patients. However, the carbon footprint per admission increased, which was attributed to more complicated patient backgrounds because of the ageing population. Therefore, evaluation of carbon emissions in the medical sector is urgently required in order to act on the climate crisis as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Humans , Carbon Footprint , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Carbon , Water , Hospitals
6.
J Healthc Manag ; 67(6): 446-457, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107631

ABSTRACT

GOAL: This study explored the use of a Lean daily management system (DMS) for COVID-19 response and recovery in U.S. hospitals and health systems. Originally developed in manufacturing, Lean is an evidence-based approach to quality and process improvement in healthcare. Although Lean has been studied in individual hospital units and outpatient practices, it has not been examined as a whole system response to crisis events. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 46 executive leaders, clinical leaders, and frontline staff in four hospitals and health systems across the United States. We developed a semistructured interview guide to understand DMS implementation in these care delivery organizations. As interviews took place 6-8 months following the onset of the pandemic, a subset of our interview questions centered on DMS use to meet the demands of COVID-19. Based on a deductive approach to qualitative analysis, we identified clusters of themes that described how DMS facilitated rapid system response to the public health emergency. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There were many important ways in which U.S. hospitals and health systems leveraged their DMS to address COVID-19 challenges. These included the use of tiered huddles to facilitate rapid communication, the creation of standard work for redeployed staff, and structured problem-solving to prioritize new areas for improvement. We also discovered ways that the pandemic itself affected DMS implementation in all organizations. COVID-19 universally created greater DMS visibility by opening lines of communication among leadership, strengthening measurement and accountability, and empowering staff to develop solutions at the front lines. Many lessons learned using DMS for crisis management will carry forward into COVID-19 recovery efforts. Lessons include expanding telehealth, reactivating incident command systems as needed, and efficiently coordinating resources amid potential future shortages. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Overall, the Lean DMS functioned as a robust property that enabled quick organizational response to unpredictable events. Our findings on the use of DMS are consistent with organizational resilience that emphasizes collective sense-making and awareness of incident status, team decision-making, and frequent interaction and coordination. These features of resilience are supported by DMS practices such as tiered huddles for rapid information dissemination and alignment across organizational hierarchies. When used in conjunction with plan-do-study-act methodology, huddles provide teams with enhanced feedback that strengthens their ability to make changes as needed. Moreover, gaps between work-as-imagined (how work should be done) and work-as-done (how work is actually done) may be exacerbated in the initial chaos of emergency events but can be minimized through the development of standard work protocols. As a facilitator of resilience, the Lean DMS may be used in a variety of challenging situations to ensure high standards of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , Leadership , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e195, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106270

ABSTRACT

Episodes of bacterial superinfections have been well identified for several respiratory viruses, notably influenza. In this retrospective study, we compared the frequency of superinfections in COVID-19 patients to those found in influenza-positive patients, and to controls without viral infection. We included 42 468 patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 and 266 261 subjects who had tested COVID-19 negative between 26 February 2020 and 1 May 2021. In addition, 4059 patients were included who had tested positive for the influenza virus between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2019. Bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients were more frequently healthcare-associated, and acquired in ICUs, were associated with longer ICU stays, and occurred in older and male patients when compared to controls and to influenza patients (P < 0.0001 for all). The most common pathogens proved to be less frequent in COVID-19 patients, including fewer cases of bacteraemia involving E. coli (P < 0.0001) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (P = 0.027) when compared to controls. In respiratory specimens Haemophilus influenzae (P < 0.0001) was more frequent in controls, while Streptococcus pneumoniae (P < 0.0001) was more frequent in influenza patients. Likewise, species associated with nosocomial transmission, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were more frequent among COVID-19 patients. Finally, we observed a high frequency of Enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia among COVID-19 patients, which were mainly ICU-acquired and associated with a longer timescale to acquisition.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Superinfection , Humans , Male , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Bacteremia/epidemiology
8.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120485, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scientific data regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 neurological manifestations and prognosis in Latin America countries is still lacking. Therefore, the study aims to understand neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV 2 infection and outcomes in the Brazilian population. METHODS: This study is part of the Brazilian COVID-19 Registry, a multicentric cohort, including data from 37 hospitals. For the present analysis, patients were grouped according to the presence of reported symptoms (i.e., headache; anosmia and ageusia; syncope and dizziness) vs. clinically-diagnosed neurological manifestations (clinically-defined neurological syndrome: neurological signs or diagnoses captured by clinical evaluation) and matched with patients without neurological manifestations by age, sex, number of comorbidities, hospital of admission, and whether or not patients had underlying neurological disease. RESULTS: From 6,635 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 30.8% presented reported neurological manifestations, 10.3% were diagnosed with a neurological syndrome and 60.1% did not show any neurological manifestations. In patients with reported symptoms, the most common ones were headache (20.7%), ageusia (11.1%) and anosmia (8.0%). In patients with neurological syndromes, acute encephalopathy was the most common diagnosis (9.7%). In the matched analysis, patients with neurological syndromes presented more cases of septic shock (17.0 vs. 13.0%, p = 0.045), intensive care unit admission (45.3 vs. 38.9%, p = 0.023), and mortality (38.7 vs. 32.6%, p = 0.026; and 39.2 vs. 30.3%, p < 0.001) when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 in-hospital patients with clinically defined neurological syndromes presented a higher incidence of septic shock, ICU admission and death when compared to controls.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Shock, Septic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , Shock, Septic/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Hospitals
9.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104295, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A comparison of pneumonias due to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, in terms of clinical course and predictors of outcomes, might inform prognosis and resource management. We aimed to compare clinical course and outcome predictors in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia using multi-state modelling and supervised machine learning on clinical data among hospitalised patients. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 (March-December 2020) or influenza (Jan 2015-March 2020) pneumonia had the composite of hospital mortality and hospice discharge as the primary outcome. Multi-state models compared differences in oxygenation/ventilatory utilisation between pneumonias longitudinally throughout hospitalisation. Differences in predictors of outcome were modelled using supervised machine learning classifiers. FINDINGS: Among 2,529 hospitalisations with SARS-CoV-2 and 2,256 with influenza pneumonia, the primary outcome occurred in 21% and 9%, respectively. Multi-state models differentiated oxygen requirement progression between viruses, with SARS-CoV-2 manifesting rapidly-escalating early hypoxemia. Highly contributory classifier variables for the primary outcome differed substantially between viruses. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia differ in presentation, hospital course, and outcome predictors. These pathogen-specific differential responses in viral pneumonias suggest distinct management approaches should be investigated. FUNDING: This project was supported by NIH/NCATS UL1 TR002345, NIH/NCATS KL2 TR002346 (PGL), the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation grant 2015215 (PGL), NIH/NHLBI R35 HL140026 (CSC), and a Big Ideas Award from the BJC HealthCare and Washington University School of Medicine Healthcare Innovation Lab and NIH/NIGMS R35 GM142992 (PS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(15): 3839-3847, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deaths from pneumonia were decreasing globally prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, but it is unclear whether this was due to changes in patient populations, illness severity, diagnosis, hospitalization thresholds, or treatment. Using clinical data from the electronic health record among a national cohort of patients initially diagnosed with pneumonia, we examined temporal trends in severity of illness, hospitalization, and short- and long-term deaths. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort PARTICIPANTS: All patients >18 years presenting to emergency departments (EDs) at 118 VA Medical Centers between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2016 with an initial clinical diagnosis of pneumonia and confirmed by chest imaging report. EXPOSURES: Year of encounter. MAIN MEASURES: Hospitalization and 30-day and 90-day mortality. Illness severity was defined as the probability of each outcome predicted by machine learning predictive models using age, sex, comorbidities, vital signs, and laboratory data from encounters during years 2006-2007, and similar models trained on encounters from years 2015 to 2016. We estimated the changes in hospitalizations and 30-day and 90-day mortality between the first and the last 2 years of the study period accounted for by illness severity using time covariate decompositions with model estimates. RESULTS: Among 196,899 encounters across the study period, hospitalization decreased from 71 to 63%, 30-day mortality 10 to 7%, 90-day mortality 16 to 12%, and 1-year mortality 29 to 24%. Comorbidity risk increased, but illness severity decreased. Decreases in illness severity accounted for 21-31% of the decrease in hospitalizations, and 45-47%, 32-24%, and 17-19% of the decrease in 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality. Findings were similar among underrepresented patients and those with only hospital discharge diagnosis codes. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes for community-onset pneumonia have improved across the VA healthcare system after accounting for illness severity, despite an increase in cases and comorbidity burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Veterans , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Patient Acuity , Hospitals
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e061317, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pandemics negatively impact healthcare workers' (HCW's) mental health and well-being causing additional feelings of anxiety, depression, moral distress and post-traumatic stress. A comprehensive review and evidence synthesis of HCW's mental health and well-being interventions through pandemics reporting mental health outcomes was conducted addressing two questions: (1) What mental health support interventions have been reported in recent pandemics, and have they been effective in improving the mental health and well-being of HCWs? (2) Have any mobile apps been designed and implemented to support HCWs' mental health and well-being during pandemics? DESIGN: A narrative evidence synthesis was conducted using Cochrane criteria for synthesising and presenting findings when systematic review and pooling data for statistical analysis are not suitable due to the heterogeneity of the studies. DATA SOURCES: Evidence summary resources, bibliographic databases, grey literature sources, clinical trial registries and protocol registries were searched. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Subject heading terms and keywords covering three key concepts were searched: SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (or similar infectious diseases) epidemics, health workforce and mental health support interventions. Searches were limited to English-language items published from 1 January 2000 to 14 June 2022. No publication-type limit was used. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two authors determined eligibility and extracted data from identified manuscripts. Data was synthesised into tables and refined by coauthors. RESULTS: 2694 studies were identified and 27 papers were included. Interventions were directed at individuals and/or organisations and most were COVID-19 focused. Interventions had some positive impacts on HCW's mental health and well-being, but variable study quality, low sample sizes and lack of control conditions were limitations. Two mobile apps were identified with mixed outcomes. CONCLUSION: HCW interventions were rapidly designed and implemented with few comprehensively described or evaluated. Tailored interventions that respond to HCWs' needs using experience co-design for mental health and well-being are required with process and outcome evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals
12.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon ; 44(1): 32-40, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101747

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: SARS-CoV-2-related infection can determine hospital-acquired infections among patients and healthcare workers. Aim of this paper was to review the literature for developing a strategy for protecting healthcare workers, patients, and visitors by COVID-19 hospital infection. A critical and rapid revision of the literature and international standards and Regulations on this topic allowed us to propose an evidencebased strategy in the framework of the workplace risk assessment for preventing nosocomial COVID-19 outbreaks. The virus' high transmissibility, the high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers and false-negative Covid-19 rates on naso- and oropharingeal swabs, put hospitals at high-risk of COVID-19 outbreaks. A comprehensive strategy based on standard precautions, administrative, environmental, and engineering controls, a screening protocol for patients on their admission to hospital, and a testing-based strategy for HCWs within health surveillance programs may prevent the onset of hospital outbreaks, which are a threat to community, patients and HCWs, compromising the sustainability of healthcare facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infection Control , Health Personnel , Hospitals
13.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 69-78, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The longevity of vaccine effectiveness and antibody titer after the Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccination booster in healthcare workers in Indonesia is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of healthcare workers at the Universitas Indonesia Hospital after Moderna mRNA COVID-19 booster vaccination. An Immunology Analyzer with Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) test was used to examine Anti SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD levels. Antibody levels were classified into two systems (3 categories, and 2 categories). RESULTS: There were 31 male subjects (75.6%), 33 subjects (80.5%) aged 25-39 years, 17 subjects (41.5%) with overweight BMI, 35 subjects (85.4%) without comorbidities, and 29 subjects without previous history of COVID-19 infection (70.7%) who had antibody titer >1000 AU/ml. There were 27 subjects (65.9%) who had a booster shot ≥6 months after the second vaccination with antibody titer >1000 AU/ml. In this study, there was no significant correlation between antibody titer with factors such as gender, age, BMI, comorbidities, history of COVID-19 infection and time between the 2nd vaccination and booster vaccination. CONCLUSION: There is no significant correlation between antibody titer with factors such as gender, age, BMI, comorbidities, history of COVID-19 infection and time between the 2nd vaccination and booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Indonesia , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Hospitals , RNA, Messenger
14.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 45, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Commentators believe that the ethical decision-making climate is instrumental in enhancing interprofessional collaboration in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was twofold: (1) to determine the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave one's job among nurses and physicians, and between the different ICU types and (2) determine the association between the ethical climate, moral distress, and intention to leave. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study between May 2021 and August 2021 involving 206 nurses and physicians in a large urban academic hospital. We used the validated Ethical Decision-Making Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) and the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP) tools and asked respondents their intention to leave their jobs. We also made comparisons between the different ICU types. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to identify statistically significant associations between the Ethical Climate, Moral Distress, and Intention to Leave. RESULTS: Nurses perceived the ethical climate for decision-making as less favorable than physicians (p < 0.05). They also had significantly greater levels of moral distress and higher intention to leave their job rates than physicians. Regarding the ICU types, the Neonatal/Pediatric unit had a significantly higher overall ethical climate score than the Medical and Surgical units (3.54 ± 0.66 vs. 3.43 ± 0.81 vs. 3.30 ± 0.69; respectively; both p ≤ 0.05) and also demonstrated lower moral distress scores (both p < 0.05) and lower "intention to leave" scores compared with both the Medical and Surgical units. The ethical climate and moral distress scores were negatively correlated (r = -0.58, p < 0.001); moral distress and "intention to leave" was positively correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.001); and ethical climate and "intention to leave" were negatively correlated (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences exist in the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave between nurses and physicians and between the different ICU types. Inspecting the individual factors of the ethical climate and moral distress tools can help hospital leadership target organizational factors that improve interprofessional collaboration, lessening moral distress, decreasing turnover, and improved patient care.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Intention , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Job Satisfaction , Morals , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221134560, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of July 2022, there have been more than 91.3 million cases of COVID-19 and nearly 1.03 million deaths in the United States alone. In addition, many people who survived COVID-19 had long-term symptoms, such as fatigue, dyspnea, loss of smell and taste, depression, and anxiety. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the status of COVID-19 patients who were previously hospitalized. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and its affiliated University Medical Center under IRB of L21-144. We included all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and followed up in our Internal Medicine Clinic at any time between April 1, 2020, and April 1, 2021, and reviewed follow-up data for these patients after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients were included; 59 (46%) were men, and 69 (54%) were women with an average age of 59.7 ± 14.8 years. Most of the patients (n = 78, 60.9%) identified their race as Hispanic or Latino origin; the next largest group was Caucasian (n = 29, 22.65%). The average number of days until post-hospitalization follow-up was 36 ± 38 days. The 50% of the patients (n = 64) used telemedicine for follow-up visits. Important comorbidities in these patients included diabetes (n = 84, 65.6%) and hypertension (n = 94, 73.4%). Thirty-four patients (26.6%) reported respiratory symptoms at their follow-up appointments, 24 patients (18.8%) reported constitutional symptoms, 12 patients (9.4%) reported GI symptoms, and 25 patients (19.5%) reported other symptoms, such as paresthesia, lower extremity edema, or psychological symptoms. After hospital discharge, 54 patients had follow-up chest x-rays, and 41 (75.9%) still had abnormal findings consistent with COVID-19 imaging characteristics. Follow-up laboratory tests identified 44 patients (77.2%, 57 tested) with elevated D-dimer levels, 44 patients (78.6%, 56 tested) with high ferritin levels, and 21patients (35.6%, 59 tested) with elevated troponin T HS levels. CONCLUSION: Long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms in these patients included respiratory symptoms (26.6%), constitutional symptoms (18.8%), GI symptoms (9.4%), and other symptoms, such as paresthesia, lower extremity edema, or psychological symptoms (19.5%). The rate of telehealth follow-up was 50%. Many patients had elevated inflammatory markers that will need follow up to determine the clinical implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Paresthesia , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Hospitals
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e059656, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 outbreak, medical educators' main concern has been how to prepare new physicians and medical students to meet their obligations as healthcare providers under novel circumstances. This study aims at exploring how trainees perceive their commitments as physicians under the threat of a pandemic. DESIGN: A qualitative method was employed. Researchers interviewed medical students under clerkship training (fifth and sixth-year medical students) and new physicians undergoing postgraduate year (PGY) and specialty training. SETTING: A university hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: The team conducted three focus groups for participants in three separate training stages: clerks, PGY students (PGYs), and residents. Researchers collected data from 31 March to 2 April 2020 and analysed the thematic analysis results. RESULTS: Seventeen medical students and new physicians took part in the focus groups, five of whom (31.25%) were female. Participants consisted of four residents, six PGYs, and seven medical students. Through their responses, the authors determined four major dimensions with corresponding subdimensions that significantly affected their sense of medical professionalism, including medical knowledge and clinical skills, sense of duty towards public health, teamwork and protection of patient rights. CONCLUSIONS: We therefore concluded that participants grew to accept their roles after acquiring the knowledge and skills needed to care for patients with COVID-19. Alternative teaching arrangements and their impact on trainees' clinical performance require further discussion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Students, Medical , Humans , Female , Male , Professionalism , Taiwan/epidemiology , Hospitals
17.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This paper explores the role of hospital cleaners and their contribution to healthcare safety. Few studies have examined the activities and input of hospital cleaners, rendering them largely invisible in healthcare research. Yet, as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has demonstrated, this sizeable workforce carries out tasks critical to healthcare facilities and wider health system functioning. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Drawing on the work of Habermas, the authors examine the literature surrounding cleaners and quality and safety in healthcare. The authors theorise cleaners' work as both instrumental and communicative and examine the perceptions of healthcare professionals and managers, as well as cleaners themselves, of healthcare professionals and managers' role and contribution to quality and safety. FINDINGS: Cleaners are generally perceived by the literature as performing repetitive - albeit important - tasks in isolation from patients. Cleaners are not considered part of the "healthcare team" and are excluded from decision-making and interprofessional communication. Yet, cleaners can contribute to patient care; ubiquity and proximity of cleaners to patients offer insights and untapped potential for involvement in hospital safety. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper brings an overdue focus to this labour force by examining the nature and potential of their work. This paper offers a new application of Habermas' work to this domain, rendering visible how the framing of cleaners' role works to exclude this important workforce from participation in the patient safety agenda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Safety , Personnel, Hospital , Workforce
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31253, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective interventions to promote well-being at work are required to reduce the prevalence and consequences of stress and burnout especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study determined the effects of mindful coloring on perceived stress levels, mental well-being, burnout, and state and trait mindfulness levels for nurses during COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, two-armed, parallel, superiority, blinded randomized controlled trial. Seventy-seven participants were randomly allocated (by computer-generated sequence) to either mindful coloring (n = 39) or waitlist control groups (n = 38). Twenty-seven nurses in the mindful coloring group and 32 in the control group were included in the full compliance per protocol analysis. The mindful coloring intervention included participants viewing a 3-minutes instructional video and coloring mandalas for at least 5 working days or 100 minutes in total during a 10-day period. Participants in both groups completed the Perceived Stress Scale (total score 0-40), short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (total score 7-35), Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel (3 subscales), Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (total score 24-120) and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale-State version (total score 0-30) instruments. The primary outcome was the perceived stress level. RESULTS: Baseline prevalence of moderate to high perceived stress level was high (79.2%). There was a large mindful coloring effect on reducing mean perceived stress levels (Mean difference [MD] in change between groups -3.0, 95% CI: -5.0 to -1.00; Cohen's d = 0.80). Mindful coloring may lead to a small improvement in mental well-being level (P = .08), with an improvement found in the intervention group (MD 0.9, 95% CI 0.0-1.8, P = .04) through enhanced state mindfulness (P < .001). There were no effects on changing burnout subscales or trait mindfulness levels. No adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSION: Coloring mandalas may be an effective low-cost brief intervention to reduce perceived stress levels through enhancing state mindfulness and it may promote mental well-being. Hospitals may promote or provide mindful coloring as a self-care and stress-relief practice for nurses during their off hours or work breaks.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Humans , Mindfulness/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Hospitals
20.
Health Secur ; 20(S1): S31-S38, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097253

ABSTRACT

In February 2015, the US Department of Health and Human Services developed a tiered hospital network to deliver safe and effective care to patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and other special pathogens. The tiered network consisted of regional special pathogen treatment centers, state- or jurisdiction-designated treatment centers, assessment hospitals able to safely isolate a patient until a diagnosis of EVD was confirmed and transfer the patient, and frontline healthcare facilities able to identify and isolate patients with EVD and facilitate transport to higher-tier facilities. The National Emerging Special Pathogens Training and Education Center (NETEC) was established in tandem to support the development of healthcare facility special pathogen management capabilities. In August 2020, 20 hospitals that previously received an onsite readiness consultation by NETEC were surveyed to assess how special pathogen programs were leveraged for COVID-19 response. All surveyed facilities indicated their programs were leveraged for COVID-19 response in at least 1 of the following ways: NETEC-sponsored resources and training, utilization of patient isolation spaces, specially trained staff, and supplies. Personal protective equipment shortages were experienced by 95% of facilities, with 80% of facilities reporting that special pathogens program personal protective equipment was used to support facility response to COVID-19 admissions. More than half of facilities (63%) reported leveraging biocontainment unit staff to provide training and education to frontline staff during initial response to COVID-19. These findings have implications for planning and investments to avoid the panic-then-forget cycle that hinders sustained preparedness for future special pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Isolation , Personal Protective Equipment
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