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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2206610119, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984600


The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a coronavirus that spilled over from the bat reservoir. Despite numerous clinical trials and vaccines, the burden remains immense, and the host determinants of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 severity remain largely unknown. Signatures of positive selection detected by comparative functional genetic analyses in primate and bat genomes can uncover important and specific adaptations that occurred at virus-host interfaces. We performed high-throughput evolutionary analyses of 334 SARS-CoV-2-interacting proteins to identify SARS-CoV adaptive loci and uncover functional differences between modern humans, primates, and bats. Using DGINN (Detection of Genetic INNovation), we identified 38 bat and 81 primate proteins with marks of positive selection. Seventeen genes, including the ACE2 receptor, present adaptive marks in both mammalian orders, suggesting common virus-host interfaces and past epidemics of coronaviruses shaping their genomes. Yet, 84 genes presented distinct adaptations in bats and primates. Notably, residues involved in ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the inflammatory RIPK1 have rapidly evolved in bats but not primates, suggesting different inflammation regulation versus humans. Furthermore, we discovered residues with typical virus-host arms race marks in primates, such as in the entry factor TMPRSS2 or the autophagy adaptor FYCO1, pointing to host-specific in vivo interfaces that may be drug targets. Finally, we found that FYCO1 sites under adaptation in primates are those associated with severe COVID-19, supporting their importance in pathogenesis and replication. Overall, we identified adaptations involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in bats and primates, enlightening modern genetic determinants of virus susceptibility and severity.

COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Evolution, Molecular , Host Adaptation , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host Adaptation/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Primates/genetics , Primates/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
Cell ; 184(20): 5189-5200.e7, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401295


The independent emergence late in 2020 of the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 lineages of SARS-CoV-2 prompted renewed concerns about the evolutionary capacity of this virus to overcome public health interventions and rising population immunity. Here, by examining patterns of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations that have accumulated in SARS-CoV-2 genomes since the pandemic began, we find that the emergence of these three "501Y lineages" coincided with a major global shift in the selective forces acting on various SARS-CoV-2 genes. Following their emergence, the adaptive evolution of 501Y lineage viruses has involved repeated selectively favored convergent mutations at 35 genome sites, mutations we refer to as the 501Y meta-signature. The ongoing convergence of viruses in many other lineages on this meta-signature suggests that it includes multiple mutation combinations capable of promoting the persistence of diverse SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the face of mounting host immune recognition.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Codon/genetics , Genes, Viral , Genetic Drift , Host Adaptation/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion , Phylogeny , Public Health
Dev Growth Differ ; 63(3): 219-227, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088005


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a pandemic as of early 2020. Upon infection, SARS-CoV-2 attaches to its receptor, that is, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), on the surface of host cells and is then internalized into host cells via enzymatic machineries. This subsequently stimulates immune response factors. Since the host immune response and severity of COVID-19 vary among individuals, genetic risk factors for severe COVID-19 cases have been investigated. Our research group recently conducted a survey of genetic variants among SARS-CoV-2-interacting molecules across populations, noting near absence of difference in allele frequency spectrum between populations in these genes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risk factors for severe COVID-19 cases in a segment of chromosome 3 that involves six genes encoding three immune-regulatory chemokine receptors and another three molecules. The risk haplotype seemed to be inherited from Neanderthals, suggesting genetic adaptation against pathogens in modern human evolution. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 uses highly conserved molecules as its virion interaction, whereas its immune response appears to be genetically biased in individuals to some extent. We herein review the molecular process of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as our further survey of genetic variants of its related immune effectors. We also discuss aspects of modern human evolution.

Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Conserved Sequence , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host Adaptation/genetics , Host Adaptation/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA