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1.
Science ; 369(6511): 1586-1592, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038226

ABSTRACT

Intervention strategies are urgently needed to control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The trimeric viral spike (S) protein catalyzes fusion between viral and target cell membranes to initiate infection. Here, we report two cryo-electron microscopy structures derived from a preparation of the full-length S protein, representing its prefusion (2.9-angstrom resolution) and postfusion (3.0-angstrom resolution) conformations, respectively. The spontaneous transition to the postfusion state is independent of target cells. The prefusion trimer has three receptor-binding domains clamped down by a segment adjacent to the fusion peptide. The postfusion structure is strategically decorated by N-linked glycans, suggesting possible protective roles against host immune responses and harsh external conditions. These findings advance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 entry and may guide the development of vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Protein Structure, Secondary , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
2.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(16): 1376-1392, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342795

ABSTRACT

Significance: It is estimated that close to 50 million cases of sepsis result in over 11 million annual fatalities worldwide. The pathognomonic feature of sepsis is a dysregulated inflammatory response arising from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns is a hallmark of the host immune defense to combat microbes and to prevent the progression to sepsis. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a ubiquitous adaptor protein located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is activated by the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), following binding of viral RNA agonists. Recent Advances: Substantial progress has been made in deciphering the activation of the MAVS pathway with its interacting proteins, downstream signaling events (interferon [IFN] regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappa B), and context-dependent type I/III IFN response. Critical Issues: In the evolutionary race between pathogens and the host, viruses have developed immune evasion strategies for cleavage, degradation, or blockade of proteins in the MAVS pathway. For example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) M protein and ORF9b protein antagonize MAVS signaling and a protective type I IFN response. Future Directions: The role of MAVS as a sensor for nonviral pathogens, host cell injury, and metabolic perturbations awaits better characterization in the future. New technical advances in multidimensional single-cell analysis and single-molecule methods will accelerate the rate of new discoveries. The ultimate goal is to manipulate MAVS activities in the form of immune-modulatory therapies to combat infections and sepsis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 1376-1392.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Sepsis/virology
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008407, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962982

ABSTRACT

Confronted with the challenge of understanding population-level processes, disease ecologists and epidemiologists often simplify quantitative data into distinct physiological states (e.g. susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered). However, data defining these states often fall along a spectrum rather than into clear categories. Hence, the host-pathogen relationship is more accurately defined using quantitative data, often integrating multiple diagnostic measures, just as clinicians do to assess their patients. We use quantitative data on a major neglected tropical disease (Leptospira interrogans) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to improve individual-level and population-level understanding of this Leptospira reservoir system. We create a "host-pathogen space" by mapping multiple biomarkers of infection (e.g. serum antibodies, pathogen DNA) and disease state (e.g. serum chemistry values) from 13 longitudinally sampled, severely ill individuals to characterize changes in these values through time. Data from these individuals describe a clear, unidirectional trajectory of disease and recovery within this host-pathogen space. Remarkably, this trajectory also captures the broad patterns in larger cross-sectional datasets of 1456 wild sea lions in all states of health but sampled only once. Our framework enables us to determine an individual's location in their time-course since initial infection, and to visualize the full range of clinical states and antibody responses induced by pathogen exposure. We identify predictive relationships between biomarkers and outcomes such as survival and pathogen shedding, and use these to impute values for missing data, thus increasing the size of the useable dataset. Mapping the host-pathogen space using quantitative biomarker data enables more nuanced understanding of an individual's time course of infection, duration of immunity, and probability of being infectious. Such maps also make efficient use of limited data for rare or poorly understood diseases, by providing a means to rapidly assess the range and extent of potential clinical and immunological profiles. These approaches yield benefits for clinicians needing to triage patients, prevent transmission, and assess immunity, and for disease ecologists or epidemiologists working to develop appropriate risk management strategies to reduce transmission risk on a population scale (e.g. model parameterization using more accurate estimates of duration of immunity and infectiousness) and to assess health impacts on a population scale.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Leptospira/pathogenicity , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Sea Lions/microbiology , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/immunology , Animal Diseases/microbiology , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Bacterial Shedding , California , Cross-Sectional Studies , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity , Kinetics , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospirosis/immunology , Survival Rate
4.
Science ; 376(6598): 1161-1162, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891725

ABSTRACT

Understanding viral evolution depends on a synthesis of evolutionary biology and immuno-epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Evolution, Molecular , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760651

ABSTRACT

PDCoV is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that mainly causes acute diarrhea in piglets, seriously affecting pig breeding industries worldwide. To date, the molecular mechanisms of PDCoV-induced immune and inflammatory responses or host responses in LLC-PK cells in vitro are not well understood. HSP90 plays important roles in various viral infections. In this study, HSP90AB1 knockout cells (HSP90AB1KO) were constructed and a comparative transcriptomic analysis between PDCoV-infected HSP90AB1WT and HSP90AB1KO cells was conducted using RNA sequencing to explore the effect of HSP90AB1 on PDCoV infection. A total of 1295 and 3746 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in PDCoV-infected HSP90AB1WT and HSP90AB1KO cells, respectively. Moreover, most of the significantly enriched pathways were related to immune and inflammatory response-associated pathways upon PDCoV infection. The DEGs enriched in NF-κB pathways were specifically detected in HSP90AB1WT cells, and NF-κB inhibitors JSH-23, SC75741 and QNZ treatment reduced PDCoV infection. Further research revealed most cytokines associated with immune and inflammatory responses were upregulated during PDCoV infection. Knockout of HSP90AB1 altered the upregulated levels of some cytokines. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the host response to PDCoV infection from the transcriptome perspective, which will contribute to illustrating the molecular basis of the interaction between PDCoV and HSP90AB1.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Gene Expression Profiling , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Immunity/genetics , Swine Diseases/etiology , Transcriptome , Animals , Computational Biology/methods , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Gene Ontology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Swine
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753505

ABSTRACT

As the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to plague healthcare systems, it has become clear that opportunistic pathogens cause a considerable proportion of SARS-CoV-2-associated mortality and morbidity cases. Of these, Covid-Associated Pulmonary Aspergilliosis (CAPA) is a major concern with evidence that it occurs in the absence of traditional risk factors such as neutropenia and is diagnostically challenging for the attending physician. In this review, we focus on the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 and how this potentiates CAPA through dysregulation of local and systemic immunity as well as the unintended consequences of approved COVID treatments including corticosteroids and IL-6 inhibitors. Finally, we will consider how knowledge of the above may aid in the diagnosis of CAPA using current diagnostics and what treatment should be instituted in probable and confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Treatment Outcome
7.
Elife ; 112022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742932

ABSTRACT

Preexisting antibodies to endemic coronaviruses (CoV) that cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 have the potential to influence the antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination and infection for better or worse. In this observational study of mucosal and systemic humoral immunity in acutely infected, convalescent, and vaccinated subjects, we tested for cross-reactivity against endemic CoV spike (S) protein at subdomain resolution. Elevated responses, particularly to the ß-CoV OC43, were observed in all natural infection cohorts tested and were correlated with the response to SARS-CoV-2. The kinetics of this response and isotypes involved suggest that infection boosts preexisting antibody lineages raised against prior endemic CoV exposure that cross-react. While further research is needed to discern whether this recalled response is desirable or detrimental, the boosted antibodies principally targeted the better-conserved S2 subdomain of the viral spike and were not associated with neutralization activity. In contrast, vaccination with a stabilized spike mRNA vaccine did not robustly boost cross-reactive antibodies, suggesting differing antigenicity and immunogenicity. In sum, this study provides evidence that antibodies targeting endemic CoV are robustly boosted in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not to vaccination with stabilized S, and that depending on conformation or other factors, the S2 subdomain of the spike protein triggers a rapidly recalled, IgG-dominated response that lacks neutralization activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
8.
Immunity ; 55(2): 201-209, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720107

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections mostly lead to mild or even asymptomatic infections in children, but the reasons for this are not fully understood. More efficient local tissue responses, better thymic function, and cross-reactive immunity have all been proposed to explain this. In rare cases of children and young people, but very rarely in adults, post-infectious hyperinflammatory syndromes can develop and be serious. Here, I will discuss our current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and hypothesize that a life history and energy allocation perspective might offer an additional explanation to mild infections, viral dynamics, and the higher incidence of rare multisystem inflammatory syndromes in children and young people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Patient Outcome Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Trauma Severity Indices , Virus Replication
9.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 360-370, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713200

ABSTRACT

Host genetic and environmental factors including age, biological sex, diet, geographical location, microbiome composition and metabolites converge to influence innate and adaptive immune responses to vaccines. Failure to understand and account for these factors when investigating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efficacy may impair the development of the next generation of vaccines. Most studies aimed at identifying mechanisms of vaccine-mediated immune protection have focused on adaptive immune responses. It is well established, however, that mobilization of the innate immune response is essential to the development of effective cellular and humoral immunity. A comprehensive understanding of the innate immune response and environmental factors that contribute to the development of broad and durable cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other vaccines requires a holistic and unbiased approach. Along with optimization of the immunogen and vectors, the development of adjuvants based on our evolving understanding of how the innate immune system shapes vaccine responses will be essential. Defining the innate immune mechanisms underlying the establishment of long-lived plasma cells and memory T cells could lead to a universal vaccine for coronaviruses, a key biomedical priority.


Subject(s)
Biological Variation, Population , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Global Health , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Microbiota/immunology , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , Vaccination
10.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0184221, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691423

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a beta coronavirus that emerged in 2012, causing severe pneumonia and renal failure. MERS-CoV encodes five accessory proteins. Some of them have been shown to interfere with host antiviral immune response. However, the roles of protein 8b in innate immunity and viral virulence was rarely studied. Here, we introduced individual MERS-CoV accessory protein genes into the genome of an attenuated murine coronavirus (Mouse hepatitis virus, MHV), respectively, and found accessory protein 8b could enhance viral replication in vivo and in vitro and increase the lethality of infected mice. RNA-seq analysis revealed that protein 8b could significantly inhibit type I interferon production (IFN-I) and innate immune response in mice infected with MHV expressing protein 8b. We also found that MERS-CoV protein 8b could initiate from multiple internal methionine sites and at least three protein variants were identified. Residues 1-23 of protein 8b was demonstrated to be responsible for increased virulence in vivo. In addition, the inhibitory effect on IFN-I of protein 8b might not contribute to its virulence enhancement as aa1-23 deletion did not affect IFN-I production in vitro and in vivo. Next, we also found that protein 8b was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi membrane in infected cells, which was disrupted by C-terminal region aa 88-112 deletion. This study will provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE Multiple coronaviruses (CoV) cause severe respiratory infections and become global public health threats such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Each coronavirus contains different numbers of accessory proteins which show high variability among different CoVs. Accessory proteins are demonstrated to play essential roles in pathogenesis of CoVs. MERS-CoV contains 5 accessory proteins (protein 3, 4a, 4b, 5, 8b), and deletion of all four accessory proteins (protein 3, 4a, 4b, 5), significantly affects MERS-CoV replication and pathogenesis. However, whether ORF8b also regulates MERS-CoV infection is unknown. Here, we constructed mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) recombinant virus expressing MERS-CoV protein 8b and demonstrated protein 8b could significantly enhance the virulence of MHV, which is mediated by N-terminal domain of protein 8b. This study will shed light on the understanding of pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Mice , Mortality , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Tropism , Virulence/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics
11.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 401-407, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687545

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an ongoing pandemic disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses have been detected and characterized not only in COVID-19 patients and convalescents, but also unexposed individuals. Here, we review the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 patients and the relationships between SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses and COVID-19 severity. In addition, we describe the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells after recovery from COVID-19 and discuss the presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in unexposed individuals and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses elicited by COVID-19 vaccines. A better understanding of T-cell responses is important for effective control of the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/classification , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/classification , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Convalescence , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(5)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675573

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury is associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, host cell changes underlying infection of renal cells with SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown and prevent understanding of the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to renal pathology. Here, we carried out quantitative translatome and whole-cell proteomics analyses of primary renal proximal and distal tubular epithelial cells derived from human donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 or MERS-CoV to disseminate virus and cell type-specific changes over time. Our findings revealed shared pathways modified upon infection with both viruses, as well as SARS-CoV-2-specific host cell modulation driving key changes in innate immune activation and cellular protein quality control. Notably, MERS-CoV infection-induced specific changes in mitochondrial biology that were not observed in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we identified extensive modulation in pathways associated with kidney failure that changed in a virus- and cell type-specific manner. In summary, we provide an overview of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 or MERS-CoV infection on primary renal epithelial cells revealing key pathways that may be essential for viral replication.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Kidney , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Proteome , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Distal , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Proteomics/methods , Virus Replication
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 826882, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674339

ABSTRACT

Swine enteric coronaviruses (SECoVs) including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), account for the majority of lethal watery diarrhea in neonatal pigs and pose significant economic and public health burdens in the world. While the three SECoVs primarily infect intestinal epithelia in vivo and cause similar clinical signs, there are evident discrepancies in their cellular tropism and pathogenicity. However, the underlying mechanisms to cause the differences remain unclear. Herein, we employed porcine enteroids that are a physiologically relevant model of the intestine to assess the host epithelial responses following infection with the three SECoVs (PEDV, TGEV, and PDCoV). Although SECoVs replicated similarly in jejunal enteroids, a parallel comparison of transcriptomics datasets uncovered that PEDV and TGEV infection induced similar transcriptional profiles and exhibited a more pronounced response with more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in jejunal enteroids compared with PDCoV infection. Notably, TGEV and PDCoV induced high levels of type I and III IFNs and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) responses, while PEDV displayed a delayed peak and elicited a much lesser extent of IFN responses. Furthermore, TGEV and PDCoV instead of PEDV elicited a substantial upregulation of antigen-presentation genes and T cell-recruiting chemokines in enteroids. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that IFNs treatment markedly elevated the expression of NOD-like receptor (NLR) family NLRC5 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. Together, our results indicate unique and common viral strategies for manipulating the global IFN responses and antigen presentation utilized by SECoVs, which help us a better understanding of host-SECoVs interactions.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Gene Expression Regulation , Interferons/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine Diseases/etiology , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/etiology , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/metabolism , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/pathology , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus
16.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667057

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still ongoing, as is research on the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular infection by coronaviruses, with the hope of developing therapeutic agents against this pandemic. Other important respiratory viruses such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV), influenza A viruses, are also responsible for a possible outbreak due to their respiratory susceptibility. However, the interaction of these viruses with host cells and the regulation of post-transcriptional genes remains unclear. In this study, we detected and analyzed the comparative transcriptome profiling of SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1 (A/California/07/2009), and H7N9 (A/Shanghai/1/2013) infected cells. The results showed that the commonly upregulated genes among the three groups were mainly involved in autophagy, pertussis, and tuberculosis, which indicated that autophagy plays an important role in viral pathogenicity. There are three groups of commonly downregulated genes involved in metabolic pathways. Notably, unlike panH1N1 and H7N9, SARS-CoV-2 infection can inhibit the m-TOR pathway and activate the p53 signaling pathway, which may be responsible for unique autophagy induction and cell apoptosis. Particularly, upregulated expression of IRF1 was found in SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection. Further analysis showed SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection-induced upregulation of lncRNA-34087.27 could serve as a competitive endogenous RNA to stabilize IRF1 mRNA by competitively binding with miR-302b-3p. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , RNA/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transcriptome/genetics
18.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625756

ABSTRACT

Bats are reservoirs of a large number of viruses of global public health significance, including the ancestral virus for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although bats are natural carriers of multiple pathogenic viruses, they rarely display signs of disease. Recent insights suggest that bats have a more balanced host defense and tolerance system to viral infections that may be linked to the evolutionary adaptation to powered flight. Therefore, a deeper understanding of bat immune system may provide intervention strategies to prevent zoonotic disease transmission and to identify new therapeutic targets. Similar to other eutherian mammals, bats have both innate and adaptive immune systems that have evolved to detect and respond to invading pathogens. Bridging these two systems are innate lymphocytes, which are highly abundant within circulation and barrier tissues. These cells share the characteristics of both innate and adaptive immune cells and are poised to mount rapid effector responses. They are ideally suited as the first line of defense against early stages of viral infections. Here, we will focus on the current knowledge of innate lymphocytes in bats, their function, and their potential role in host-pathogen interactions. Moreover, given that studies into bat immune systems are often hindered by a lack of bat-specific research tools, we will discuss strategies that may aid future research in bat immunity, including the potential use of organoid models to delineate the interplay between innate lymphocytes, bat viruses, and host tolerance.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/pathogenicity
20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(12): e3001065, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594053

ABSTRACT

The pandemic spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents an ongoing international health crisis. A key symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the onset of fever, with a hyperthermic temperature range of 38 to 41°C. Fever is an evolutionarily conserved host response to microbial infection that can influence the outcome of viral pathogenicity and regulation of host innate and adaptive immune responses. However, it remains to be determined what effect elevated temperature has on SARS-CoV-2 replication. Utilizing a three-dimensional (3D) air-liquid interface (ALI) model that closely mimics the natural tissue physiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory airway, we identify tissue temperature to play an important role in the regulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Respiratory tissue incubated at 40°C remained permissive to SARS-CoV-2 entry but refractory to viral transcription, leading to significantly reduced levels of viral RNA replication and apical shedding of infectious virus. We identify tissue temperature to play an important role in the differential regulation of epithelial host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection that impact upon multiple pathways, including intracellular immune regulation, without disruption to general transcription or epithelium integrity. We present the first evidence that febrile temperatures associated with COVID-19 inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in respiratory epithelia. Our data identify an important role for tissue temperature in the epithelial restriction of SARS-CoV-2 independently of canonical interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immune defenses.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/immunology , Hot Temperature , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , RNA-Seq/methods , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology
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