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1.
New Microbiol ; 46(2): 146-153, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242509

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the 2019 pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19), great attention has been given to identifying the main clinical features of the disease. Identification of laboratory parameters able to classify patients based on their risk is mandatory to improve their clinical management. We retrospectively evaluated twenty-six laboratory tests measured in COVID-19 positive patients admitted to the hospital in March and April 2020 to find any correlation between their changes and the risk of death. We divided them into surviving and non-surviving patients. A total of 1587 patients were recruited, 854 males with median age of 71 (IQR 56-81) and 733 females with median age of 77 (IQR 61-87). On admission, death was found to be positively correlated with age (p=0.001), but not with sex (p=0.640) or with hospitalization in days (p=0.827). Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), INR, leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, and procalcitonin (PCT) demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.001), suggesting their role as markers of disease severity; only lymphocyte count resulted as an independent risk factor for death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Biomarkers
2.
Aust Health Rev ; 47(1): 16-25, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287124

ABSTRACT

Objectives To compare outpatient attendance rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ('Aboriginal') and non-Aboriginal patients at a large metropolitan health service in Melbourne, Australia, and to describe the barriers and enablers experienced by urban-dwelling Aboriginal patients in attending hospital outpatient appointments. Methods This study used a mixed-method approach. Proportions of referred patients who booked and attended outpatient appointments were extracted from a health service database. Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal cohorts were compared using chi-squared tests. Eleven patients, one parent of a patient and two community nurses were interviewed by telephone to investigate perceived barriers and enablers to attending outpatient appointments among Aboriginal patients. Results Outpatient referrals were greater among Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people; however, referrals were significantly less likely to result in an outpatient clinic booking and attendance for Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal people. Interview participants reported several barriers to attending appointments, related to logistical, quality of care and cultural factors. Suggested facilitators to make appointment attendance easier included: provision of transport support, improving clinic scheduling, utilising a variety of appointment reminder formats, providing food in waiting rooms, flexible appointment timing options, outreach services, access to Aboriginal support workers, improving communication and relationships with Aboriginal people, cultural awareness training for staff and the provision of culturally appropriate spaces. Conclusion Some barriers faced by Aboriginal patients in attending hospital outpatient appointments in urban areas can be addressed through implementation of enablers suggested by participants. Data have informed the development of a tailored, inclusive, culturally and consumer-focused appropriate hospital outpatient service model of care.


Subject(s)
Health Services, Indigenous , Outpatients , Humans , Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples , Hospitals, Urban , Urban Population
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 322: 115042, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244156

ABSTRACT

During the first Covid-19 outbreak, the Niguarda Hospital of Milan featured two Psychiatry wards, one for SARS-CoV-2 positive patient and one for patients requiring hospitalization and negative for SARS-CoV-2. The two groups of patients were compared and were similar in distribution of psychiatric diagnosis, duration of illness and previous hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 positive participants had a lower severity of symptoms both at admission and discharge, a lower frequency of psychotic symptoms and substance intoxication at admission. These findings suggest that patients admitted to the COVID ward were hospitalized not only for their mental health condition but also because of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Demography
4.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(3)2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to an increased risk of psychiatric symptoms among frontline health care workers (FHCWs). In the current study, a novel "symptomics" approach was employed to examine the association between acute transdiagnostic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and burnout and work and relationship difficulties in FHCWs at an urban tertiary care hospital in New York City. METHODS: Symptoms of COVID-19-related PTSD (4-item PTSD Checklist-5), MDD (Patient Health Questionnaire-8), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), burnout (Single-Item Mini-Z Burnout Assessment), and functional difficulties (Brief Inventory of Psychosocial Functioning) were assessed. Relative importance analyses were conducted to identify PTSD, MDD, and GAD symptoms associated with burnout and functional difficulties. RESULTS: The total number of eligible participants included 6,026 presumed FHCWs, of which 3,360 (55.8%) completed the survey and 2,579 (76.8%) of whom endorsed directly treating patients with COVID-19 and provided sufficient responses to our outcome variables for analysis. Feeling tired/having little energy, being easily annoyed or irritable, and feeling nervous, anxious, or on edge were most strongly associated with burnout; feeling tired/having little energy accounted for the greatest amount of explained variance (> 15%). Negative expectations of oneself or the world, trouble concentrating, and feeling easily annoyed or irritable were most strongly associated with work difficulties; negative expectations of oneself or the world accounted for the greatest amount of explained variance (> 9%). Feeling easily annoyed or irritable, negative expectations about oneself or the world, and feeling bad about oneself were most strongly associated with relationship difficulties; feeling easily annoyed or irritable accounted for the greatest amount of explained variance (> 10%). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study underscore the importance of a transdiagnostic, symptom-based approach when examining associations between acute psychopathology and burnout and functional difficulties in FHCWs. Further work is needed to determine if early interventions aimed at ameliorating specific psychiatric symptoms may help mitigate risk for peri- and posttraumatic burnout and functional difficulties in this population.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology , Burnout, Professional/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Irritable Mood/physiology , Personnel, Hospital , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/physiopathology , Adult , Female , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033056

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Italy was the first country in Europe to face the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its consequences, which led to two phases of severe restrictions for its population. This study aims to estimate the connections between the trauma of the COVID-19 emergency and the clinical features of a sample of outpatients in a Milan Community Mental Health setting, comparing the first (April 2020) and second lockdowns (November 2020). Materials and Methods: The sample included 116 consecutive outpatients recruited in April 2020 and 116 in November 2020. The subjects were evaluated with Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-18), and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results: The IES-R identified 47.4% participants in April and 50% in November with clinical scores over the cut-off. The network analysis of BPRS-18 and IES-R depicted the connection among different symptoms; in April, Unusual Thought Content, Anxiety, and Somatic Concern represented the most central items, and the strongest connections were found between Uncooperativeness and Hostility, Blunted Affect and Emotional Withdrawal, and IES-Intrusion and IES-Arousal. In the November group, the most central items were represented by Conceptual Disorganization and Emotional Withdrawal, whereas the strongest connections were found between IES-Arousal and IES-Intrusion, Excitement and Grandiosity, and Unusual Thought Content and Conceptual Disorganization. Conclusions: Our findings show continued high distress levels and increased psychological burdens during the second phase of restrictions; this could be described as "pandemic fatigue", a general psychological weariness due to pandemic-related restrictions, as well as a lack of motivation to comply with them. As mental health professionals, our mission during these difficult times has been to keep community psychiatry services accessible, with particular regard to vulnerable and marginalized populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Outpatients
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061426, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between troponin positivity in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and increased mortality in the short term. SETTING: Homerton University Hospital, an inner-city district general hospital in East London. DESIGN: A single-centre retrospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS: All adults admitted with swab-proven RT-PCR COVID-19 to Homerton University Hospital from 4 February 2020 to 30 April 2020 (n=402). OUTCOME MEASURES: We analysed demographic and biochemical data collected from the patient record according to the primary outcome of death at 28 days during hospital admission. METHODS: Troponin positivity was defined above the upper limit of normal according to our local laboratory assay (>15.5 ng/L for females, >34 ng/L for males). Univariate and multivariate logistical regression analyses were performed to evaluate the link between troponin positivity and death. RESULTS: Mean age was 65.3 years for men compared with 63.8 years for women. A χ2 test showed survival of patients with COVID-19 was significantly higher in those with a negative troponin (p=3.23×10-10) compared with those with a positive troponin. In the multivariate logistical regression, lung disease, age, troponin positivity and continuous positive airway pressure were all significantly associated with death, with an area under the curve of 0.889, sensitivity of 0.886 and specificity of 0.629 for the model. Within this model, troponin positivity was independently associated with short-term mortality (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.34 to 6.61, p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated an independent association between troponin positivity and increased short-term mortality in COVID-19 in a London district general hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263607, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A reduction in overall acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases, increases in the severity of ACS presentation, and increased rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been reported from multiple countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The attributed factors include COVID-19 infection, fear of COVID-19 and resultant avoidance of health care facilities, and restrictions on mobility. Pakistan, a country with a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and challenges related to health care access, will be expected to demonstrate these same findings. Therefore, we compared ACS hospitalization, ACS severity, and patients who have already died (dead on arrival, or DOA) due to presumed OHCA at a tertiary cardiac hospital during pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic periods in Pakistan. METHODS: Standardized data elements were extracted from the charts of patients with ACS, and telephonic verbal autopsies (VA) using a validated tool were conducted for patients who were arrived DOA. As a comparison, cases during the same months prior to the COVID-19 were analyzed for respective waves. Events were counted, and proportions and frequencies are reported for each time period. RESULTS: A total of 4,480 ACS cases were reviewed; 1,216 cases during March-July 2019, 804 cases in the same months of 2020 (33.8% decrease); 1,304 cases in August 2019-January 2020 and 1,157 in the corresponding months of 2020 and 2021 (11.2% decrease). There was no observed change in the baseline characteristics of patients with ACS or their symptom-to-door time, and in-hospital mortality was unchanged across all time periods. There were 218 DOA cases in pre-pandemic months and 360 cases during the pandemic. The pre-pandemic rate of DOA was 12/1000 emergency patients (95% CI 10-13) compared to 22/1000 (95% CI 22-27) during the pandemic (30/1000in the 1st wave and 17/1000 during 2nd wave). On VA, CVD was found to be the major cause of death during both time periods. CONCLUSION: At a cardiac hospital in Pakistan, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a reduction in ACS hospitalization and an increased DOA rate.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Death , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(7): e0017422, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874497

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with prolonged hospitalization and a high risk of intubation, which raises concern for bacterial coinfection and antimicrobial resistance. Previous research has shown a wide range of bacterial pneumonia rates for COVID-19 patients in a variety of clinical and demographic settings, but none have compared hospitalized COVID-19 patients to patients testing negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in similar care settings. We performed a retrospective cohort study on hospitalized patients with COVID-19 testing from March 10th, 2020 to December 31st, 2020. A total of 19,219 patients were included, of which 3,796 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found a 2.6-fold increase (P < 0.001) in respiratory culture ordering in COVID-19 patients. On a per-patient basis, COVID-19 patients were 1.5-fold more likely than non-COVID patients to have positive respiratory cultures (46.8% versus 30.9%, P < 0.001), which was primarily driven by patients requiring intubation. Among patients with pneumonia, a significantly higher proportion of COVID-19 patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) relative to non-COVID patients (86.3% versus 70.8%, P < 0.001), but a lower proportion had community-acquired (11.2% vs 25.5%, P < 0.01) pneumonia. There was also a significantly higher proportion of respiratory cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and antibiotic-resistant organisms in COVID-19 patients. Increased rates of respiratory culture ordering for COVID-19 patients therefore appear to be clinically justified for patients requiring intubation, but further research is needed to understand how SARS-CoV-2 increases the risk of VAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pneumonia, Bacterial , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(2): 119-130, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe differences in Case Fatality Rate (CFR) for Covid-19 among healthcare subsystems in Mexico City between March and December 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective secondary data analysis from the National Epidemiological Surveillance System data of Covid-19 cases. Information about health provider institutions was retrieved from the Catalogue of Health Establishments (CLUES). Logistic regressions were fitted to determine the association between health subsystems and mortality associated to Covid-19. The analyses were divided between hospitalized and ambulatory patients. RESULTS: The probability of dying from Covid-19 was higher among those treated at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) (Hospitalized:OR=5.11, Ambulatory:OR=36.57), Instituto de Se-guridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE) (Hospitalized:OR=2.10, Ambulatory:OR=9.19), Secretaría de Salud (SS) (Hospitalized:OR=1.94, Ambulatory:OR=5.29) or other public institutions (Hospitalized: OR=1.70, Ambulatory:OR=9.56) than in those treated in private in-stitutions. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in healthcare quality and access between health subsystems are profound. It is imperative to increase the capacity and quality of the different health subsystems to improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
Med J Aust ; 216(8): 413-419, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the capacity of the COVID Positive Pathway, a collaborative model of care involving the Victorian public health unit, hospital services, primary care, community organisations, and the North Western Melbourne Primary Health Network, to support people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) isolating at home. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of adults in northwest Melbourne with COVID-19, 3 August - 31 December 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic and clinical characteristics, and social and welfare needs of people cared for in the Pathway, by care tier level. RESULTS: Of 1392 people referred to the Pathway by the public health unit, 858 were eligible for enrolment, and 711 consented to participation; 647 (91%) remained in the Pathway until they had recovered and isolation was no longer required. A total of 575 participants (81%) received care in primary care, mostly from their usual general practitioners; 155 people (22%) received care from hospital outreach services, and 64 (9%) needed high tier care (hospitalisation). Assistance with food and other basic supplies was required by 239 people in the Pathway (34%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID Positive Pathway is a feasible multidisciplinary, tiered model of care for people with COVID-19. About 80% of participants could be adequately supported by primary care and community organisations, allowing hospital services to be reserved for people with more severe illness or with risk factors for disease progression. The principles of this model could be applied to other health conditions if regulatory and funding barriers to information-sharing and care delivery by health care providers can be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Primary Health Care , Public Health
12.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6): 671-676, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724736

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 is the biggest challenge for national health systems for a century. While most medical resources are allocated to treat COVID-19 patients, several non-COVID-19 medical emergencies still need to be treated, including vertebral fractures and spinal cord compression. The aim of this paper is to report the early experience and an organizational protocol for emergency spinal surgery currently being used in a large metropolitan area by an integrated team of orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. METHODS: An organizational model is presented based on case centralization in hub hospitals and early management of surgical cases to reduce hospital stay. Data from all the patients admitted for emergency spinal surgery from the beginning of the outbreak were prospectively collected and compared to data from patients admitted for the same reason in the same time span in the previous year, and treated by the same integrated team. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients (11 males and eight females, with a mean age of 49.9 years (14 to 83)) were admitted either for vertebral fracture or spinal cord compression in a 19-day period, compared to the ten admitted in the previous year. No COVID-19 patients were treated. The mean time between admission and surgery was 1.7 days, significantly lower than 6.8 days the previous year (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The structural organization and the management protocol we describe allowed us to reduce the time to surgery and ultimately hospital stay, thereby maximizing the already stretched medical resources available. We hope that our early experience can be of value to the medical communities that will soon be in the same emergency situation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6):671-676.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Models, Organizational , Neurosurgical Procedures , Orthopedic Procedures , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral , Spinal Cord Compression/surgery , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Efficiency, Organizational , Emergencies , Female , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(5): 1054-1057, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617050

ABSTRACT

There are limited studies on predisposing factors for COVID-19 positivity in asymptomatic pregnant women. The literature published to date on asymptomatic COVID-19 pregnant carriers does not focus on pregnancy or pre-pregnancy comorbidities. We wanted to identify risk factors for COVID-19 in asymptomatic pregnant women. We performed a retrospective chart review of 263 asymptomatic pregnant women admitted to labour and delivery at New York City Health + Hospitals/Lincoln.We analysed the association between race, body mass index (BMI), smoking, indication for admission, gravidity, parity, pre-pregnancy comorbidity, pregnancy comorbidity via uni- and multivariate statistical tests. Only Hispanic race was significant in the univariate analysis (p = .049). At the post-hoc analysis, Hispanics had a higher proportion of COVID-19 cases compared to non-Hispanic Blacks (p = .019). No variables were significantly associated with COVID-19 positivity in the multivariate analysis.Hispanic race appears to be a risk factor for asymptomatic COVID-19 infection during pregnancy. We speculate that the cultural and socioeconomic reality of Hispanic women living in our community leads to more exposure opportunities and therefore, a higher infection rate.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? Little is known on the role of comorbidities and risk factors that can favour COVID-19 infection during pregnancy.What do the results of this study add? We found that Hispanic pregnant asymptomatic women had a higher rate of COVID-19 in comparison to non-Hispanic Black women. Pre-pregnancy comorbidities such as pregestational diabetes, hypertension and asthma were not associated with COVID-19 positivity.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The reasons why the Hispanic race is more affected by COVID-19 during pregnancy is unclear. The social environment of Hispanic women living in our community, such as their tendency to live in multigenerational and multi-family households, might contribute to a higher infection rate. More resources might be dedicated in the future to Hispanic-dense neighbourhoods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nephron ; 146(2): 179-184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported. Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the major clinical manifestations of COVID-19 with the need for renal replacement therapy. It was observed that hemodialysis (HD) accesses tended to thrombose more often in the COVID-19 population than in non-COVID-19 patients. We hypothesize that the hypercoagulable state of COVID-19 is associated with higher incidence of access clotting. METHOD: In this retrospective single-centered study at Kings County Hospital in New York City, 1,075 patients with COVID-19 were screened, and 174 patients who received HD from January 3, 2021 to May 15, 2020 were enrolled to examine the risk factors of dialysis access clotting in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 174 patients, 109 (63%) were COVID-19 positive. 39 (22.6%) patients had dialysis access clotting at least once during their hospitalization, and they had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.001), higher rates of COVID-19 (p = 0.015), AKI (p < 0.001), higher platelet counts (p = 0.029), higher lactate dehydrogenase levels (p = 0.009), and lower albumin levels (p = 0.001) than those without access malfunctions. Low albumin levels (p = 0.008), AKI (p = 0.008), and high BMI (p = 0.018) were risk factors associated with HD access clotting among COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 who receive HD for AKI with high BMI are at a higher risk of clotting their HD access.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Thrombosis/etiology , Vascular Access Devices/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Am J Surg ; 222(4): 832-841, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A community lockdown has a profound impact on its citizens. Our objective was to identify changes in trauma patient demographics, volume, and pattern of injury following the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a Level-1 Trauma Center from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A downward trend in volume is seen December-April in 2020 (R2 = 0.9907). February through April showed an upward trend in 2018 and 2019 (R2= 0.80 and R2 = 0.90 respectively), but a downward trend in 2020 (R2 = 0.97). In April 2020, there was 41.6% decrease in total volume, a 47.4% decrease in blunt injury and no decrease in penetrating injury. In contrast to previous months, in April the majority of injuries occurred in home zip codes. CONCLUSIONS: A community lockdown decreased the number of blunt trauma, however despite social distancing, did not decrease penetrating injury. Injuries were more likely to occur in home zip codes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Physical Distancing , Trauma Centers/trends , Violence/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers/standards , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/therapy , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Young Adult
17.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021419, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Europe, Italy and Lombardy, in autumn 2020, there was a steep increase in reported cases due to the second epidemic wave of SARS-Cov-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of COVID-19 patients' admissions to the ED of the San Raffaele Hospital. METHODS: We compared data between the inter-wave period (IWP, from 1st to 30th September) and the second wave period (WP, 1st October to 15th November) focusing on the ED presentation, discharge priority colour code and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 977 admissions with a SARS-Cov-2 positive swab, 6% were in the IWP and 94% in the WP. Red, yellow and white code increased (these latter from 1.8% to 5.4%) as well as self-presented in yellow and white code. Discharges home increased from 1.8% to 5.4%, while hospitalizations decreased from 63% to 51%. DISCUSSION: We found a rise in white codes (among self-presented patients), indicating inappropriateness of admissions. The increase in discharges suggests that several patients did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic brought out the fundamental role of primary care to manage patients with low-intensity needs. The important increase in ED admissions of COVID-19 patients caused a reduction of NO-COVID-19 patients, with possible inadequate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051045, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495464

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dynamics of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens following infection suggest an initial decay of antibody followed by subsequent stabilisation. We aim to understand the longitudinal humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein and spike (S) protein and to evaluate their correlation to clinical symptoms among healthcare workers (HCWs). DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: This study was conducted in a New York City public hospital in the South Bronx, New York. PARTICIPANTS: HCWs participated in phase 1 (N=500) and were followed up 4 months later in phase 2 (N=178) of the study. They underwent SARS-CoV-2 PCR and serology testing for N and S protein antibodies, in addition to completion of an online survey in both phases. Analysis was performed on the 178 participants who participated in both phases of the study. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Evaluate longitudinal humoral responses to viral N (qualitative serology testing) and S protein (quantitative Mount Sinai Health System ELISA to detect receptor-binding domain and full-length S reactive antibodies) by measuring rate of decay. RESULTS: Anti-N antibody positivity was 27% and anti-S positivity was 28% in phase 1. In phase 1, anti-S titres were higher in symptomatic (6754 (5177-8812)) than in asymptomatic positive subjects (5803 (2825-11 920)). Marginally higher titres (2382 (1494-3797)) were seen in asymptomatic compared with the symptomatic positive subgroup (2198 (1753-2755)) in phase 2. A positive correlation was noted between age (R=0.269, p<0.01), number (R=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of symptoms (R=0.434, p<0.01), and phase 1 anti-S antibody titre. A strong correlation (R=0.898, p<0.001) was observed between phase 1 titres and decay of anti-S antibody titres between the two phases. Significant correlation with rate of decay was also noted with fever (R=0.428, p<0.001), gastrointestinal symptoms (R=0.340, p<0.05), and total number (R=0.357, p<0.01) and duration of COVID-19 symptoms (R=0.469, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher initial anti-S antibody titres were associated with larger number and longer duration of symptoms as well as a faster decay between the two time points.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
19.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 46-51, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436194

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was diagnosed in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and, in Ghana, in March 2020. As of 30th July 2020, Ghana had recorded 35,142 cases. COVID-19 which can be transmitted by both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals usually manifest as pneumonia with symptoms like fever, cough, dyspnoea and fatigue. The current non-availability of a vaccine or drug for COVID-19 management calls for early detection and isolation of affected individuals. Chest imaging has become an integral part of patient management with chest radiography serving as a primary imaging modality in many centres. METHODS: The study was a retrospective study conducted at Ga East Municipal Hospital (GEMH). Chest radiographs of patients with mild to moderate disease managed at GEMH were evaluated. The age, gender, symptom status, comorbidities and chest x-ray findings of the patients were documented. RESULTS: 11.4 % of the patients had some form of respiratory abnormality on chest radiography with 88.9% showing COVID-19 pneumonia features. 93.8% showed ground glass opacities (GGO), with 3.1% each showing consolidation (CN) only and CN with GGO. There was a significant association between COVID-19 radiographic features and patient's age, symptom status and comorbidities but not with gender. CONCLUSION: Most radiographs were normal with only 11% showing COVID-19-like abnormality. There was a significant association between age, symptom status and comorbidities with the presence of COVID-19 like features but not for gender. There was no association between the extent of the lung changes and patient characteristics. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Young Adult
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