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1.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(12): 1307-1311, 2022 Dec 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143847

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the characteristics and associated factors of viral nucleic acid conversion in children infected with Omicron variant strain of SARS-CoV-2 in Shanghai. Methods: The clinical symptoms, laboratory results and other data of 177 children infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were hospitalized in Shanghai Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (designated hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai) from April 25 to June 8, 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the chest imaging findings, the children were divided into mild and common type groups. According to their age, the unvaccinated children were divided into<3 years old group and 3-<18 years old group. According to the vaccination status, the children aged 3-<18 year were divided into non-vaccination group, 1-dose vaccination group and 2-dose vaccination group. Comparison between groups was performed by independent sample t-test and analysis of variance, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 177 children infected with Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, 96 were males and 81 were females, aged 3 (1, 6) years. The time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion was (10.3±3.1) days. The 177 children were 138 cases of mild type and 39 cases of common type. Among the children aged 3-<18 years old, 55 cases were not vaccinated, 5 cases received 1-dose and 36 cases received 2-dose vaccination. Among the 36 children who received 2 doses of vaccination, the time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion was shorter in those vaccinated within 6 months than those over 6 months ((7.1±1.9) vs. (10.8±3.0) d, t=-3.23, P=0.004). Univariate analysis showed that the time of nucleic acid negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with age, underlying diseases, gastrointestinal symptoms, white blood cell count, proportion of neutrophils, proportion of lymphocytes, and the number of doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (t=3.87, 2.55, 2.04, 4.24, 3.51, 2.92, F=16.27, all P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that older age (ß=-0.33, 95% CI -0.485--0.182, P<0.001) and more doses of vaccination (ß=-0.79, 95% CI -1.463--0.120, P=0.021) were associated with shortened nucleic acid negative conversion time in children, while lower lymphocyte proportion (ß=-0.02, 95% CI -0.044--0.002, P=0.031) and underlying diseases (ß=1.52, 95% CI 0.363-2.672, P=0.010) were associated with prolonged nucleic acid negative conversion time in children. Conclusion: The children infected with Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 with reduced lymphocyte proportion and underlying diseases may have longer time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion,while children with older age and more doses of vaccination may have shorter time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Child , Female , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Translocation, Genetic , Hospitals, Pediatric
2.
Clin Ter ; 173(5): 440-442, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110893

ABSTRACT

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive genetic pathology of the Caucasian race and it affects nearly 100,000 people worldwide (many have not been diagnosed) and, in Italy, there are about 6000 patients. In the last few years, telemedicine has proved to be an effective home care tool for patients suffering from chronic pathologies. The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase of communications through mobile devices. Aim: To evaluate the role of telemonitoring during the pandemic phase of Covid-19. Materials and methods: 34 (M 15, F 19) (M 44%, F 56%) Cystic Fi-brosis patients were evaluated; Median age ± SD 30.97±10.59 Median FEV1 2020 74.76; number of trasmission and hospital admissions. Results: It was evident that the absolute number of telemedicine visits increased from 1456 to 1605 in the pandemic year (10% more). Conclusions: Telemedicine became an important tool for home management of patients, in particular about chronic diseases. Telemonitoring, an integral part of telemedicine, underlined its effectiveness in all health emergency phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Telemedicine , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 41: e2021267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and the different phenotypes of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) temporally related to COVID-19 and to evaluate the risk conditions that favored a greater severity of the disease during a 12-month period at a pediatric reference hospital in Colombia. METHODS: A 12-month retrospective observational study of children under the age of 18 years who met criteria for MIS-C. RESULTS: A total of 28 children presented MIS-C criteria. The median age was 7 years. Other than fever (100%) (onset 4 days prior to admission), the most frequent clinical features were gastrointestinal (86%) and mucocutaneous (61%). Notably, 14 (50%) children had Kawasaki-like symptoms. The most frequent echocardiographic abnormalities were pericardial effusion (64%), valvular involvement (68%), ventricular dysfunction (39%), and coronary artery abnormalities (29%). In addition, 75% had lymphopenia. All had at least one abnormal coagulation test. Most received intravenous immunoglobulin (89%), glucocorticoids (82%), vasopressors (54%), and antibiotics (64%). Notably, 61% had a more severe form of the disease and were admitted to an intensive care unit (median 4 days, mean 6 days); the severity predictors were patients with the inflammatory/MIS-C phenotype (OR 26.5; 95%CI 1.40-503.7; p=0.029) and rash (OR 14.7; 95%CI 1.2-178.7; p=0.034). Two patients had macrophage activation syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery abnormalities, ventricular dysfunction, and intensive care unit admission were frequent, which needs to highlight the importance of early clinical suspicion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Colombia/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
6.
Pediatrics ; 149(6)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated practice shifts on consultation and referral patterns of an intimate partner violence program at a large, urban children's hospital. METHODS: Secondary data analyses examined COVID-19-related variations in patterns of consultations and referrals in the 11 months before the COVID-19 pandemic (April 1, 2019-February 29, 2020) and those after its emergence (April 1, 2020-February 28, 2021). χ2 analyses were used to examine differences in categorical outcomes of interest by time and practice setting, as well as differences within practice settings. Poisson regressions were used to compare the number of reasons for consultation and the number of referrals during the 2 periods. RESULTS: Analyses revealed significant decreases in face-to-face consults (28% to 2%; P < .001) during the period after COVID-19 emergence alongside significant increases in the total number of consults (240 to 295; P < .001), primarily for emotional abuse (195 to 264; P = .007). Psychoeducation referrals also increased significantly (199 to 273; P < .001), whereas referrals to community resources decreased significantly (111 to 95; P < .001). Setting-specific analyses revealed that primary care settings were the only practice settings to demonstrate significant differences in overall number of and specific reasons for consultation and associated referral types before and after COVID-19 emergence. CONCLUSIONS: Even during a shift away from face-to-face care, there was an increase in intimate partner violence referrals after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest the importance of pediatric primary care as a location for survivors to access support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
7.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(5): 325-331, 2022 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056104

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rapid antigen tests (RAgTs) for SARS-CoV-2 are considered adequate for diagnosis at the point of care. Our objective was to establish the agreement between reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RAgTs in the pediatric population. POPULATION AND METHODS: All patients aged 1 month to 17 years and 11 months seen at the Emergency Fever Unit of a children's hospital between 6-11-2021 and 10-3-2021 were recruited. The Panbio COVID-19 Ag® test (Abbott Diagnostic) was compared to the reference method RT-qPCR (as per the protocol suggested by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). RESULTS: A total of 6491 patients were included. The prevalence of COVID-19 was 2.8%. Symptoms were observed in 92.1%. Sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa index of agreement for the RAgT were 71.0%, 99.9%, and 0.813, respectively. The kappa index and the RAgT sensitivity were significantly higher in the group aged 13-17 years (0.89 and 82.4%, respectively) compared to the groups aged 0-5 and 6-12 years. This may be due to the lower viral load observed in patients younger than 12 years. CONCLUSIONS: Although RAgTs shorten the time to result and improve the isolation strategy for COVID-19 patients, their sensitivity in children younger than 12 years or asymptomatic children is not within the recommended ranges, especially during periods of low disease prevalence.


Introducción. Los inmunoensayos de detección rápida de antígenos (TRA) del SARS-CoV-2, son considerados adecuados para el diagnóstico en el punto de atención. El objetivo fue conocer la concordancia entre la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real con transcriptasa inversa (RT-qPCR, por su sigla en inglés) y los TRA en población pediátrica. Población y métodos. Se reclutaron todos los pacientes entre 1 mes y 17 años 11 meses de edad atendidos en la Unidad Febril de Urgencia de un hospital pediátrico entre el 11 de junio y el 3 de octubre de 2021. Se utilizó el TRA Panbio COVID-19 Ag® (Abbott Diagnostic) y, como método de referencia, la RT-qPCR (según el protocolo de los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades). Resultados. Se incluyeron 6491 pacientes. La prevalencia de COVID-19 fue del 2,8 %. El 92,1 % de los sujetos presentaron síntomas. La sensibilidad, la especificidad y el índice kappa de concordancia para el TRA fueron del 71,0 %, 99,9 % y 0,813, respectivamente. El índice kappa y la sensibilidad del TRA fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo de 13 a 17 años (0,89 y 82,4 %, respectivamente) cuando se los comparó con los grupos de 0 a 5 y de 6 a 12 años. Esto podría deberse a la menor carga viral observada en los pacientes menores de 12 años. Conclusión. Si bien los TRA permiten acortar el tiempo de obtención de los resultados y mejorar la estrategia de aislamiento de pacientes con COVID-19, la sensibilidad en niños menores de 12 años o asintomáticos no se encontraría dentro de los rangos recomendados, sobre todo en períodos de baja prevalencia de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States
8.
Arch Pediatr ; 29(8): 604-609, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In many countries, the restrictions related to the first period of lockdown during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to widespread changes in health service usage in general and in emergency departments in particular. However, no comprehensive evaluation of changes has been published to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the precise impact of the 2020 lockdown on admissions to a pediatric emergency department (PED) compared to the same periods in 2018 and 2019. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included all patients under the age of 183 months (15.25 years) admitted to our French university hospital's PED during the period from March 17 to May 11 in the years 2018, 2019, and 2020. The primary outcome was the change in PED admissions in 2020 compared to 2018 and 2019. The secondary outcomes were notably changes in the primary discharge diagnoses, the discharge destination, and unwarranted visits. RESULTS: A total of 10,479 PED visits were identified, of which 10,295 were analyzed. In 2020, the number of PED visits fell by 61% and 63% vs. 2018 and 2019, respectively. Although the number of discharges to other hospital departments decreased by 52% and 49%, the proportion of these discharges increased: 18% of 1579 in 2020 vs. 13% of 4232 in 2018 and of 4484 in 2019 (p<0.01). Discharge from the PED to the intensive care unit was significantly more frequent in 2020 (p<0.05). Unwarranted visits were significantly lower in 2020 (19%) as compared to 2018 (22%) and 2019 (24%). Surgical and injury-related discharge diagnoses increased by 6% in 2020 (p<0.001), with a significant rise in trauma and foreign-body injuries (p<0.05). With regard to disease-related discharge diagnoses, we observed a significant rise in mental, behavioral, and social issues (p<0.01). Conversely, there was a significant (p<0.01) drop in diagnoses of acute infectious diseases in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019. CONCLUSION: Lockdown was associated with a massive reduction in the number of PED visits, a significant change in primary discharge diagnoses, and a decrease in the proportion of unwarranted PED visits compared to the previous 2 years. This should encourage public health researchers to examine how to alleviate the burden of unnecessary PED visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital
9.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 75(3): 334-339, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To review the clinical management and outcomes of magnet ingestions at a large tertiary children's hospital. To determine the association of frequency of high-powered magnet ingestion with the regulation of these magnets. METHODS: Children <18 years who presented to the emergency room and were admitted to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for ingestion of single or multiple magnets from January 2008 to December 2020 were included. Demographics, symptoms, management, and outcomes were analyzed. The frequency of magnet ingestion was compared over 3 eras: (1) pre-ban (2008-2012), (2) intra-ban (2013-2016), and (3) post-ban (2017-2020). RESULTS: There were 167 magnet ingestions, including 99 with multiple magnets. Most patients (59%) were male and median age was 6 (interquartile range, 3-9) years. Most single magnet ingestions (86%) were discharged with outpatient monitoring, and none experienced severe outcomes. Multiple magnet ingestions led to significant morbidity including hospitalizations (68%), endoscopic procedures (48%), surgical procedures (14%), and severe outcomes (12%). Most patients (75%) were asymptomatic, however, there was a higher risk of surgery and severe complications based on the presence of symptoms ( P = 0.003). The rate of surgical intervention was higher with ≥3 magnets (31.7%) compared to 2 magnets (2.4%) ( P < 0.003). Additionally, we found an 160% increase in children with magnet ingestions in the post-ban period ( P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple magnet ingestion is associated with high morbidity and rate of severe outcomes. There is a relationship between public policy of magnet sale and frequency of magnet ingestion.


Subject(s)
Foreign Bodies , Magnets , Child , Child, Preschool , Eating , Female , Foreign Bodies/complications , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Magnets/adverse effects , Male , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Healthcare
10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(8): 839-845, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010475

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought great challenges to the traditional medical model. During the outbreak of COVID-19 in Shanghai, China, from March to May, 2022, there was a significant increase in the number of pediatric cases due to high transmissibility, immune escape, and vaccine breakthrough capacity of Omicron variants. The designated hospitals for children with COVID-19 served as a connecting link between children's specialized hospitals and mobile cabin hospitals. From April 7 to June 2, 2022, a total of 871 children with COVID-19 were admitted to Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (South Branch), a designated hospital for children with COVID-19. Among these patients, 568 (65.2%) were children under 3 years old, 870 (99.9%) were mild or moderate, and 1 was severe. This article reports the experience in the management of pediatric cases in this designated hospital, which included the following aspects: establishing an optimal case-admission process; strengthening multidisciplinary standardized diagnosis and treatment; optimizing the management, warning, and rescue system for severe COVID-19; implementing family-centered nursing care; formulating an individualized traditional Chinese medicine treatment regimen; optimizing the discharge process and strengthening bed turnover; implementing strict whole-process control to reduce the risk of nosocomial infection; constructing a structured medical record system and using information platforms to adapt to the work mode of large-volume cases; conducting scientific research and sharing the experience in diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 909-915, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the effect of Dry Hydrogen Peroxide (DHP), as an adjunct to environmental cleaning and disinfection, on the incidence of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) at Unidad Nacional de Oncologia Pediatrica (UNOP) in Guatemala City, Guatemala. METHODS: A retrospective study of all HAI data from the hospital's surveillance system, which follows Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protocols, was conducted from January 2019 to November 2020. DHP was installed in all Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) rooms in January 2020, but nowhere else in the hospital, including the Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU). RESULTS: There were 189 HAI cases during the study period, with 173 occurring in either the PICU or IMCU. A statistically significant decrease in HAI incidence rates occurred in the PICU in 2020 compared to 2019 (P = .028), including Clostridiodes-associated gastroenteritis (P = .048). Logistic multivariate regression yielded a significant association between DHP exposure and reduced odds of developing an HAI during the study (OR = 0.3857, P = .029). CONCLUSION: The use of DHP as an adjunct technology for environmental cleaning and disinfection contributed to the reduction in HAIs in the PICU. Our study highlights the value of such an approach as an addition to manual cleaning to decrease the risk of infection from environmental contamination.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Neoplasms , Child , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Retrospective Studies
12.
World J Pediatr ; 18(11): 746-752, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the pathogenic characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a children's hospital before and after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to provide testimony for preventing CAP in the future. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed. The information was collected from the electronic medical record system of the hospital. A total of 2739 children were included from February 1, 2019, to January 31, 2021. RESULTS: Among these 2739 patients were 1507 (55.02%) males and 1232 (44.98%) females; the median age was 3.84 years. There were 2364 cases during the pre-COVID-19 period and 375 cases during the post-COVID-19 period. The number of hospitalized children after the pandemic was 84.14% lower. The median age after the onset was 1.5 years younger than that before the onset (4.08 years old) (Z = - 7.885, P < 0.001). After the pandemic, the proportion of CAP in school-age children and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and influenza virus pneumonia (IVP) decreased significantly. During the pre-COVID-19 period, the proportions of detected pathogens were as follows: MP (59.56%) > bacteria (50.42%) > viruses (29.57%) > fungi (3.43%). During the post-COVID-19 period, the pathogen proportions were bacteria (56.53%) > viruses (53.60%) > MP (23.47%) > fungi (3.73%). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in the number of children with CAP hospitalized after the pandemic, especially among school-age children, and the pathogen proportions of CAP with MP and IV were significantly decreased. We inferred that CAP was effectively prevented in school-age children because of the strong mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Viruses , Bacteria , Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 67, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent worldwide and can cause severe diseases. MRSA is associated with other antibiotic resistance. COVID-19 pandemic increased antimicrobial resistance in adult patients. Only a few data report the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus in the Italian pediatric population, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We included all the S. aureus positive samples with an available antibiogram isolated from pediatric patients (< 18 years old) in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy, from January 2017 to December 2021. We collected data on demographics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and clinical history. We compared methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA strains. We calculated the frequency of isolation by year. The incidence of isolates during 2020 was compared with the average year isolation frequency using the univariate Poisson test. We compared the proportion of MRSA isolates during 2020 to the average proportion of other years with the Chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our dataset included a total of 255 S. aureus isolated from 226 patients, 120 (53%) males, and 106 (47%) females, with a median age of 3.4 years (IQR 0.8 - 10.5). The mean isolation frequency per year was 51. We observed a significant decrease of isolations during 2020 (p = 0.02), but after adjusting for the total number of hospitalization per year there was no evidence that the incidence changed. Seventy-six (30%) S. aureus were MRSA. Twenty (26%) MRSA vs 23 (13%) MSSA (p = 0.02) were hospital-acquired. MRSA strains showed higher resistance to cotrimoxazole, clindamycin, macrolides, levofloxacin, gentamicin, and tetracyclin than MSSA strains. None of MRSA were resistant to linezolid and vancomycin, one was resistant to daptomycin. The proportion of MRSA did not change during the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall clindamycin resistance was high (17%). Recent antibiotic therapy was related to MRSA infection. CONCLUSION: The proportion of MRSA did not change during the COVID-19 pandemic and remained high. Clindamycin should not be used as an empirical MRSA treatment due to its high resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Tertiary Healthcare
16.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(10): 1138-1143, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic brought about the immediate need for enhanced safety protocols in health care centers. These protocols had to evolve as knowledge and understanding of the disease quickly broadened. AIMS: Through this study, the researchers aimed to understand the experiences of pediatric anesthesiologists at the Montreal Children's Hospital and the Shriners' Hospital Canada as they navigated the first wave of COVID-19 at their institutions. METHODS: Nine participants from the Montreal Children's Hospital and the Shriners' Hospital were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then analyzed using an applied philosophical hermeneutics approach. FINDINGS: Participants expressed their wish for simple and easy-to-apply protocols while recognizing the challenge of keeping up with evolving knowledge on the disease and its transmission. They pointed to some limitations and unintended consequences of the safety protocols and the system-wide flaws that the COVID-19 pandemic helped bring to light. They described their frustrations with some aspects of the safety protocols, which they at times felt could be more efficient or better suited for their daily practice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlighted the importance of listening to and empowering anesthesiology staff working in the field during crises, the implications of shifting from patient-centered care to community-centered care, and the fine line between sharing as much emerging information as possible and overwhelming staff with information.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , COVID-19 , Anesthesiologists , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics
17.
J Hosp Med ; 17(9): 693-701, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increased availability of diagnostic tests for respiratory viruses, their clinical utility for children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns of respiratory virus testing across children's hospitals prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and to determine whether hospital-level rates of viral testing were associated with clinical outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized for CAP at 19 children's hospitals in the United States from 2010-2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Using a novel method to identify the performance of viral testing, we assessed time trends in the use of viral tests, both overall and stratified by testing method. Adjusted proportions of encounters with viral testing were compared across hospitals and were correlated with length of stay, antibiotic and oseltamivir use, and performance of ancillary laboratory testing. RESULTS: There were 46,038 hospitalizations for non-severe CAP among children without complex chronic conditions. The proportion with viral testing increased from 38.8% to 44.2% during the study period (p < .001). Molecular testing increased (27.2% to 40.0%, p < .001) and antigen testing decreased (33.2% to 7.8%, p < .001). Hospital-specific adjusted proportions of testing ranged from 10.0% to 83.5% and were not associated with length of stay, antibiotic use, or antiviral use. Hospitals that performed more viral testing did not have lower rates of ancillary laboratory testing. CONCLUSIONS: Viral testing practices varied widely across children's hospitals and were not associated with clinically important process or outcome measures. Viral testing may not influence clinical management for many children hospitalized with CAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Viruses , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Appl Lab Med ; 7(5): 1076-1087, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and clinical manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the pediatric population is different from the adult population. The purpose of this study is to identify effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on laboratory test utilization in a pediatric hospital. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis on test utilization data from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, an academic pediatric medical center. Data between two 100-day periods prior to (prepandemic) and during the pandemic (mid-pandemic) were analyzed to evaluate changes in test volume, lab utilization, and test positivity rate. We also evaluated these metrics based on in- vs outpatient testing and performed modeling to determine what variables significantly impact the test positivity rate. RESULTS: During the pandemic period, there was an expected surge in COVID-19 testing, while over 84% of lab tests studied decreased in ordering volume. The average number of tests ordered per patient was not significantly different during the pandemic for any of the laboratories (adjusted P value > 0.05). Thirty-three studied tests showed significant change in positivity rate during the pandemic. Linear modeling revealed test volume and inpatient status as the key variables associated with change in test positivity rate. CONCLUSIONS: Excluding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 tests, the COVID-19 pandemic has generally led to decreased test ordering volume and laboratory utilization. However, at this pediatric hospital, the average number of tests performed per patient and test positivity rates were comparable between pre- and mid-pandemic periods. These results suggest that, overall, clinical test utilization at this site remained consistent during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
20.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(3): 424-431, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893253

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of the emergency department (ED) has been increasing, and many visits occur for non-urgent conditions. A similar trend was found among adult visits to the ED for ocular conditions. In this study we analyzed the impact of sociodemographic factors, presentation timing, and the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric ED (PED) encounters for ophthalmologic conditions. It is important to identify the multifold factors associated with overutilization of the ED for non-urgent conditions. Caring for these patients in an outpatient clinical setting is safe and effective and could decrease ED crowding; it would also prevent delays in the care of other patients with more urgent medical problems and lower healthcare costs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic health records of PED ocular-related encounters at two children's hospitals before (January 2014-May 2018) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-February 2021). Encounters were categorized based on the International Classification of Diseases codes into "emergent," "urgent," and non-urgent" groups. We analyzed associations between sociodemographic factors and degrees of visit urgency. We also compared visit frequencies, degrees of urgency, and diagnoses between pre-pandemic and pandemic data. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic ocular-related PED encounters averaged 1,738 per year. There were highly significant sociodemographic associations with degrees of urgency in PED utilization. During the 12-month pandemic timeframe, encounter frequency contracted to 183. Emergent visits decreased from 21% to 11%, while the proportions of urgent and non-urgent encounters were mostly unchanged. The most common pre-pandemic urgent diagnosis was corneal abrasion (50%), while visual disturbance was most common during the pandemic (92%). During both time periods, eye trauma was the most frequent emergent encounter and conjunctivitis was the most common non-urgent encounter. CONCLUSION: Sociodemographic factors may be associated with different types of PED utilization for ocular conditions. Unnecessary visits constitute major inefficiency from a healthcare-systems standpoint. The marked decrease in PED utilization and differing proportions of ocular conditions encountered during the pandemic may reflect a decrease in incidence of many of those conditions by social distancing; these changes may also reflect altered parental decisions about seeking care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
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