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2.
CMAJ ; 194(4): E112-E121, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disability-related considerations have largely been absent from the COVID-19 response, despite evidence that people with disabilities are at elevated risk for acquiring COVID-19. We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 with a disability compared with patients without a disability. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included adults with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital and discharged between Jan. 1, 2020, and Nov. 30, 2020, at 7 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. We compared in-hospital death, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital length of stay and unplanned 30-day readmission among patients with and without a physical disability, hearing or vision impairment, traumatic brain injury, or intellectual or developmental disability, overall and stratified by age (≤ 64 and ≥ 65 yr) using multivariable regression, controlling for sex, residence in a long-term care facility and comorbidity. RESULTS: Among 1279 admissions to hospital for COVID-19, 22.3% had a disability. We found that patients with a disability were more likely to die than those without a disability (28.1% v. 17.6%), had longer hospital stays (median 13.9 v. 7.8 d) and more readmissions (17.6% v. 7.9%), but had lower ICU admission rates (22.5% v. 28.3%). After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences between those with and without disabilities for in-hospital death or admission to ICU. After adjustment, patients with a disability had longer hospital stays (rate ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.56) and greater risk of readmission (relative risk 1.77, 95% CI 1.14-2.75). In age-stratified analyses, we observed longer hospital stays among patients with a disability than in those without, in both younger and older subgroups; readmission risk was driven by younger patients with a disability. INTERPRETATION: Patients with a disability who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 had longer stays and elevated readmission risk than those without disabilities. Disability-related needs should be addressed to support these patients in hospital and after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Female , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260446, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528731

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented challenges for the medical staff worldwide, especially for those in hospitals where COVID-19-positive patients are hospitalized. The announcement of COVID-19 hospital restrictions by the Japanese government has led to several limitations in hospital care, including an increased use of physical restraints, which could affect the care of elderly dementia patients. However, few studies have empirically validated the impact of physical restraint use during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the impact of regulatory changes, consequent to the pandemic, on physical restraint use among elderly dementia patients in acute care hospitals. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we extracted the data of elderly patients (aged > 64 years) who received dementia care in acute care hospitals between January 6, 2019, and July 4, 2020. We divided patients into two groups depending on whether they were admitted to hospitals that received COVID-19-positive patients. We calculated descriptive statistics to compare the trend in 2-week intervals and conducted an interrupted time-series analysis to validate the changes in the use of physical restraint. RESULTS: In hospitals that received COVID-19-positive patients, the number of patients who were physically restrained per 1,000 hospital admissions increased after the government's announcement, with a maximum incidence of 501.4 per 1,000 hospital admissions between the 73rd and 74th week after the announcement. Additionally, a significant increase in the use of physical restraints for elderly dementia patients was noted (p = 0.004) in hospitals that received COVID-19-positive patients. Elderly dementia patients who required personal care experienced a significant increase in the use of physical restraints during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Understanding the causes and mechanisms underlying an increased use of physical restraints for dementia patients can help design more effective care protocols for similar future situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Restraint, Physical/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan , Male
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526688

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has greatly affected healthcare workers because of the high risk of getting infected. The present cross-sectional study measured SARS-CoV-2 antibody in healthcare workers of Kashmir, India. METHODS: Serological testing to detect antibodies against nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 was performed in 2003 healthcare workers who voluntarily participated in the study. RESULTS: We report relatively high seropositivity of 26.8% (95% CI 24.8-28.8) for SARS-CoV-2in healthcare workers, nine months after the first case was detected in Kashmir. Most of the healthcare workers (71.7%) attributed infection to the workplace environment. Among healthcare workers who neither reported any prior symptom nor were they ever tested for infection by nasopharyngeal swab test, 25.5% were seropositive. CONCLUSION: We advocate interval testing by nasopharyngeal swab test of all healthcare workers regardless of symptoms to limit the transmission of infection within healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India , Male , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1613-1616, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524681

ABSTRACT

Surges in COVID-19 cases have stressed hospital systems, negatively affected health care and public health infrastructures, and degraded national critical functions (1,2). Resource limitations, such as available hospital space, staffing, and supplies led some facilities to adopt crisis standards of care, the most extreme operating condition for hospitals, in which the focus of medical decision-making shifted from achieving the best outcomes for individual patients to addressing the immediate care needs of larger groups of patients (3). When hospitals deviated from conventional standards of care, many preventive and elective procedures were suspended, leading to the progression of serious conditions among some persons who would have benefitted from earlier diagnosis and intervention (4). During March-May 2020, U.S. emergency department visits declined by 23% for heart attacks, 20% for strokes, and 10% for diabetic emergencies (5). The Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) COVID Task Force* examined the relationship between hospital strain and excess deaths during July 4, 2020-July 10, 2021, to assess the impact of COVID-19 surges on hospital system operations and potential effects on other critical infrastructure sectors and national critical functions. The study period included the months during which the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant became predominant in the United States.† The negative binomial regression model used to calculate estimated deaths predicted that, if intensive care unit (ICU) bed use nationwide reached 75% capacity an estimated 12,000 additional excess deaths would occur nationally over the next 2 weeks. As hospitals exceed 100% ICU bed capacity, 80,000 excess deaths would be expected in the following 2 weeks. This analysis indicates the importance of controlling case growth and subsequent hospitalizations before severe strain. State, local, tribal, and territorial leaders could evaluate ways to reduce strain on public health and health care infrastructures, including implementing interventions to reduce overall disease prevalence such as vaccination and other prevention strategies, as well as ways to expand or enhance capacity during times of high disease prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Adult , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2126714, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469399

ABSTRACT

Importance: Tensions around COVID-19 and systemic racism have raised the question: are hospitals advocating for equity for their Black patients? It is imperative for hospitals to be supportive of the Black community and acknowledge themselves as safe spaces, run by clinicians and staff who care about social justice issues that impact the health of the Black community; without the expression of support, Black patients may perceive hospitals as uncaring and unsafe, potentially delaying or avoiding treatment, which can result in serious complications and death for those with COVID-19. Objective: To explore how hospitals showed public-facing support for the Black community as measured through tweets about social equity or the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a retrospective longitudinal cohort study design, tweets from the top 100 ranked hospitals were collected, starting with the most recent over a 10-year span, from May 3, 2009, to June 26, 2020. The date of the George Floyd killing, May 25, 2020, was investigated as a point of interest. Data were analyzed from June 11 to December 4, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Tweets were manually identified based on 4 categories: BLM, associated with the BLM movement; Black support, expressed support for Black population within the hospital's community; Black health, pertained to health concerns specific to and the creation of health care for the Black community; or social justice, associated with general social justice terms that were too general to label as Black. If a tweet did not contain any hashtags from these categories, it remained unlabeled. Results: A total of 281 850 tweets from 90 unique social media accounts were collected. Each handle returned at least 1279 tweets, with 85 handles (94.4%) returning at least 3000 tweets. Tweet publication dates ranged from 2009 to 2020. A total of 274 tweets (0.097%) from 67 handles (74.4%) used a hashtag to support the BLM movement. Among the tweets labeled BLM, the first tweet was published in 2018 and only 4 tweets (1.5%) predated the killing of George Floyd. A similar trend of low signal observed was detected for the other categories (Black support: 244 tweets [0.086%] from 42 handles [46.7%] starting in 2013; Black health: 28 tweets [0.0099%] from 15 handles [16.7%] starting in 2018; social justice: 40 tweets [0.014%] from 21 handles [23.3%] starting in 2015). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings reflect the low signal of tweets regarding the Black community and social justice in a generalized way across approximately 10 years of tweets for all the hospital handles within the data set. From 2009 to 2020, hospitals rarely engaged in issues pertaining to the Black community and if so, only within the last half of this time period. These later entrances into these discussions indicate that these discussions are relatively recent.


Subject(s)
Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Social Justice/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Racism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice/psychology , United States/epidemiology
9.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003816, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been widely reported, but the transmission pathways among patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) are unclear. Identifying the risk factors and drivers for these nosocomial transmissions is critical for infection prevention and control interventions. The main aim of our study was to quantify the relative importance of different transmission pathways of SARS-CoV-2 in the hospital setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is an observational cohort study using data from 4 teaching hospitals in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, from January to October 2020. Associations between infectious SARS-CoV-2 individuals and infection risk were quantified using logistic, generalised additive and linear mixed models. Cases were classified as community- or hospital-acquired using likely incubation periods of 3 to 7 days. Of 66,184 patients who were hospitalised during the study period, 920 had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test within the same period (1.4%). The mean age was 67.9 (±20.7) years, 49.2% were females, and 68.5% were from the white ethnic group. Out of these, 571 patients had their first positive PCR tests while hospitalised (62.1%), and 97 of these occurred at least 7 days after admission (10.5%). Among the 5,596 HCWs, 615 (11.0%) tested positive during the study period using PCR or serological tests. The mean age was 39.5 (±11.1) years, 78.9% were females, and 49.8% were nurses. For susceptible patients, 1 day in the same ward with another patient with hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 was associated with an additional 7.5 infections per 1,000 susceptible patients (95% credible interval (CrI) 5.5 to 9.5/1,000 susceptible patients/day) per day. Exposure to an infectious patient with community-acquired Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) or to an infectious HCW was associated with substantially lower infection risks (2.0/1,000 susceptible patients/day, 95% CrI 1.6 to 2.2). As for HCW infections, exposure to an infectious patient with hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 or to an infectious HCW were both associated with an additional 0.8 infection per 1,000 susceptible HCWs per day (95% CrI 0.3 to 1.6 and 0.6 to 1.0, respectively). Exposure to an infectious patient with community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 was associated with less than half this risk (0.2/1,000 susceptible HCWs/day, 95% CrI 0.2 to 0.2). These assumptions were tested in sensitivity analysis, which showed broadly similar results. The main limitations were that the symptom onset dates and HCW absence days were not available. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that exposure to patients with hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a substantial infection risk to both HCWs and other hospitalised patients. Infection control measures to limit nosocomial transmission must be optimised to protect both staff and patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 462-468, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451067

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread rapidly worldwide. The role of fomites in facilitating onward transmission is plausible. This study aimed to determine the presence of viable virus and its persistence on the surfaces of fomites in wards treating COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. This study was conducted in two stages. First, environmental sampling was performed on random days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. Then, in the second stage, samples were collected serially on alternate days for 7 days in two selected general wards. In Stage 1, a total of 104 samples were collected from the surfaces of highly touched and used areas by patients and healthcare workers. Only three samples were tested positive for SARS-COV-2. In Stage 2, three surface samples were detected positive, but no persistence of the virus was observed. However, none of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA was viable through tissue culture. Overall, the environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 was low in this hospital setting. Hospitals' strict infection control and the compliance of patients with wearing masks may have played a role in these findings, suggesting adherence to those measures to reduce occupational exposure of COVID-19 in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Fomites/virology , Infection Control/methods , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(5-6): 277-282, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449965

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has forced the implementation of unprecedented public health measures strategies which might also have a significant impact on the spreading of other viral pathogens such as influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) . The present study compares the incidences of the most relevant respiratory viruses before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in emergency room patients. We analyzed the results of in total 14,946 polymerase chain reaction point-of-care tests (POCT-PCR) for Influenza A, Influenza B, RSV and SARS-CoV-2 in an adult and a pediatric emergency room between December 1, 2018 and March 31, 2021. Despite a fivefold increase in the number of tests performed, the positivity rate for Influenza A dropped from 19.32% (165 positives of 854 tests in 2018/19), 14.57% (149 positives of 1023 in 2019-20) to 0% (0 positives of 4915 tests) in 2020/21. In analogy, the positivity rate for Influenza B and RSV dropped from 0.35 to 1.47%, respectively, 10.65-21.08% to 0% for both in 2020/21. The positivity rate for SARS-CoV2 reached 9.74% (110 of 1129 tests performed) during the so-called second wave in December 2020. Compared to the two previous years, seasonal influenza and RSV incidence was eliminated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Corona-related measures and human behavior patterns could lead to a significant decline or even complete suppression of other respiratory viruses such as influenza and RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Retrospective Studies
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257643, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the geographical variation in the provision of health services, namely in demand, patterns of utilization, and effectiveness in the Brazilian Health Regions in four different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, from February 2020 to March 2021. METHODS: Descriptive serial cross-sectional study based on secondary data on COVID-19 hospitalizations from SIVEP-Gripe, a public and open-access database of Severe Acute Respiratory Illness records collected by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, and COVID-19 case notification data from Brasil.io, a repository of public data. Fifty-six epidemiological weeks were split into four periods. The following variables were considered for each Brazilian Health Region, per period: number of hospitalizations, hospitalizations per 100,000 inhabitants, hospitalizations per 100 new cases notified in the Health Region, percentage of hospitalizations with ICU use, percentages of hospitalizations with invasive and non-invasive ventilatory support, percentage of hospitalizations resulting in death and percentage of hospitalizations with ICU use resulting in death. Descriptive statistics of the variables were obtained across all 450 Health Regions in Brazil over the four defined pandemic periods. Maps were generated to capture the spatiotemporal variation and trends during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. RESULTS: There was great variation in how COVID-19 hospitalizations grew and spread among Health Regions, with higher numbers between June and August 2020, and, especially, from mid-December 2020 to March 2021. The variation pattern in the proportion of ICU use in the hospitalizations across the Health Regions was broad, with no intensive care provision in large areas in the North, Northeast, and Midwest. The proportions of hospitalizations and hospitalizations with ICU use resulting in deaths were remarkably high, reaching medians of 34.0% and 62.0% across Health Regions, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Heath Regions in Brazil are highly diverse, showing broad disparities in the capacity to respond to the demands imposed by COVID-19, services provided, use and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Management , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Chest ; 160(4): 1459-1470, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited existing data suggest that the novel COVID-19 may increase risk of VTE, but information from large, ethnically diverse populations with appropriate control participants is lacking. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the rate of VTE among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 differ from matched hospitalized control participants without COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and hospitalized adults without evidence of COVID-19 matched for age, sex, race or ethnicity, acute illness severity, and month of hospitalization between January 2020 and August 2020 from two integrated health care delivery systems with 36 hospitals. Outcomes included VTE (DVT or pulmonary embolism ascertained using diagnosis codes combined with validated natural language processing algorithms applied to electronic health records) and death resulting from any cause at 30 days. Fine and Gray hazards regression was performed to evaluate the association of COVID-19 with VTE after accounting for competing risk of death and residual differences between groups, as well as to identify predictors of VTE in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 6,319 adults with COVID-19 and 6,319 matched adults without COVID-19, with mean ± SD age of 60.0 ± 17.2 years, 46% women, 53.1% Hispanic, 14.6% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 10.3% Black. During 30-day follow-up, 313 validated cases of VTE (160 COVID-19, 153 control participants) and 1,172 deaths (817 in patients with COVID-19, 355 in control participants) occurred. Adults with COVID-19 showed a more than threefold adjusted risk of VTE (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.03-5.98) compared with matched control participants. Predictors of VTE in patients with COVID-19 included age ≥ 55 years, Black race, prior VTE, diagnosed sepsis, prior moderate or severe liver disease, BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, and platelet count > 217 k/µL. INTERPRETATION: Among ethnically diverse hospitalized adults, COVID-19 infection increased the risk of VTE, and selected patient characteristics were associated with higher thromboembolic risk in the setting of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Venous Thromboembolism/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to overwhelm health systems across the globe. We aimed to assess the readiness of hospitals in Nigeria to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD: Between April and October 2020, hospital representatives completed a modified World Health Organisation (WHO) COVID-19 hospital readiness checklist consisting of 13 components and 124 indicators. Readiness scores were classified as adequate (score ≥80%), moderate (score 50-79.9%) and not ready (score <50%). RESULTS: Among 20 (17 tertiary and three secondary) hospitals from all six geopolitical zones of Nigeria, readiness score ranged from 28.2% to 88.7% (median 68.4%), and only three (15%) hospitals had adequate readiness. There was a median of 15 isolation beds, four ICU beds and four ventilators per hospital, but over 45% of hospitals established isolation facilities and procured ventilators after the onset of COVID-19. Of the 13 readiness components, the lowest readiness scores were reported for surge capacity (61.1%), human resources (59.1%), staff welfare (50%) and availability of critical items (47.7%). CONCLUSION: Most hospitals in Nigeria were not adequately prepared to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak. Current efforts to strengthen hospital preparedness should prioritize challenges related to surge capacity, critical care for COVID-19 patients, and staff welfare and protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitals/supply & distribution , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Surge Capacity
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257169, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405341

ABSTRACT

A prospective study was conducted among different intra and extra-hospital populations of French Guiana to evaluate the performance of saliva testing compared to nasopharyngeal swabs. Persons aged 3 years and older with mild symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and asymptomatic persons with a testing indication were prospectively enrolled. Nasopharyngeal and salivary samples were stored at 4°C before analysis. Both samples were analyzed with the same Real-time PCR amplification of E gene, N gene, and RdRp gene. Between July 22th and October 28th, 1159 persons were included, of which 1028 were analyzed. When only considering as positives those with 2 target genes with Ct values <35, the sensitivity of RT-PCR on saliva samples was 100% relative to nasopharyngeal samples. Specificity positive and negative predictive values were above 90%. Across a variety of cultures and socioeconomic conditions, saliva tests were generally much preferred to nasopharyngeal tests and persons seemed largely confident that they could self-sample. For positive patients defined as those with the amplification of 2 specific target genes with Ct values below 35, the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR on saliva samples was similar to nasopharyngeal samples despite the broad range of challenging circumstances in a tropical environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , French Guiana , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tropical Climate
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1074-1079, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405468

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Public life in China is gradually returning to normal with strong measures in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) control. Because of the long-term effects of COVID-19, medical institutions had to make timely adjustments to control policies and priorities to balance between COVID-19 prevention and daily medical services. METHODOLOGY: The framework for infection prevention and control in the inpatient department was effectively organized at both hospital and department levels. A series of prevention and control strategies was implemented under this leadership: application of rigorous risk assessment and triage before admission through a query list; classifying patients into three risk levels and providing corresponding medical treatment and emergency handling; establishing new ward visiting criteria for visitors; designing procedures for PPE and stockpile management; executing specialized disinfection and medical waste policies. RESULTS: Till June 2020, the bed occupancy had recovered from 20.0% to 88.1%. In total, 13045 patients were received in our hospital, of which 54 and 127 patients were identified as high-risk and medium-risk, respectively, and 2 patients in the high-risk group were eventually laboratory-confirmed with COVID-19. No hospital-acquired infection of COVID-19 has been observed since the emergency appeared. CONCLUSIONS: The strategies ensured early detection and targeted prevention of COVID-19 following the COVID-19 pandemic, which improved the recovery of medical services after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/standards , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Risk Assessment , Triage
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039088, 2020 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The newly identified SARS-CoV-2 can cause serious acute respiratory infections such as pneumonia. In France, mortality rate in the general population was approximately 10% and could reach higher levels at the hospital. In the current context of high incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 in the community, a significant increase in the rate of nosocomial transmission is expected. The risk of nosocomial transmission could even be higher in low-income countries that have fragile healthcare systems. This protocol is intended to estimate the prevalence and incidence of suspected or confirmed cases of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection, the clinical spectrum and the determinants (risk factors/protective) at participating hospitals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be an international multicentre prospective, observational, hospital-based study in adults and children. It will include volunteer patients and healthcare professionals in France and hospitals affiliated with the GABRIEL network. Demographic and clinical data will be collected using case report forms designed especially for the purpose of the project. A nasopharyngeal swab will be collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse-transcriptase PCR. Characteristics of the study participants, the proportion of confirmed nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections relative to all patients with syndromes suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, will be analysed. Appropriate multivariate modelling will be used to identify the determinants associated with nosocomial onset. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the clinical research and committee of all participating countries. The findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journal for publication and shared with national health authorities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04290780.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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