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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2123065119, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947760

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, undergoes continuous evolution, highlighting an urgent need for development of novel antiviral therapies. Here we show a quantitative mass spectrometry-based succinylproteomics analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Caco-2 cells, revealing dramatic reshape of succinylation on host and viral proteins. SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes succinylation of several key enzymes in the TCA, leading to inhibition of cellular metabolic pathways. We demonstrated that host protein succinylation is regulated by viral nonstructural protein (NSP14) through interaction with sirtuin 5 (SIRT5); overexpressed SIRT5 can effectively inhibit virus replication. We found succinylation inhibitors possess significant antiviral effects. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and membrane proteins underwent succinylation modification, which was conserved in SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Collectively, our results uncover a regulatory mechanism of host protein posttranslational modification and cellular pathways mediated by SARS-CoV-2, which may become antiviral drug targets against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sirtuins/metabolism , Succinates/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
4.
Nature ; 603(7899): 25-27, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730273

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/economics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Guanidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Internationality , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Mice , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Protein J ; 39(3): 198-216, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718840

ABSTRACT

The devastating effects of the recent global pandemic (termed COVID-19 for "coronavirus disease 2019") caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) are paramount with new cases and deaths growing at an exponential rate. In order to provide a better understanding of SARS CoV-2, this article will review the proteins found in the SARS CoV-2 that caused this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Drug Discovery/methods , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Polyproteins , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins
6.
Sci Adv ; 8(8): eabi6110, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714330

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic underscores the need for new treatments. Here we report that cannabidiol (CBD) inhibits infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cells and mice. CBD and its metabolite 7-OH-CBD, but not THC or other congeneric cannabinoids tested, potently block SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells. CBD acts after viral entry, inhibiting viral gene expression and reversing many effects of SARS-CoV-2 on host gene transcription. CBD inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in part by up-regulating the host IRE1α RNase endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and interferon signaling pathways. In matched groups of human patients from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative, CBD (100 mg/ml oral solution per medical records) had a significant negative association with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. This study highlights CBD as a potential preventative agent for early-stage SARS-CoV-2 infection and merits future clinical trials. We caution against use of non-medical formulations including edibles, inhalants or topicals as a preventative or treatment therapy at the present time.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cannabidiol/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Mice , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684241

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a highly pathogenic virus that evades antiviral immunity by interfering with host protein synthesis, mRNA stability, and protein trafficking. The SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) uses its C-terminal domain to block the messenger RNA (mRNA) entry channel of the 40S ribosome to inhibit host protein synthesis. However, how SARS-CoV-2 circumvents Nsp1-mediated suppression for viral protein synthesis and if the mechanism can be targeted therapeutically remain unclear. Here, we show that N- and C-terminal domains of Nsp1 coordinate to drive a tuned ratio of viral to host translation, likely to maintain a certain level of host fitness while maximizing replication. We reveal that the stem-loop 1 (SL1) region of the SARS-CoV-2 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) is necessary and sufficient to evade Nsp1-mediated translational suppression. Targeting SL1 with locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides inhibits viral translation and makes SARS-CoV-2 5' UTR vulnerable to Nsp1 suppression, hindering viral replication in vitro at a nanomolar concentration, as well as providing protection against SARS-CoV-2-induced lethality in transgenic mice expressing human ACE2. Thus, SL1 allows Nsp1 to switch infected cells from host to SARS-CoV-2 translation, presenting a therapeutic target against COVID-19 that is conserved among immune-evasive variants. This unique strategy of unleashing a virus' own virulence mechanism against itself could force a critical trade-off between drug resistance and pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Immune Evasion/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion/drug effects , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Biological , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Life Sci ; 295: 120411, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683412

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Virus-infected host cells switch their metabolism to a more glycolytic phenotype, required for new virion synthesis and packaging. Therefore, we investigated the effect and mechanistic action of glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) on virus multiplication in host cells following SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 induced change in glycolysis was examined in Vero E6 cells. Effect of 2-DG on virus multiplication was evaluated by RT-PCR (N and RdRp genes) analysis, protein expression analysis of Nucleocapsid (N) and Spike (S) proteins and visual indication of cytopathy effect (CPE), The mass spectrometry analysis was performed to examine the 2-DG induced change in glycosylation status of receptor binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. KEY FINDINGS: We observed SARS-COV-2 infection induced increased glucose influx and glycolysis, resulting in selectively high accumulation of the fluorescent glucose analog, 2-NBDG in Vero E6 cells. 2-DG inhibited glycolysis, reduced virus multiplication and alleviated cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. The progeny virions produced from 2-DG treated cells were found unglycosylated at crucial N-glycosites (N331 and N343) of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein, resulting in production of defective progeny virions with compromised infective potential. SIGNIFICANCE: The mechanistic study revealed that the inhibition of SARS-COV-2 multiplication is attributed to 2-DG induced glycolysis inhibition and possibly un-glycosylation of the spike protein, also. Therefore, based on its previous human trials in different types of Cancer and Herpes patients, it could be a potential molecule to study in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glucose/metabolism , Glycolysis/drug effects , Glycosylation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Mannose/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virion/drug effects , Virion/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited effective prophylactic/early treatments for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Viral entry requires spike protein binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor and cleavage by transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface serine protease. Targeting of TMPRSS2 by either androgen blockade or direct inhibition is in clinical trials in early SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We used differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface to test the impact of targeting TMPRSS2 on the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We first modelled the systemic delivery of compounds. Enzalutamide, an oral androgen receptor antagonist, had no impact on SARS-CoV-2 infection. By contrast, camostat mesylate, an orally available serine protease inhibitor, blocked SARS-CoV-2 entry. However, oral camostat is rapidly metabolised in the circulation, with poor airway bioavailability. We therefore modelled local airway administration by applying camostat to the apical surface of differentiated airway cultures. We demonstrated that a brief exposure to topical camostat effectively restricts SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: These experiments demonstrate a potential therapeutic role for topical camostat for pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2, which can now be evaluated in a clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Androgens/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells , Esters/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Goblet Cells/immunology , Goblet Cells/metabolism , Guanidines/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Signal Transduction , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(3): 166322, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is both a consequence and determinant of outcomes in COVID-19. The kidney is one of the major organs infected by the causative virus, SARS-CoV-2. Viral entry into cells requires the viral spike protein, and both the virus and its spike protein appear in the urine of COVID-19 patients with AKI. We examined the effects of transfecting the viral spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in kidney cell lines. METHODS: HEK293, HEK293-ACE2+ (stably overexpressing ACE2), and Vero E6 cells having endogenous ACE2 were transfected with SARS-CoV-2 spike or control plasmid. Assessment of gene and protein expression, and syncytia formation was performed, and the effects of quercetin on syncytia formation examined. FINDINGS: Spike transfection in HEK293-ACE2+ cells caused syncytia formation, cellular sloughing, and focal denudation of the cell monolayer; transfection in Vero E6 cells also caused syncytia formation. Spike expression upregulated potentially nephrotoxic genes (TNF-α, MCP-1, and ICAM1). Spike upregulated the cytoprotective gene HO-1 and relevant signaling pathways (p-Akt, p-STAT3, and p-p38). Quercetin, an HO-1 inducer, reduced syncytia formation and spike protein expression. INTERPRETATION: The major conclusions of the study are: 1) Spike protein expression in kidney cells provides a relevant model for the study of maladaptive and adaptive responses germane to AKI in COVID-19; 2) such spike protein expression upregulates HO-1; and 3) quercetin, an HO-1 inducer, may provide a clinically relevant/feasible protective strategy in AKI occurring in the setting of COVID-19. FUNDING: R01-DK119167 (KAN), R01-AI100911 (JPG), P30-DK079337; R01-DK059600 (AA).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Binding/physiology , Quercetin/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/physiology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010171, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622378

ABSTRACT

The development of physiological models that reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human cells will be instrumental to identify host-pathogen interactions and potential therapeutics. Here, using cell suspensions directly from primary human lung tissues (HLT), we have developed a rapid platform for the identification of viral targets and the expression of viral entry factors, as well as for the screening of viral entry inhibitors and anti-inflammatory compounds. The direct use of HLT cells, without long-term cell culture and in vitro differentiation approaches, preserves main immune and structural cell populations, including the most susceptible cell targets for SARS-CoV-2; alveolar type II (AT-II) cells, while maintaining the expression of proteins involved in viral infection, such as ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147 and AXL. Further, antiviral testing of 39 drug candidates reveals a highly reproducible method, suitable for different SARS-CoV-2 variants, and provides the identification of new compounds missed by conventional systems, such as VeroE6. Using this method, we also show that interferons do not modulate ACE2 expression, and that stimulation of local inflammatory responses can be modulated by different compounds with antiviral activity. Overall, we present a relevant and rapid method for the study of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Investigational/pharmacology , Drugs, Investigational/therapeutic use , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112420, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588219

ABSTRACT

Deciphering the molecular downstream consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)- 2 infection is important for a greater understanding of the disease and treatment planning. Furthermore, greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies can help in the development of vaccines and drugs against COVID-19. At present, the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in the host cells are not sufficiently comprehended. Some of the mechanisms are proposed considering the existing similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and the other members of the ß-CoVs, and others are explained based on studies advanced in the structure and function of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we endeavored to map the possible mechanisms of the host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection and surveyed current research conducted by in vitro, in vivo and human observations, as well as existing suggestions. We addressed the specific signaling events that can cause cytokine storm and demonstrated three forms of cell death signaling following virus infection, including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis. Given the elicited signaling pathways, we introduced possible pathway-based therapeutic targets; ADAM17 was especially highlighted as one of the most important elements of several signaling pathways involved in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. We also provided the possible drug candidates against these targets. Moreover, the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway was found as one of the important cross-talk pathways through a pathway-pathway interaction analysis for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Discovery , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans
13.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580405

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a public health issue around the world in the last few years. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment to fight the disease. Thus, it is essential to highlight possible prognostic predictors that could identify patients with a high risk of developing complications. Within this framework, miRNA biomolecules play a vital role in the genetic regulation of various genes, principally, those related to the pathophysiology of the disease. Here, we review the interaction of host and viral microRNAs with molecular and cellular elements that could potentiate the main pulmonary, cardiac, renal, circulatory, and neuronal complications in COVID-19 patients. miR-26a, miR-29b, miR-21, miR-372, and miR-2392, among others, have been associated with exacerbation of the inflammatory process, increasing the risk of a cytokine storm. In addition, increased expression of miR-15b, -199a, and -491 are related to the prognosis of the disease, and miR-192 and miR-323a were identified as clinical predictors of mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Finally, we address miR-29, miR-122, miR-155, and miR-200, among others, as possible therapeutic targets. However, more studies are required to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/genetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Drug Delivery Systems , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Inflammation , MicroRNAs/administration & dosage , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 162, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582120

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel type b coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. With over 224 million confirmed infections with this virus and more than 4.6 million people dead because of it, it is critically important to define the immunological processes occurring in the human response to this virus and pathogenetic mechanisms of its deadly manifestation. This perspective focuses on the contribution of the recently discovered interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with neuropilin 1 (NRP1) receptor, NRP1 as a virus entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, its role in different physiologic and pathologic conditions, and the potential to target the Spike-NRP1 interaction to combat virus infectivity and severe disease manifestations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Infant , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Neuropilin-1/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0197321, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532966

ABSTRACT

Waning vaccine-induced immunity coupled with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has led to increases in breakthrough infections, prompting consideration for vaccine booster doses. Boosters have been reported to be safe and increase SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibody levels, but how these doses impact the trajectory of the global pandemic and herd immunity is unknown. Information on immunology, epidemiology, and equitable vaccine distribution should be considered when deciding the timing and eligibility for COVID-19 vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Vaccination
16.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 789-798, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498508

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected more than 210 million individuals globally and resulted in over 4 million deaths since the first report in December 2019. The early use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for light and ordinary patients, can rapidly improve symptoms, shorten hospitalization days and reduce severe cases transformed from light and normal. Many TCM formulas and products have a wide application in treating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (P. cuspidatum), is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine with actions of clearing away heat and eliminating dampness, draining the gallbladder to relieve jaundice, removing blood stasis to alleviate pain, resolving phlegm and arrest cough. In the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2, P. cuspidatum was recommended as as a therapeutic drug of COVID-19 pneumonia.In this study, we aimed to identifies P. cuspidatum is the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections. Methods: In the present study , we infected human malignant embryonal rhabdomyoma (RD) cells with the OC43 strain of the coronavirus, which represent an alternative model for SARS-CoV-2 and then employed the cell viability assay kit for the antiviral activity. We combined computer aided virtual screening to predicte the binding site and employed Surface plasmon resonance analysis (SPR) to comfirm the interaction between drugs and coronavirus. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology to identify drug's inhibition in the proteolytic activity of 3CLpro and Plpro. Results: Based on our results, polydatin and resveratrol derived from P. cuspidatum significantly suppressed HCoV-OC43 replication. 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of polydatin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 18.66, 125, 14.6 and 25.42 µm, respectively. IC50 values of resveratrol inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 29.81 ,60.86, 16.35 and19.04 µM, respectively. Finally, SPR assay confirmed that polydatin and resveratrol had high affinity to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV 3Clpro, MERS-CoV 3Clpro and PLpro protein. Conclusions: we identified the antiviral activity of flavonoids polydatin and resveratrol on RD cells. Polydatin and resveratrol were found to be specific and selective inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2, 3CLpro and PLpro, viral cysteine proteases. In summary, this study identifies P. cuspidatum as the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fallopia japonica/chemistry , Glucosides/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glucosides/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Resveratrol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stilbenes/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Viral Proteins/metabolism
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 714909, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497067

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinically, evidence shows that uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have a higher death-rate. However, current anti-UCEC/coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment is lacking. Plumbagin (PLB), a pharmacologically active alkaloid, is an emerging anti-cancer inhibitor. Accordingly, the current report was designed to identify and characterize the anti-UCEC function and mechanism of PLB in the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 via integrated in silico analysis. Methods: The clinical analyses of UCEC and COVID-19 in patients were conducted using online-accessible tools. Meanwhile, in silico methods including network pharmacology and biological molecular docking aimed to screen and characterize the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 functions, bio targets, and mechanisms of the action of PLB. Results: The bioinformatics data uncovered the clinical characteristics of UCEC patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, including specific genes, health risk, survival rate, and prognostic index. Network pharmacology findings disclosed that PLB-exerted anti-UCEC/COVID-19 effects were achieved through anti-proliferation, inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and modulation of some of the key molecular pathways associated with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating actions. Following molecular docking analysis, in silico investigation helped identify the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 pharmacological bio targets of PLB, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU). Conclusions: Based on the present bioinformatic and in silico findings, the clinical characterization of UCEC/COVID-19 patients was revealed. The candidate, core bio targets, and molecular pathways of PLB action in the potential treatment of UCEC/COVID-19 were identified accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Endometrial Neoplasms , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/complications , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/genetics , Computational Biology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/methods , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Genetic Association Studies , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Uterus/drug effects , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/pathology , Uterus/virology
18.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(11): e10396, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488875

ABSTRACT

Treatment options for COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, remain limited. Understanding viral pathogenesis at the molecular level is critical to develop effective therapy. Some recent studies have explored SARS-CoV-2-host interactomes and provided great resources for understanding viral replication. However, host proteins that functionally associate with SARS-CoV-2 are localized in the corresponding subnetwork within the comprehensive human interactome. Therefore, constructing a downstream network including all potential viral receptors, host cell proteases, and cofactors is necessary and should be used as an additional criterion for the validation of critical host machineries used for viral processing. This study applied both affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and the complementary proximity-based labeling MS method (BioID-MS) on 29 viral ORFs and 18 host proteins with potential roles in viral replication to map the interactions relevant to viral processing. The analysis yields a list of 693 hub proteins sharing interactions with both viral baits and host baits and revealed their biological significance for SARS-CoV-2. Those hub proteins then served as a rational resource for drug repurposing via a virtual screening approach. The overall process resulted in the suggested repurposing of 59 compounds for 15 protein targets. Furthermore, antiviral effects of some candidate drugs were observed in vitro validation using image-based drug screen with infectious SARS-CoV-2. In addition, our results suggest that the antiviral activity of methotrexate could be associated with its inhibitory effect on specific protein-protein interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Proteome/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Methotrexate/pharmacology , Proteomics , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488610

ABSTRACT

The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor used by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses to attach to cells via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of their viral spike protein. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, several structures of protein complexes involving ACE2 and RBD as well as monoclonal antibodies and nanobodies have become available. We have leveraged the structural data to design peptides to target the interaction between the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 and SARS-CoV and ACE2, as contrasting exemplar, as well as the dimerization surface of ACE2 monomers. The peptides were modelled using our original method: PiPreD that uses native elements of the interaction between the targeted protein and cognate partner(s) that are subsequently included in the designed peptides. These peptides recapitulate stretches of residues present in the native interface plus novel and highly diverse conformations surrogating key interactions at the interface. To facilitate the access to this information we have created a freely available and dedicated web-based repository, PepI-Covid19 database, providing convenient access to this wealth of information to the scientific community with the view of maximizing its potential impact in the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Peptides/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , Databases, Factual , Humans , Models, Molecular , Peptide Library , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
20.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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