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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e047868, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global crisis, creating an unprecedented situation, which has taken the world by storm, overshadowing on all life' aspects and having a significant impact on the health systems of most countries. In this study, the delivery of health services is investigated both before and during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic at public hospitals in Yemen to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the utilisation of health services. METHOD: Data collected from 127 hospitals in Yemen were reviewed using the DHIS2 system. The data represented 3 months before the outbreak of COVID-19 between January and March 2020 and during the outbreak of COVID-19 outbreak between April and June 2020. The results were then compared with the same period in 2019. The utilisation pattern of healthcare services during the period of investigation was compiled and analysed by applying a generalised estimating equation (GEE) to examine the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak in Yemen. The data collected from the targeted hospitals included information related to consultations, surgeries, deliveries, C-sections and penta-3rd dose immunisation. RESULTS: The trendline of health services used during the pandemic showed a gradual decline beginning from April 2020 for consultations, surgeries and penta-3rd dose utilisation. The GEE model revealed a significant effect (p<0.05) during the outbreak compared with preoutbreak in the consultation services (B=-1,343.9; 95% CI -1,767.2 to -920.6; χ2=38.718), surgeries (B=-54.98; 95% CI -79.13 to -30.83, χ2=19.911) and penta-3rd dose (B=-24.47; 95% CI -30.56 to -18.38 and χ2=62.010). As for deliveries and C-sections, the results were shown to be statistically non-significant. CONCLUSION: The impact of COVID-19 on continuity of health services delivery in Yemen has been distinct and profound, where the study revealed that the number of the consultations, surgeries and number of vaccinated children have been declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, likely due to the partially lockdown measures taken and fear of being infected. However, the deliveries and C-section services remained nearly in the same level and did not affect by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Health Services , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Yemen/epidemiology
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 782705, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581106

ABSTRACT

Objective: The use of personal protective equipment and hand hygiene are often the most recommended line of defense against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of compliance and associated factors of personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization and hand hygiene practice among healthcare workers in public hospitals of South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 489 healthcare workers in public hospitals of South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia from June 15 to July 30, 2021. Proportional sample size allocation to each selected hospital followed by simple random sampling techniques were used to select the study participants using human resource records from each hospital. A pre-tested and structured self-administered questionnaire with WHO's standardized hand hygiene and PPE utilization observational checklist were used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariable analyses with 95% CI and p-value < 0.05 were employed to identify the associated factors of personal protective equipment utilization. Results: About 32 and 22.3% of healthcare workers were compliant with personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene practice, respectively. Feedback for safety (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.26-3.35), training on COVID-19 prevention (AOR = 3.43; 95% CI: 2.01-5.86), and perception to infection risk (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.18-3.33) were significant factors of good compliance with personal protective equipment utilization. Conclusion: The magnitude of good compliance with personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene was low. Interventions to promote personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene should focus on feedback for safety, training on COVID-19 prevention, and perception of infection risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 263-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535083

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTS: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chile/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
4.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 51(5): 269-281, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497595

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the effect of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the clinical practice of ophthalmologists in our country. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 22 questions was delivered to 250 ophthalmologists via e-mail and a smartphone messaging application. A total of 113 ophthalmologists completed the survey. The questions included the participants' demographic data (age, years in practice, institution, and city), changes in their working conditions and institutional preventive measures implemented during the pandemic, their personal COVID-19 experiences, the prevalence of telemedicine applications, and their attitudes toward these practices. Results: Nearly half (47.8%) of the 113 ophthalmologists were 36 to 45 years old. In terms of years in practice, the largest proportion of respondents (28.3%) had 6-10 years of experience. Most of the participants worked in private/foundation universities (37.2%), while 22.1% worked in education and research clinics. Participants working at public universities most often reported that they or a close contact had to work in COVID wards (89.5%). Triage was performed in 51.5% of ophthalmology outpatient clinics, with 88.0% of these participants reporting that patients with fever, cough, or dyspnea were directed to the pandemic clinic without ophthalmological examination. All participants working in public hospitals, education and research clinics, and public university hospitals had postponed elective surgeries, whereas 12.5% of those working in private practice and 20.5% of those working in private/foundation universities reported that they continued elective surgeries. While 80.8% of the participants did not conduct online interviews or examinations, 40.4% stated that they considered telemedicine applications beneficial. Seventy-seven percent of participants expressed concern about a decrease in their income during the pandemic, with this being especially common among participants working in private practice (87.5%) and private/foundation university hospitals (85.7%). Conclusion: Ophthalmologists across our country have been affected by this pandemic at a level that will change their clinical approach. We think that ophthalmologists impacted by the difficulty of providing personal protective equipment and economic concerns should be supported more during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ophthalmologists/statistics & numerical data , Ophthalmology/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Surveys , Hospitals, Private , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmologists/psychology , Patient Care , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, low personal accomplishment and depersonalization experienced by a health professional and it is more common in nurses due to high workload and job stress that is mostly caused by working proximity to patients and taking care of them. Burnout compromises the provision of quality health care. Despite this, there is no information in Ethiopia on burnout among nurses in study area. OBJECTIVES: To determine the magnitude of burnout and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Harari regional state and Dire Dawa administration, eastern Ethiopia, February 1-29, 2020. METHODS: Institutional based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed from February 1-29 among 412 randomly selected nurses who have been working in hospitals for the last 6 months. Simple random sampling method was employed and data was collected by self-administered, standardized, reliable and valid, questionnaire (Maslachs Burnout Inventory- Human Services Survey). Data was entered into EpiData Version 3.1 and exported to statistical package for social science version 20 for analysis. All covariate with P-value less than 0.25 in bivariable analysis were candidate for multivariable analysis. Level of statistical significance was declared at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 412 nurses taking part in this study, 183(44.4%) of nurses with 95% CI, had experienced burnout. Married marital status [AOR:2.3,95%CI:(1.2-4.3)], poor current health status [AOR:4.8, 95% CI:(1.1-21.4)] and fair current health status [AOR:12, 95% CI:(4.5-32)], working greater than eight hour per-day[AOR:0.52, 95%CI:(0.29-0.92)], intention to leave a job [AOR:0.48,95%CI:(0.2-0.88), being working in emergency room [AOR:0.3,95%CI:(0.1-0.98)] and using a different medication related to work related health problems were factors associated with nurses' burnout. CONCLUSION: The nurses' burnout in this study is high and it is attributed by marriage, perceiving health status as poor and fair, whereas, having the intention to leave job, being working in emergency room and using a medication in relation to work related health problems reduced risk of developing burnout. So, the concerned bodies should provide trainings which focus on stress copying mechanisms and assertiveness program.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , Hospitals, Public , Nurses/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Male , Nurses/organization & administration , Occupational Stress/psychology , Young Adult
6.
Public Health ; 200: 77-83, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Policy-making based on a health literacy approach makes it a priority to develop people-centered public health strategies and programs, particularly in the time of COVID-19 across the world. This is the first study to assess health literacy levels of patients visiting public and private hospitals in Turkey and also compares these levels with sociodemographic and health-related variables by hospital type to suggest health policies aimed at improving the health literacy skills for patients with different socio-economic backgrounds. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study was conducted on 948 outpatients from both hospital types in 2018. Health literacy was assessed using the validated Turkish version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire with 47 items. The level of health literacy and sociodemographic factors influencing it were analyzed using correlation and binary logistic regression tests. Patients from private hospital had better health literacy index score compared with the public hospital. RESULTS: The health-related variables, such as self-reported health and the presence of long-term illness, and sociodemographic characteristics, including education, age, and gender, were associated with health literacy for both public and private hospitals. Age and education were important predictors, whereas gender, long-term disease condition, self-reported health, and perceived income status were statistically significant variables for adequate health literacy in both hospital types. CONCLUSIONS: Participants from private hospital had better health literacy than that of public hospital. These findings could be used to help health policy makers to improve the current health literacy policy for patients and develop strategies by stakeholders for reducing barriers to obtaining health-related information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Private , Hospitals, Public , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1252-1256, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478143

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the role of environmental cleaning in controlling infection transmission in hospitals. However, cleaning practice remains inadequate. An important component of effective cleaning is to obtain feedback on actual cleaning practice. This study aimed to evaluate the cleaning process quality from an implementation perspective. METHODOLOGY: An observational study was conducted in a tertiary public hospital in Wuhan, China and 92 cleaning processes of units housing patients with multidrug-resistant organism infections were recorded. The bed unit cleaning quality and floor cleaning quality were measured by six and five process indicators respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the cleaning quality. RESULTS: For bed unit cleaning quality, the appropriate rates of cleaning sequence, adherence to cleaning unit principle, use of cloth, use of cloth bucket, separation of clean and contaminated tools, and disinfectant concentration were 35.9%, 71.7%, 89.7%, 11.5%, 65.4%, and 48.7%, respectively. For floor cleaning quality, the appropriate rates of adherence to cleaning unit principle, use of cloth, use of cloth bucket, separation of clean and contaminated tools, and disinfectant concentration were 13.4%, 50.0%, 35.5%, 11.0%, and 36.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cleaning staff showed poor environmental cleaning quality, especially the floor cleaning quality. The findings can help reveal deficiencies in cleaning practices, raise awareness of these deficiencies, and inform targeted strategies to improve cleaning quality and hospital safety.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Infection Control/methods , China , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disinfection/standards , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public , Hospitals, Teaching , Infection Control/standards , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1439-1450, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of ICU surge on mortality and to explore clinical and sociodemographic predictors of mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: NYC Health + Hospitals ICUs. PATIENTS: Adult ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted between March 24, and May 12, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hospitals reported surge levels daily. Uni- and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors impacting in-hospital mortality. Mortality in Hispanic patients was higher for high/very high surge compared with low/medium surge (69.6% vs 56.4%; p = 0.0011). Patients 65 years old and older had similar mortality across surge levels. Mortality decreased from high/very high surge to low/medium surge in, patients 18-44 years old and 45-64 (18-44 yr: 46.4% vs 27.3%; p = 0.0017 and 45-64 yr: 64.9% vs 53.2%; p = 0.002), and for medium, high, and very high poverty neighborhoods (medium: 69.5% vs 60.7%; p = 0.019 and high: 71.2% vs 59.7%; p = 0.0078 and very high: 66.6% vs 50.7%; p = 0.0003). In the multivariable model high surge (high/very high vs low/medium odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8), race/ethnicity (Black vs White odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0 and Asian vs White odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3; other vs White odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0-2.3), age (45-64 vs 18-44 odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.5 and 65-74 vs 18-44 odds ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-8.0 and 75+ vs 18-44 odds ratio, 6.8; 95% CI, 4.7-10.1), payer type (uninsured vs commercial/other odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; medicaid vs commercial/other odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), neighborhood poverty (medium vs low odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI, 1.0-2.4 and high vs low odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5), comorbidities (diabetes odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0 and asthma odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8 and heart disease odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.0-3.3), and interventions (mechanical ventilation odds ratio, 8.8; 95% CI, 6.1-12.9 and dialysis odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9-4.7) were significant predictors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted to ICUs with higher surge scores were at greater risk of death. Impact of surge levels on mortality varied across sociodemographic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
12.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(9): 899-909, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Data are so far limited on outcomes of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 seen at public sector hospitals in developing countries with limited resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated a cohort of 157 kidney transplant recipients (75% living and 25% deceased donors) seen at a public sector transplant hospital in India from March to December 2020 who had reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests that confirmed COVID-19. Demographic data, immunosuppression regimens, clinical profiles, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. In our center, maintenance immunosuppression was reduced according to disease severity and case-by-case evaluations. There were also 53 patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 symptoms who received home care to optimize the utilization of scarce resources during travel restrictions. RESULTS: In our kidney transplant recipient group, median age was 43 years (133 male; 24 female patients); recipients presented at a median of 4 years after transplant. The most common comorbidities included arterial hypertension (73%) and diabetes (24%); presenting symptoms at the time of COVID-19 positivity included cough (49%), fever (58%), and sputum production (32%). Clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic (4%), mild (45%), moderate (31%), and severe (20%) disease. Statistically significant risk factors for mortality included older age, dyspnea, severe disease, obesity, allograft dysfunction prior to COVID-19, acute kidney injury, higher levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, procalcitonin), abnormality in chest radiography, and intensive care/ventilator requirements (P < .05). Overall patient mortality was 9.5% (15/157) in hospitalized patients, 21% (15/71) in patients in the intensive care unit, 100% (15/15) in patients who required ventilation, and 0% among those in home treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 was higher than in the nonimmunosuppressed general population (1.2%) in India. To our knowledge, this is a largest single-center study of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 so far.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Workplace violence is a growing social problem among many professions, but it particularly affects the health sector. Studies have mainly focused on evaluating user violence toward health professionals, with less attention being paid to other sources of conflict, such as co-workers themselves. There are different manifestations of this violence in what has been called a context of tolerated or normalized violence among co-workers. However, its effects are far from being tolerable, as they have an impact on general health and job satisfaction and contribute to burnout among professionals. Based on this idea, and following the line of the previous literature, nursing staff are a population at high risk of exposure to workplace violence. For this reason, the present study aims to evaluate exposure to lateral violence or violence among co-workers in nursing staff in public health services and the relationship of this exposure with some of the most studied consequences. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional associative study was carried out in which scales of workplace violence (HABS-CS), burnout (MBI-GS), job satisfaction (OJS), and general health (GHQ-28) were applied to a sample of 950 nursing staff from 13 public hospitals located in the southeast of Spain. (3) Results: The results show that nursing staff have a high exposure to violence from their co-workers, which is more common in male nurses. Greater exposure is observed in professionals with between 6 and 10 years of experience in the profession, and it is not characteristic of our sample to receive greater violence when they have less experience or are younger. A positive correlation is observed with high levels of burnout and a negative correlation with general health and job satisfaction. (4) Conclusions: The results of this work contribute to increasing the scientific evidence of the consequences of a type of workplace violence frequent among nursing staff and to which less attention has been paid in relative terms to other types of prevalent violence. Organizations should be aware of the importance of this type of workplace violence, its frequency and impact, and implement appropriate prevention policies that include the promotion of a culture that does not reward violence or minimize reporting. A change of mentality in the academic environment is also recommended in order to promote a more adequate training of nursing staff in this field.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Nurses , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Workplace Violence , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
14.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(5): 553-561, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in Spain in February 2020, with 216% intensive care unit (ICU) capacity expanded in Vitoria by March 18th, 2020. METHODS: We identified patients from the two public hospitals in Vitoria who were admitted to ICU with confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2. Data reported here were available in April 6th, 2020. Mortality was assessed in those who completed 15-days of ICU stay. RESULTS: We identified 48 patients (27 males) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of patients was 63 [51-75] years. Symptoms began a median of 7 [5-12] days before ICU admission. The most common comorbidities identified were obesity (48%), arterial hypertension (44%) and chronic lung disease (37%). All patients were admitted by hypoxemic respiratory failure and none received non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Forty-five (94%) underwent intubation, 3 (6%) high flow nasal therapy (HFNT), 1 (2%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22 (46%) required prone position. After 15 days, 14/45 (31%) intubated patients died (13% within one week), 10/45 (22%) were extubated, and 21/45 (47%) underwent mechanical ventilation. Six patients had documented super-infection. Procalcitonin plasma above 0.5µg/L was associated with 16% vs. 19% (p=0.78) risk of death after 7 days. CONCLUSION: This early experience with SARS-CoV-2 in Spain suggests that a strategy of right oxygenation avoiding non-invasive mechanical ventilation was life-saving. Seven-day mortality in SARS-CoV-2 requiring intubation was lower than 15%, with 80% of patients still requiring mechanical ventilation. After 15 days of ICU admission, half of patients remained intubated, whereas one third died.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 214-223, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics of COVID-19 patients and to determine the factors associated with mortality during hospital stay. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 inpatients. The clinical, laboratory and treatment data were obtained from the medical records of patients from the Hospital Nivel III Daniel Alcides Carrión in Tacna. For the survival analysis we used the Cox proportional hazards model, and we calculated crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: We evaluated 351 patients; 74.1% of them were men. The most common comorbidities were obesity (31.6%), hypertension (27.1%) and diabetes mellitus (24.5%). The median time of hospitalization was 8 days (IQR: 4-15). From the total of patients, 32.9% died during follow-up. The multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of dying associated with the following: age ≥65 years, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.70-7.40); increase in lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 1.34-3.22); and oxygen saturation less than 90%, mainly when it was less than 80%, HR = 4.07 (95% CI: 2.10-7.88). In addition, the use of colchicine during treatment showed a protective effect, HR = 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19 included being older than 65 years, having oxygen saturation less than 90%, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L; colchicine treatment could improve the prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medwave ; 21(7): e8442, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372129

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 among pregnant women in a maternal and children's hospital in Lima, Peru. Methods: Quantitative observational study. The population under study consisted of pregnant women who attended an emergency room and had a COVID-19 test. These women were assessed for age, gestational age, place of origin, occupation, education, marital status, number of children, previous body mass index, gestational body mass index, tetanus vaccination, prenatal controls, and hemoglobin. After bivariate analysis, a generalized linear regression model was applied. Results: We included 200 women aged between 18 and 34 years (84.5%) with a median gestational age of 36 weeks. More than half were from Lima (52.5%), most were housewives (79%), had high school education (71.9%), and had a cohabiting marital status (60%). The COVID-19 test positivity was 31.5% by rapid tests. Pregestational body mass index assessment showed that 36.7% of normal weight, 38,1% of overweight, and 30.3% of obese pregnant women had COVID-19 infection. 39.7% of patients with hemoglobin levels greater than or equal to 11 g/dL, 21.2% of patients with values between 10 and 10.9 g/dL, and 20% of patients with values between 7 and 9.9 g/dL had COVID-19 infection. The prevalence ratio (with a 95% confidence interval) found that cohabitation was associated with a lower risk of having COVID-19 infection in pregnant women (prevalence ratio: 0.41, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Cohabiting pregnant women had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection compared with other marital statuses. Further research is needed to evaluate COVID-19 associated factors in pregnant women and possible sociodemographic or economic factors behind cohabiting marital status association among this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/economics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Socioeconomic Factors , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/education , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 13-17, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351685

ABSTRACT

Point prevalence surveys (PPSs) are a useful option for collecting antimicrobial prescription data in hospitals where regular monitoring is not feasible. The methodology recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for conducting PPSs (WPPS), which targets low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), attempts to respond to the lag in these regions to generate estimates for antimicrobial use. However, based on our experience in four third-level public hospitals in Mexico, we identified substantial gaps in the WPPS guide with regards to addressing common challenges for the implementation of PPSs. While the oversimplified narrative of WPPS could facilitate the adoption of this methodology and extend its use, it underestimates the efforts and potential pitfalls for survey preparation, coordination, and reliable implementation. Conducting rigorous pilot studies could reduce the WPPS deficiencies and strengthen the reliability and comparability of the estimates for antimicrobial use.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Hospitals, Public , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , World Health Organization
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255544, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since February 2020, over 2.5 million Texans have been diagnosed with COVID-19, and 20% are young adults at risk for SARS-CoV-2 exposure at work, academic, and social settings. This study investigated demographic and clinical risk factors for severe disease and readmission among young adults 18-29 years old, who were diagnosed at a hospital encounter in Houston, Texas, USA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective registry-based chart review was conducted investigating demographic and clinical risk factors for severe COVID-19 among patients aged 18-29 with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests within a large metropolitan healthcare system in Houston, Texas, USA. In the cohort of 1,853 young adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection at a hospital encounter, including 226 pregnant women, 1,438 (78%) scored 0 on the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and 833 (45%) were obese (≥30 kg/m2). Within 30 days of their diagnostic encounter, 316 (17%) patients were diagnosed with pneumonia, 148 (8%) received other severe disease diagnoses, and 268 (14%) returned to the hospital after being discharged home. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.2, p<0.001), male gender (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7, p = 0.002), Hispanic ethnicity (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1, p = 0.01), obesity (3.1, 95% CI 1.9-5.1, p<0.001), asthma history (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.0, p = 0.003), congestive heart failure (aOR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5-25.1, p = 0.01), cerebrovascular disease (aOR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7-14.7, p = 0.004), and diabetes (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.9-6.2, p<0.001) were predictive of severe disease diagnoses within 30 days. Non-Hispanic Black race (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4, p = 0.04), obesity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.9, p = 0.046), asthma history (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7, p = 0.03), myocardial infarction history (aOR 6.2, 95% CI 1.7-23.3, p = 0.01), and household exposure (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2, p = 0.02) were predictive of 30-day readmission. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation demonstrated the significant risk of severe disease and readmission among young adult populations, especially marginalized communities and people with comorbidities, including obesity, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Health authorities must emphasize COVID-19 awareness and prevention in young adults and continue investigating risk factors for severe disease, readmission and long-term sequalae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitals, Public , Patient Readmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Texas/epidemiology , Texas/ethnology
19.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): 266-269, 2021 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a pediatric cardiovascular surgery program and estimate the necessary time to reduce the surgery waiting list. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study. Surgical outcomes from the pre-COVID-19 period and COVID-19 period were compared. A mathematical model was used to estimate the time necessary to reduce the waiting list. RESULTS: Between March 23rd and August 31st, 2020, 83 patients underwent surgery, accounting for a 60 % reduction compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. Their median age was 6 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 25-75, 1.8 months to 2.9 years; p = 0.0023). The time necessary to eliminate the waiting list ranges from 10 to 19 months. CONCLUSIONS: There was a 60 % reduction in the program. The time required to clear the backlog of cases may range from, at least, 10 to 19 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Hospitals, Public/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Waiting Lists , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254633, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Almost 200,000 deaths from COVID-19 were reported in Brazil in 2020. The case fatality rate of a new infectious disease can vary by different risk factors and over time. We analysed the trends and associated factors of COVID-19 case fatality rates in Brazilian public hospital admissions during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of all COVID-19-related admissions between epidemiological weeks 10-40 in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) was delimited from available reimbursement records. Smoothing time series and survival analyses were conducted to evaluate the trends of hospital case fatality rates (CFR) and the probability of death according to factors such as sex, age, ethnicity, comorbidities, length of stay and ICU use. RESULTS: With 398,063 admissions and 86,452 (21.7%) deaths, the overall age-standardized hospital CFR trend decreased throughout the period, varying from 31.8% (95%CI: 31.2 to 32.5%) in week 10 to 18.2% (95%CI: 17.6 to 18.8%) in week 40. This decreasing trend was observed in all sex, age, ethnic groups, length of stay and ICU admissions. Consistently, later admission (from July to September) was an independent protective factor. Patients 80+ year old had a hazard ratio of 8.18 (95% CI: 7.51 to 8.91). Ethnicity, comorbidities, and ICU need were also associated with the death risk. Although also decreasing, the CFR was always around 40-50% in people who needed an ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The overall hospital CFR of COVID-19 has decreased in Brazilian public hospitals during the first wave of the pandemic in 2020. Nevertheless, during the entire period, the CFR was still very high, suggesting the need for improving COVID-19 hospital care in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
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