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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 29: e939915, 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Monitoring of mortality rate and causes of death in pediatric hospitals is required in Poland. This study is aimed to evaluate the causes of death in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents obtained from the medical records of the University Children's Clinical Hospital (UCCH) of Bialystok between 2018 and 2021. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Medical records of 59 patients (12 neonates, 17 infants, 14 children, 16 adolescents) who died in the UCCH of Bialystok in 2018-2021 were analyzed. The records included personal data, medical history, and causes of death. RESULTS Between 2018 and 2021, the leading death causes were congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (25.42%, N=15) and conditions originating in the perinatal period (11.86%, N=7). The leading death causes in each age group were: in neonates - congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (50%, N=6), in infants -conditions originating in the perinatal period (29.41%, N=5), in children - diseases of the respiratory system (30.77%, N=4), and in teenagers - external causes of morbidity (31%, N=5). Before the COVID-19 pandemic (2018-2019), the leading death causes were congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (20.69%, N=6) and conditions originating in the perinatal period (20.69%, N=6). During the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021), congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (26.67%, N=8) and COVID-19 (10.00%, N=3) were the most common death causes. CONCLUSIONS Leading death causes varied among age groups. The COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on pediatric causes of death and changed their distribution. The results of this analysis should be discussed and conclusions should improve the quality of pediatric care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals, Pediatric , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Child , Infant , Adolescent , Cause of Death , Pandemics , Universities , Chromosome Aberrations , Infant Mortality
2.
Pediatrics ; 151(5)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individual children's hospitals care for a small number of patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Administrative databases offer an opportunity to conduct generalizable research; however, identifying patients with MIS-C is challenging. METHODS: We developed and validated algorithms to identify MIS-C hospitalizations in administrative databases. We developed 10 approaches using diagnostic codes and medication billing data and applied them to the Pediatric Health Information System from January 2020 to August 2021. We reviewed medical records at 7 geographically diverse hospitals to compare potential cases of MIS-C identified by algorithms to each participating hospital's list of patients with MIS-C (used for public health reporting). RESULTS: The sites had 245 hospitalizations for MIS-C in 2020 and 358 additional MIS-C hospitalizations through August 2021. One algorithm for the identification of cases in 2020 had a sensitivity of 82%, a low false positive rate of 22%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 78%. For hospitalizations in 2021, the sensitivity of the MIS-C diagnosis code was 98% with 84% PPV. CONCLUSION: We developed high-sensitivity algorithms to use for epidemiologic research and high-PPV algorithms for comparative effectiveness research. Accurate algorithms to identify MIS-C hospitalizations can facilitate important research for understanding this novel entity as it evolves during new waves.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Medical Records , Child , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Algorithms , Databases, Factual , Hospitals, Pediatric , International Classification of Diseases
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 325-331, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2311099

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los inmunoensayos de detección rápida de antígenos (TRA) del SARS-CoV-2, son considerados adecuados para el diagnóstico en el punto de atención. El objetivo fue conocer la concordancia entre la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real con transcriptasa inversa (RT-qPCR, por su sigla en inglés) y los TRA en población pediátrica. Población y métodos. Se reclutaron todos los pacientes entre 1 mes y 17 años 11 meses de edad atendidos en la Unidad Febril de Urgencia de un hospital pediátrico entre el 11 de junio y el 3 de octubre de 2021. Se utilizó el TRA Panbio COVID-19 Ag® (Abbott Diagnostic) y, comométodo de referencia, la RT-qPCR (según el protocolo de los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades). Resultados. Se incluyeron 6491 pacientes. La prevalencia de COVID-19 fue del 2,8 %. El92,1 % de los sujetos presentaron síntomas. La sensibilidad, la especificidad y el índice kappa de concordancia para el TRA fueron del 71,0 %, 99,9 % y 0,813, respectivamente. El índice kappa yla sensibilidad del TRA fueron significativamentemayores en el grupo de 13 a 17 años (0,89 y 82,4 %,respectivamente) cuando se los comparó con los grupos de 0 a 5 y de 6 a 12 años. Esto podría deberse a la menor carga viral observada en los pacientes menores de 12 años. Conclusión. Si bien los TRA permiten acortar el tiempo de obtención de los resultados y mejorar la estrategia de aislamiento de pacientes con COVID-19, la sensibilidad en niños menores de 12 años o asintomáticos no se encontraría dentro de los rangos recomendados, sobre todo enperíodos de baja prevalencia de la enfermedad.


Introduction. Rapid antigen tests (RAgTs) for SARS-CoV-2 are considered adequate for diagnosis at the point of care. Our objective was to establish the agreement between reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RAgTs in the pediatric population. Population and methods. All patients aged 1 month to 17 years and 11 months seen at the Emergency Fever Unit of a children's hospital between 6-11-2021 and 10-3-2021 were recruited. The Panbio COVID-19 Ag® test (Abbott Diagnostic) was compared to the reference method RT-qPCR (as per the protocol suggested by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Results. A total of 6491 patients were included. The prevalence of COVID-19 was 2.8%. Symptoms were observed in 92.1%. Sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa index of agreement for the RAgT were 71.0%, 99.9%, and 0.813, respectively. The kappa index and the RAgT sensitivity were significantly higher in the group aged 13­17 years (0.89 and 82.4%, respectively) compared to the groups aged 0­5 and 6­12 years. This may be due to the lower viral load observed in patients younger than 12 years. Conclusion. Although RAgTs shorten the time to result and improve the isolation strategy for COVID-19 patients, their sensitivity in children younger than 12 years or asymptomatic children is not within the recommended ranges, especially during periods of low disease prevalence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Emergency Service, Hospital , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Pediatric
4.
Pediatrics ; 151(5)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze Australian national data to examine the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health-related hospital presentations among children and adolescents during the pandemic period with restrictions, and the period after the restrictions eased. METHODS: We analyzed the monthly mental health-related inpatient admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances data from 6 large pediatric hospitals across Australia, using the Bayesian structural time series models. The COVID-19 restriction period was from March 2020 to December 2021 and the COVID-19 restriction-eased period from January to June 2022. RESULTS: A total of 130 801 mental health-related hospital admissions (54 907) and ED attendances (75 894) were analyzed. During the COVID-19 restriction period, there was a significant increase in inpatient admissions related to deliberate self-harm behaviors (82%, 95% credible interval [CrI], 7%-160%) and ED attendances related to overall mental health disorders (15%, 95% CrI, 1.1%-30%) and eating disorders (76%, 95% CrI, 36%-115%). The increase was higher among females and those living in the least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, suggesting a widening gap between mental health-related presentations by sex and socioeconomic status. After the restrictions eased, there were slight declines in mental health-related hospital presentations; however, the numbers remained higher than the pre-COVID-19 levels. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in mental health-related hospital presentations during the COVID-19 period calls for additional support for pediatric mental health care, particularly for eating disorders and deliberate self-harm among female adolescents. It is important to monitor pediatric mental health service use as we enter "COVID-19 normal" period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Female , Bayes Theorem , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies
5.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284557, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Young children are among the most frequent patients at medical call centers, even though they are rarely severely ill. Respiratory tract symptoms are among the most prevalent reasons for contact in pediatric calls. Triage of children without visual cues and through second-hand information is perceived as difficult, with risks of over- and under-triage. OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and feasibility of introducing video triage of young children with respiratory symptoms at the medical helpline 1813 (MH1813) in Copenhagen, Denmark, as well as impact on patient outcome. METHODS: Prospective quality improvement study including 617 patients enrolled to video or standard telephone triage (1:1) from February 2019-March 2020. Data originated from MH1813 patient records, survey responses, and hospital charts. Primary outcome was difference in patients staying at home eight hours after the call. Secondary outcomes weas hospital outcome, feasibility and acceptability. Adverse events (intensive care unit admittance, lasting injuries, death) were registered. Logistic regression was used to test the effect on outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic shut the study down prematurely. RESULTS: In total, 54% of the included patients were video-triaged., and 63% of video triaged patients and 58% of telephone triaged patients were triaged to stay at home, (p = 0.19). Within eight and 24 hours, there was a tendency of fewer video-triaged patients being assessed at hospitals: 39% versus 46% (p = 0.07) and 41% versus 49% (p = 0.07), respectively. At 24 hours after the call, 2.8% of the patients were hospitalized for at least 12 hours. Video triage was highly feasible and acceptable (>90%) and no adverse events were registered. CONCLUSION: Video triage of young children with respiratory symptoms at a medical call center was safe and feasible. Only about 3% of all children needed hospitalization for at least 12 hours. Video triage may optimize hospital referrals and increase health care accessibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triage , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Prospective Studies , Quality Improvement , Pandemics , Telephone , Hospitals, Pediatric
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 225-231, Agosto 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2289231

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Se ha postulado que el aislamiento social debido a la pandemia de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) aumentaría la incidencia de abuso sexual infantojuvenil (ASIJ). Objetivo. Comparar la incidencia y las características de las consultas realizadas en Ginecología en relación con ASIJ antes y durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y comparativo entre las situaciones de sospecha de ASIJ ocurridas durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en relación con las del mismo período del año previo en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad. Resultados. Se consignaron 122 consultas por sospecha de ASIJ, 78 en el período previo a la pandemia y 44 en la pandemia. El motivo de consulta al hospital más frecuente, en ambos grupos, fue el relato de ASIJ y, al Servicio de Ginecología en particular, la evaluación de genitales externos. La mayor parte presentó un examen físico normal. Se observó una mayor prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en el grupo de pandemia. Se realizaron más internaciones y denuncias para protección de víctimas en dicho grupo. Se registró que el agresor era conocido de la víctima en casi el 90 % de las víctimas de ambos grupos. Conclusiones. Durante la pandemia se evidenció una disminución en el número total de consultas a Ginecología, de modo que aquellas por sospecha de ASIJ representaron un mayor porcentaje. Sin embargo, las características en relación con la presencia de lesiones graves, infecciones de transmisión sexual o embarazo no se vieron modificadas


Introduction. It has been suggested that the social isolation due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may increase the incidence of child and adolescent sexual abuse (CASA). Objective. To compare the incidence and characteristics of medical consultations made to the Department of Gynecology due to CASA before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. Descriptive, observational, and comparative study about suspected CASA events occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to those occurred in the previous year at a tertiary care children's hospital. Results. One hundred and twenty-two medical consultations due to suspected CASA were recorded; 78 before and 44 during the pandemic. In both groups, the most common reason for consultation at the hospital was an account of CASA and, at the Department of Gynecology in particular, the external genitalia examination. Most subjects had a normal physical examination. There was a higher prevalence of STI in the pandemic group. In addition, there were also more hospitalizations and police reports for victims protection in this group. The abuser was known to the victim in almost 90% of cases in both groups. Conclusions. During the pandemic, the total number of medical consultations to the Department of Gynecology decreased so the percentage of those due to suspected CASA was higher. However, the presence of severe lesions, STIs or pregnancy did not change


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Child Abuse, Sexual/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Pandemics , Gynecology , Hospitals, Pediatric
8.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(9): 802-805, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reports from China relating to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children indicate a milder disease course compared with adults. Although a few pediatric COVID-19 reports from other parts of the world exist, there are none from the United Kingdom. We describe the clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19 admitted to a specialist children's hospital in United Kingdom. METHODS: Retrospective case-series of inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, during a 6-week period from March 14 to April 24, 2020. RESULTS: Forty-five children tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during the study period. Median (interquartile range) age was 3.5 (0.7-12) years, and 31 (69%) were male. Children with comorbidities constituted 64% (29 of 45) of the study population, including 44% (20 of 45) who were considered "extremely vulnerable." Fever (67%) and cough (55%) were the most common symptoms. High C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) was observed in 68% (19 of 28). Lymphopenia (<1.2 × 109/L) was observed in 23% (9 of 40) of children, but it was related to coexisting medical conditions in 6 children. Nine children required supplemental oxygen, two of whom received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen; one needed noninvasive ventilation and one child required invasive mechanical ventilation. Median length of stay of children with an admission outcome (n = 42, 93%) was 3 (2-7) days. There were no COVID-19-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a relatively mild course of illness in majority of the hospitalized children that included a subgroup of vulnerable children with significant comorbidities. Confirmation of this in larger nationwide studies of children is required.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Status , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
9.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(10): 902-905, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248197

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected children differently from adults worldwide. Data on the clinical presentation of the infection in children are limited. We present a detailed account of pediatric inpatients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus at our institution during widespread local transmission, aiming to understand disease presentation and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of children, ages 0 to 18 years, with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to our hospital over a 4-week period. We present clinical data from 22 patients and highlight the variability of the presentation. In our study, most children presented without respiratory illness or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19; many were identified only because of universal testing. Because children may have variable signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection, targeted testing may miss some cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Neoplasms/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , United States
10.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(12): 1058-1065, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe nonhospitalized adult rapid response events (adult RREs) in a freestanding children's hospital and examine the relationship between various demographic and clinical factors with the final patient disposition. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records for nonhospitalized patients ≥18 years of age from events that occurred in a freestanding pediatric hospital between January 2011 through December 2020. We examined the relationship between adult RREs and patient demographic information, medical history, interventions, and patient disposition following an adult RRE. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-nine events met inclusion criteria for analysis. Most events (69%) occurred in females, 49% of events occurred in family members of patients, and 47% occurred on inpatient floor and ICU areas. The most common presenting complaint was syncope or dizziness (36%). Delivery of bad news or grief response was associated with 14% of adult RREs. Overall, 46% (n = 196) of patients were transferred to the pediatric emergency department (ED). Patients requiring acute intervention or with cardiac or neurologic past medical histories were more likely to be transferred to the pediatric ED. Acute advanced cardiac life support interventions were infrequent but, of the patients taken to the pediatric ED, 1 died, and 3 were admitted to the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: Adult RREs are common in freestanding children's hospitals and, although rare, some patients required critical care. Expertise in adult critical care management should be available to the rapid response team and additional training for the pediatric rapid response team in caring for adult nonpatients may be warranted.


Subject(s)
Hospital Rapid Response Team , Hospitals, Pediatric , Adult , Female , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Emergency Service, Hospital
11.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15016, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lasting for more than a year, it is imperative to identify the associated changes in the use of emergency medical care for efficient operation of the pediatric emergency department (PED). This study was conducted to determine the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of PED visits. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of visits to the PED of six hospitals, between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020. We compared changes in the characteristics of patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 245 022 visits were included in this analysis. After the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Korea, we observed a significant decrease (54.2%) in PED visits compared with the annual average number of visits in the previous 3 years. Since then, the weekly number of PED visits decreased by 11.9 person/week (95% CI: -15.3--8.4, P < 0.001), which included an increase of 0.21% (95% CI: 0.15%-0.26%, P < 0.001) per week in high acuity patients. From 2017 to 2020, the proportion of infectious respiratory diseases by year was 25.9%, 27.0%, 28.6%, and 16.3%, respectively, demonstrating a significant decrease in 2020 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patient visits to PEDs continues to decline, especially among those with infectious diseases. However, the disease severity of patients has gradually increased. There has been a change in the characteristics of visits to PEDs after COVID-19 which will require an appropriate response from a long-term perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Hosp Pediatr ; 13(4): e75-e80, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Using administrative data from pediatric hospitals in the United States, we examined trends in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and severity of disease among children. METHODS: We extracted data from the Pediatric Health Information System for hospitalized patients less than 12 years old with COVID-19 (identified by primary or secondary International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis code U07.1) admitted from April 2020 to August 2022. We examined weekly trends in COVID hospitalization volume overall and by ICU utilization as a measure of severe disease and by COVID diagnosis hierarchy (primary versus secondary) as a proxy for incidental admissions. We estimated the annualized trend in the ratio of hospitalizations requiring, versus not requiring, ICU care and the trend in ratio of hospitalizations with a primary versus secondary COVID diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 38 160 hospitalizations across 45 hospitals. Median age was 2.4 years (interquartile range = 0.7-6.6). Median length of stay was 2.0 days (interquartile range = 1-4). ICU-level care was required for 18.9% and 53.8% had a primary diagnosis of COVID-19. The ratio of ICU to non-ICU admissions declined by 14.5% annually (95% confidence interval: -21.7% to -7.26%; P < .001), whereas the ratio of primary to secondary diagnosis was stable (11.7% annually; 95% confidence interval: -8.83% to 32.4%; P = .26). CONCLUSIONS: Periodic increases in pediatric COVID-19 hospitalizations with are evident. However, there is no evidence of corresponding increase in severity of illness that may provide context for recent reports of increasing pediatric COVID hospitalizations in addition to health policy implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric
13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 49(1): 37, 2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Sicily, the first wave of COVID-19 showed a low epidemic impact in paediatric population, while the second and the third waves had a higher impact on clinical presentation of COVID-19 in children and a significantly higher severe outcome in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with a frequent life-threatening progression. METHODS: We describe a cohort of 22 Sicilian children (11 M; 11 F; age: 1.4-14 years), presenting with clinical features compatible with MIS-C. Patients with negative swab had a history of recent personal or parental infection. RESULTS: The following diagnostic criteria were detected: fever (100%); cheilitis and/or pharyngeal hyperaemia (86%); latero-cervical lymphadenitis (82%); rash (73%); abdominal pain and/or vomiting and/or diarrhoea (64%); conjunctivitis (64%); hands and feet oedema (18%). 59% showed cardiac involvement (6 pericardial effusion; 8 mitral valve insufficiency; 4 insufficiency of two valves; 3 coronary artery lesions (CAL)). In all the patients, treatment was started within 72 h after the admission, with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) (2 g/Kg/dose), methylprednisolone (2 mg/Kg/day in 73% of patients; 30 mg/Kg/day for 3 days, followed by 2 mg/Kg/day in 27% of patients). Two patients were treated with enoxaparin. Two patients with shock, were additionally treated with vasoactive drugs, albumin, diuretics. Cardiac involvement evolved into the complete resolution of lesions in most of the patients. All the patients were included in a follow-up, to investigate on clinical outcome and resolution of organ involvement. Cardiac valve insufficiency persisted only in 18% of children, CAL persisted only in 33% of children with coronary involvement, however without the evolution into aneurisms. CONCLUSIONS: The preferred treatment strategy was more aggressive at the diagnosis of MIS-C, to block the cytokine cascade. Most of our patients, in fact, received a first-line treatment with IVIG and steroids. This approach could explain the favourable prognosis, the rapid restoring of cardiac function also in patients with MAS or shock, and the good outcome during the 10 months follow-up in all the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
14.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 152-155, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281088

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies for COVID-19 are authorized in high-risk patients aged ≥12 years, but evidence in pediatric patients is limited. In our cohort of 142 patients treated at seven pediatric hospitals between 12/1/20 and 7/31/21, 9% developed adverse events, 6% were admitted for COVID-19 within 30 days, and none received ventilatory support or died.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 133, 2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its emergence in November 2021, SARS-CoV-2 Omicron clade has quickly become dominant, due to its increased transmissibility and immune evasion. Different sublineages are currently circulating, which differ in mutations and deletions in regions of the SARS-CoV-2 genome implicated in the immune response. In May 2022, BA.1 and BA.2 were the most prevalent sublineages in Europe, both characterized by ability of evading natural acquired and vaccine-induced immunity and of escaping monoclonal antibodies neutralization. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-years old male affected by B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in reinduction was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR at the Bambino Gesù Children Hospital in Rome in December 2021. He experienced a mild COVID-19 manifestation, and a peak of nasopharyngeal viral load corresponding to 15.5 Ct. Whole genome sequencing identified the clade 21 K (Omicron), sublineage BA.1.1. The patient was monitored over time and tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 after 30 days. Anti-S antibodies were detected positive with modest titre (3.86 BAU/mL), while anti-N antibodies were negative. 74 days after the onset of the first infection and 23 days after the last negative test, the patient was readmitted to hospital with fever, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR (peak of viral load corresponding to 23.3 Ct). Again, he experienced a mild COVID-19. Whole genome sequencing revealed an infection with the Omicron lineage BA.2 (21L clade). Sotrovimab administration was started at the fifth day of positivity, and RT-PCR negativity occurred 10 days later. Surveillance SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR were persistently negative, and in May 2022, anti-N antibodies were found positive and anti-S antibodies reached titres > 5000 BAU/mL. CONCLUSIONS: By this clinical case, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within the Omicron clade can occur and can be correlated to inadequate immune responses to primary infection. We also showed that the infection's length was shorter in the second respect to first episode, suggesting that pre-existing T cell-mediated immunity, though not preventing re-infection, might have limited the SARS-CoV-2 replication capacity. Lastly, Sotrovimab treatment retained activity against BA.2, probably accelerating the viral clearance in the second infectious episode, after which seroconversion and increase of anti-S antibodies titres were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Reinfection , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals, Pediatric , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287936

ABSTRACT

Due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, public health control and screening measures have been introduced at healthcare facilities, including those housing our most vulnerable populations. These warning measures situated at hospital entrances are presently labour-intensive, requiring additional staff to conduct manual temperature checks and risk-assessment questionnaires of every individual entering the premises. To make this process more efficient, we present eGate, a digital COVID-19 health-screening smart Internet of Things system deployed at multiple entry points around a children's hospital. This paper reports on design insights based on the experiences of concierge screening staff stationed alongside the eGate system. Our work contributes towards social-technical deliberations on how to improve design and deploy of digital health-screening systems in hospitals. It specifically outlines a series of design recommendations for future health screening interventions, key considerations relevant to digital screening control systems and their implementation, and the plausible effects on the staff who work alongside them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet of Things , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Internet , Hospitals, Pediatric
17.
J Trop Pediatr ; 69(2)2023 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to document the chest X-ray findings in children with COVID-19 pneumonia. The secondary aim is to correlate chest X-ray findings to patient outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of children (0-18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to our hospital from June 2020 to December 2021. The chest radiographs were assessed for: peribronchial cuffing, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), consolidation, pulmonary nodules and pleural effusion. The severity of the pulmonary findings was graded using a modification of the Brixia score. RESULTS: There were a total of 90 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection; the mean age was 5.8 years (age range 7 days to 17 years). Abnormalities were seen on the CXR in 74 (82%) of the 90 patients. Bilateral peribronchial cuffing was seen in 68% (61/90), consolidation in 11% (10/90), bilateral central GGOs in 2% (2/90) and unilateral pleural effusion in 1% (1/90). Overall the average CXR score in our cohort of patients was 6. The average CXR score in patients with oxygen requirement was 10. The duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in those patients with CXR score >9. CONCLUSION: The CXR score has the potential to serve as tool to identify children at high risk and may aid planning of clinical management in such patients.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) created a global pandemic in early March 2020. There are very few studies describing the lung changes in affected children. We performed a retrospective study in children, aged between 0 days and 18 years, who tested positive for this virus. This study was conducted in a paediatric tertiary care hospital in South India. Chest X-ray (CXR) was done in children with moderate and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection; these X-rays were reviewed and scoring was done to assess the degree of abnormality. It was seen that the duration of hospital stay was longer in children with a high CXR score. Amongst the children with score >9, 60% needed oxygen support during their treatment. Thus, CXR score can play a role in the prediction of disease outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pleural Effusion , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric , Tertiary Healthcare , Radiography, Thoracic , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Lung
18.
CMAJ Open ; 11(1): E152-E159, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects 10% of Canadian children and is often exacerbated by viral respiratory infections, prompting concerns about the severity of SARS-CoV-2 disease in children with asthma. We compared sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of children presenting to the emergency department and the incidence of these visits, before and during the pandemic. METHODS: We included children aged 0 to 17 years presenting with asthma to 2 tertiary pediatric emergency departments in Montréal, Quebec, between the prepandemic (Jan. 1, 2017, to Mar. 31, 2020) and pandemic (Apr. 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021) periods. We compared the number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions with an interrupted time series analysis and compared the sociodemographic characteristics based on the Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) and clinical characteristics (including triage level, intensive care admissions, etc.) with Mann-Whitney and χ2 tests. RESULTS: We examined 22 746 asthma-related emergency department visits. During the pandemic, a greater proportion of patients presented a triage level 1 or 2 (19.3% v. 14.7%) and were admitted to the intensive care unit (2.5% v. 1.3%). The patients' CIMD quintile distributions did not differ between the 2 periods. We found a 47% decrease (relative risk [RR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37 to 0.76) in emergency department visits and a 49% decrease (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76) in hospital admissions during the pandemic. INTERPRETATION: The decrease in asthma-related emergency department visits was observed through the third wave of the pandemic, but children presented with a higher acuity and with no identified sociodemographic changes. Future studies are required to understand individual behaviours that may have led to the increased acuity at presentation observed in this study.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Canada , Asthma/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Pediatric
19.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the growth of patient safety programs across the United States, errors and adverse events remain a source of patient harm. Many hospitals rely on retrospective voluntary reporting systems; however, there are opportunities to improve patient safety using novel tools like trigger programs. METHODS: Children's National Hospital developed a unique pediatric triggers program that offers customized, near real-time reports of potential safety events. Our team defined a measure to quantify clinical utility of triggers, termed "trigger signal," as the percentage of cases that represent true adverse or near-miss events (numerator) per total triggers activated (denominator). Our key driver diagram focused on unifying the program structure, increasing data analytics, promoting organizational awareness, and supporting multidisciplinary end user engagement. Using the model for improvement, we aimed to double overall trigger signal from 8% to 16% and sustain for 12 months. RESULTS: The trigger signal increased from 8% to 41% and sustained during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. A balancing measure of time to implement a new trigger decreased. Key interventions to increase trigger signal were change in the program structure, increasing stakeholder engagement, and development of self-service reports for end users. CONCLUSIONS: Children's National Hospital's triggers program highlights successful evolution of an iterative, customized approach to increase clinical utility that hospitals can implement to impact real-time patient care. This triggers program requires an iterative, customized approach rather than a "1-size-fits-all," static paradigm to add a new dimension to current patient safety programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Harm , Child , Humans , United States , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Safety , Hospitals, Pediatric
20.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(2): 204-206, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172273

ABSTRACT

This cohort study uses administrative health data to evaluate trends in pediatric firearm injuries before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric
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