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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487420

ABSTRACT

Tetraspanins are transmembrane glycoproteins that have been shown increasing interest as host factors in infectious diseases. In particular, they were implicated in the pathogenesis of both non-enveloped (human papillomavirus (HPV)) and enveloped (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Zika, influenza A virus, (IAV), and coronavirus) viruses through multiple stages of infection, from the initial cell membrane attachment to the syncytium formation and viral particle release. However, the mechanisms by which different tetraspanins mediate their effects vary. This review aimed to compare and contrast the role of tetraspanins in the life cycles of HPV, HIV, Zika, IAV, and coronavirus viruses, which cause the most significant health and economic burdens to society. In doing so, a better understanding of the relative contribution of tetraspanins in virus infection will allow for a more targeted approach in the treatment of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Tetraspanins/physiology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
2.
J Exp Med ; 218(9)2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467276

ABSTRACT

The three classes of interferons (IFNs) share the ability to inhibit viral replication, activating cell transcriptional programs that regulate both innate and adaptive responses to viral and intracellular bacterial challenge. Due to their unique potency in regulating viral replication, and their association with numerous autoimmune diseases, the tightly orchestrated transcriptional regulation of IFNs has long been a subject of intense investigation. The protective role of early robust IFN responses in the context of infection with SARS-CoV-2 has further underscored the relevance of these pathways. In this viewpoint, rather than focusing on the downstream effects of IFN signaling (which have been extensively reviewed elsewhere), we will summarize the historical and current understanding of the stepwise assembly and function of factors that regulate IFNß enhancer activity (the "enhanceosome") and highlight opportunities for deeper understanding of the transcriptional control of the ifnb gene.


Subject(s)
Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Interferon-beta/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcription, Genetic , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 573: 158-163, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446454

ABSTRACT

The angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldesterone system (RAAS) that mediates numerous effects in the cardiovascular system. It is also the cellular point of contact for the coronavirus spike protein. Cleavage of the receptor is both important to its physiological function as well as being necessary for cell entry by the virus. Shedding of ACE2 by the metalloprotease ADAM17 releases a catalytically active soluble form of ACE2, but cleavage by the serine protease TMPRSS2 is necessary for virion internalization. Complicating the issue is the observation that circulating ACE2 can also bind to the virus effectively blocking attachment to the membrane-bound receptor. This work investigates the possibility that the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection can abrogate shedding by ADAM17, thereby favoring cleavage by TMPRSS2 and thus cell entry by the virion.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/chemistry , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , HSP20 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Binding Sites , HSP20 Heat-Shock Proteins/chemistry , Heat-Shock Response/physiology , Humans , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 579: 69-75, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432975

ABSTRACT

N-glycosylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of SARS-CoV-2 RBD N-glycosylation in viral entry remains elusive. In this study, we expressed and purified N331 and N343 N-glycosite mutants of SARS-CoV-2 RBD. We found that de-glycosylation at N331 and N343 drastically reduces the RBD binding to ACE2. More importantly, based on qualitative and quantitative virology research methods, we show that the mutation of RBD N-glycosites interfered with SARS-CoV-2 internalization rather than attachment potentially by decreasing RBD binding to the receptors. Also, the double N-glycosites mutant (N331 + N343) showed significantly increased sensitivity against the designated RBD neutralizing antibodies. Taken together, these results suggest that N-glycosylation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD is not only critical for viral internalization into respiratory epithelial cells but also shields the virus from neutralization. It may provide new insights into the biological process of early-stage SARS-CoV-2 infection with potential therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells , Glycosylation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Mutation , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Attachment
5.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389961

ABSTRACT

Viruses rely on their host for reproduction. Here, we made use of genomic and structural information to create a biomass function capturing the amino and nucleic acid requirements of SARS-CoV-2. Incorporating this biomass function into a stoichiometric metabolic model of the human lung cell and applying metabolic flux balance analysis, we identified host-based metabolic perturbations inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 reproduction. Our results highlight reactions in the central metabolism, as well as amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis pathways. By incorporating host cellular maintenance into the model based on available protein expression data from human lung cells, we find that only few of these metabolic perturbations are able to selectively inhibit virus reproduction. Some of the catalysing enzymes of such reactions have demonstrated interactions with existing drugs, which can be used for experimental testing of the presented predictions using gene knockouts and RNA interference techniques. In summary, the developed computational approach offers a platform for rapid, experimentally testable generation of drug predictions against existing and emerging viruses based on their biomass requirements.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lung , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biomass , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/metabolism , Glycolysis/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Metabolic Flux Analysis , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systems Biology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(10): 2102-2108, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389721

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus supposed to enter the organism through aerosol or fomite transmission to the nose, eyes and oropharynx. It is responsible for various clinical symptoms, including hyposmia and other neurological ones. Current literature suggests the olfactory mucosa as a port of entry to the CNS, but how the virus reaches the olfactory groove is still unknown. Because the first neurological symptoms of invasion (hyposmia) do not correspond to first signs of infection, the hypothesis of direct contact through airborne droplets during primary infection and therefore during inspiration is not plausible. The aim of this study is to evaluate if a secondary spread to the olfactory groove in a retrograde manner during expiration could be more probable. Methods: Four three-dimensional virtual models were obtained from actual CT scans and used to simulate expiratory droplets. The volume mesh consists of 25 million of cells, the simulated condition is a steady expiration, driving a flow rate of 270 ml/s, for a duration of 0.6 seconds. The droplet diameter is of 5 µm. Results: The analysis of the simulations shows the virus to have a high probability to be deployed in the rhinopharynx, on the tail of medium and upper turbinates. The possibility for droplets to access the olfactory mucosa during the expiratory phase is lower than other nasal areas, but consistent. Discussion: The data obtained from these simulations demonstrates the virus can be deployed in the olfactory groove during expiration. Even if the total amount in a single act is scarce, it must be considered it is repeated tens of thousands of times a day, and the source of contamination continuously acts on a timescale of several days. The present results also imply CNS penetration of SARS-CoV-2 through olfactory mucosa might be considered a complication and, consequently, prevention strategies should be considered in diseased patients.


Subject(s)
Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomechanical Phenomena , Computer Simulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Olfactory Mucosa/diagnostic imaging
7.
J Exp Med ; 218(8)2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387679

ABSTRACT

Initial replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract is required to establish infection, and the replication level correlates with the likelihood of viral transmission. Here, we examined the role of host innate immune defenses in restricting early SARS-CoV-2 infection using transcriptomics and biomarker-based tracking in serial patient nasopharyngeal samples and experiments with airway epithelial organoids. SARS-CoV-2 initially replicated exponentially, with a doubling time of ∼6 h, and induced interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the upper respiratory tract, which rose with viral replication and peaked just as viral load began to decline. Rhinovirus infection before SARS-CoV-2 exposure accelerated ISG responses and prevented SARS-CoV-2 replication. Conversely, blocking ISG induction during SARS-CoV-2 infection enhanced viral replication from a low infectious dose. These results show that the activity of ISG-mediated defenses at the time of SARS-CoV-2 exposure impacts infection progression and that the heterologous antiviral response induced by a different virus can protect against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Replication
8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 715, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387495

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 is causing modern human history's most serious health crisis and upending our way of life, clinical and basic research on the virus is advancing rapidly, leading to fascinating discoveries. Two studies have revealed how the viral virulence factor, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), binds human ribosomes to inhibit host cell translation. Here, we examine the main conclusions on the molecular activity of Nsp1 and its role in suppressing innate immune responses. We discuss different scenarios potentially explaining how the viral RNA can bypass its own translation blockage and speculate on the suitability of Nsp1 as a therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Ribosomes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , 5' Untranslated Regions , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
9.
Adv Genet ; 106: 75-100, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363831

ABSTRACT

The origins and global spread of two recent, yet quite different, pandemic diseases is discussed and reviewed in depth: Candida auris, a eukaryotic fungal disease, and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), a positive strand RNA viral respiratory disease. Both these diseases display highly distinctive patterns of sudden emergence and global spread, which are not easy to understand by conventional epidemiological analysis based on simple infection-driven human- to-human spread of an infectious disease (assumed to jump suddenly and thus genetically, from an animal reservoir). Both these enigmatic diseases make sense however under a Panspermia in-fall model and the evidence consistent with such a model is critically reviewed.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Candidiasis/etiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Origin of Life , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/physiology , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Earth, Planet , Exobiology , Extraterrestrial Environment , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10426, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355289

ABSTRACT

Although 15-20% of COVID-19 patients experience hyper-inflammation induced by massive cytokine production, cellular triggers of this process and strategies to target them remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein substantially induces multiple inflammatory molecules in myeloid cells and human PBMCs. Using a combination of phenotypic screening with machine learning-based modeling, we identified and experimentally validated several protein kinases, including JAK1, EPHA7, IRAK1, MAPK12, and MAP3K8, as essential downstream mediators of NTD-induced cytokine production, implicating the role of multiple signaling pathways in cytokine release. Further, we found several FDA-approved drugs, including ponatinib, and cobimetinib as potent inhibitors of the NTD-mediated cytokine release. Treatment with ponatinib outperforms other drugs, including dexamethasone and baricitinib, inhibiting all cytokines in response to the NTD from SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants. Finally, ponatinib treatment inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in myeloid cells in vitro and lung inflammation mouse model. Together, we propose that agents targeting multiple kinases required for SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine release, such as ponatinib, may represent an attractive therapeutic option for treating moderate to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Animals , Azetidines/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Machine Learning , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/virology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridazines/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
11.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(8): e10239, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335457

ABSTRACT

Understanding the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying potential therapeutics are global imperatives. Using a quantitative systems pharmacology approach, we identified a set of repurposable and investigational drugs as potential therapeutics against COVID-19. These were deduced from the gene expression signature of SARS-CoV-2-infected A549 cells screened against Connectivity Map and prioritized by network proximity analysis with respect to disease modules in the viral-host interactome. We also identified immuno-modulating compounds aiming at suppressing hyperinflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients, based on the transcriptome of ACE2-overexpressing A549 cells. Experiments with Vero-E6 cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, as well as independent syncytia formation assays for probing ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell fusion using HEK293T and Calu-3 cells, showed that several predicted compounds had inhibitory activities. Among them, salmeterol, rottlerin, and mTOR inhibitors exhibited antiviral activities in Vero-E6 cells; imipramine, linsitinib, hexylresorcinol, ezetimibe, and brompheniramine impaired viral entry. These novel findings provide new paths for broadening the repertoire of compounds pursued as therapeutics against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Salmeterol Xinafoate/pharmacology , Vero Cells
12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(16): 7825-7839, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280337

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus pandemic started in China in 2019. The intensity of the disease can range from mild to severe, leading to death in many cases. Despite extensive research in this area, the exact molecular nature of virus is not fully recognized; however, according to pieces of evidence, one of the mechanisms of virus pathogenesis is through the function of viral miRNAs. So, we hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis may be due to targeting important genes in the host with its miRNAs, which involved in the respiratory system, immune pathways and vitamin D pathways, thus possibly contributing to disease progression and virus survival. Potential miRNA precursors and mature miRNA were predicted and confirmed based on the virus genome. The next step was to predict and identify their target genes and perform functional enrichment analysis to recognize the biological processes connected with these genes in the three pathways mentioned above through several comprehensive databases. Finally, cis-acting regulatory elements in 5' regulatory regions were analysed, and the analysis of available RNAseq data determined the expression level of genes. We revealed that thirty-nine mature miRNAs could theoretically derive from the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Functional enrichment analysis elucidated three highlighted pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis: vitamin D, immune system and respiratory system. Our finding highlighted genes' involvement in three crucial molecular pathways and may help develop new therapeutic targets related to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , MicroRNAs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vitamin D/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immune System/virology , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Viral , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259432

ABSTRACT

The host nucleocytoplasmic trafficking system is often hijacked by viruses to accomplish their replication and to suppress the host immune response. Viruses encode many factors that interact with the host nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) and the nucleoporins of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) to access the host nucleus. In this review, we discuss the viral factors and the host factors involved in the nuclear import and export of viral components. As nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is vital for the replication of many viruses, we also review several drugs that target the host nuclear transport machinery and discuss their feasibility for use in antiviral treatment.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cell Nucleus/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Replication/physiology , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Viruses/pathogenicity
14.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(15): 1681-1687, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243784

ABSTRACT

Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex that mediates the interaction between different proteins as a basic linker in the transcription mechanism of eukaryotes. It interacts with RNA polymerase II and participates in the process of gene expression. Mediator complex subunit 19 or regulation by oxygen 3, or lung cancer metastasis-related protein 1 is located at the head of the mediator complex; it is a multi-protein co-activator that induces the transcription of RNA polymerase II by DNA transcription factors. It is a tumor-related gene that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis and is closely related to the occurrence and development of the cancers of the lung, bladder, skin, etc. Here, we used the structure of mediator complex subunit 19 to review its role in tumor progression, fat metabolism, drug therapy, as well as the novel coronavirus, which has attracted much attention at present, suggesting that mediator complex subunit 19 has broad application in the occurrence and development of clinical diseases. As a tumor-related gene, the role and mechanism of mediator complex subunit 19 in the regulation of tumor growth could be of great significance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of mediator complex subunit 19 -related tumors.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Mediator Complex/physiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cell Movement , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104921, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230672

ABSTRACT

The development of therapeutic targets for COVID-19 relies on understanding the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis. Identifying genes or proteins involved in the infection mechanism is the key to shedding light on the complex molecular mechanisms. The combined effort of many laboratories distributed throughout the world has produced protein and genetic interactions. We integrated available results and obtained a host protein-protein interaction network composed of 1432 human proteins. Next, we performed network centrality analysis to identify critical proteins in the derived network. Finally, we performed a functional enrichment analysis of central proteins. We observed that the identified proteins are primarily associated with several crucial pathways, including cellular process, signaling transduction, neurodegenerative diseases. We focused on the proteins that are involved in human respiratory tract diseases. We highlighted many potential therapeutic targets, including RBX1, HSPA5, ITCH, RAB7A, RAB5A, RAB8A, PSMC5, CAPZB, CANX, IGF2R, and HSPA1A, which are central and also associated with multiple diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Gene Ontology , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Proteins/genetics , Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
16.
Adv Biol (Weinh) ; 5(6): e2000624, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212314

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases and lower respiratory tract infections are among the leading cause of death worldwide and, especially given the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pandemic, are of high and prevalent socio-economic importance. In vitro models, which accurately represent the lung microenvironment, are of increasing significance given the ethical concerns around animal work and the lack of translation to human disease, as well as the lengthy time to market and the attrition rates associated with clinical trials. This review gives an overview of the biological and immunological components involved in regulating the respiratory epithelium system in health, disease, and infection. The evolution from 2D to 3D cell biology and to more advanced technological integrated models for studying respiratory host-pathogen interactions are reviewed and provide a reference point for understanding the in vitro modeling requirements. Finally, the current limitations and future perspectives for advancing this field are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Humans
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9136, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207152

ABSTRACT

Coiled-coil (CC) dimer-forming peptides are attractive designable modules for mediating protein association. Highly stable CCs are desired for biological activity regulation and assay. Here, we report the design and versatile applications of orthogonal CC dimer-forming peptides with a dissociation constant in the low nanomolar range. In vitro stability and specificity was confirmed in mammalian cells by enzyme reconstitution, transcriptional activation using a combination of DNA-binding and a transcriptional activation domain, and cellular-enzyme-activity regulation based on externally-added peptides. In addition to cellular regulation, coiled-coil-mediated reporter reconstitution was used for the detection of cell fusion mediated by the interaction between the spike protein of pandemic SARS-CoV2 and the ACE2 receptor. This assay can be used to investigate the mechanism of viral spike protein-mediated fusion or screening for viral inhibitors under biosafety level 1 conditions.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Circular Dichroism , Giant Cells/virology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , Peptides/genetics , Protein Engineering/methods , Protein Multimerization , Protein Stability , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic
18.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(14): 1643-1649, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201841

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 witnessed an unpredictable pandemic situation due to novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreaks. This condition can be more severe if the patient has comorbidities. Failure of viable treatment for such viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is due to lack of identification. Thus, modern and productive biotechnology-based tools are being used to manipulate target genes by introducing the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system. Moreover, it has now been used as a tool to inhibit viral replication. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the CRISPR/Cas system can be a viable tool to target both the SARS-CoV-2 genome with specific target RNA sequence and host factors to destroy the SARS-CoV-2 community via inhibition of viral replication and infection. Moreover, comorbidities and COVID-19 escalate the rate of mortality globally, and as a result, we have faced this pandemic. CRISPR/Cas-mediated genetic manipulation to knockdown viral sequences may be a preventive strategy against such pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells (PAC-MAN) along with CRISPR/Cas13d efficiently degrades the specific RNA sequence to inhibit viral replication. Therefore, we suggest that CRISPR/Cas system with PAC-MAN could be a useful tool to fight against such a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. This is an alternative preventive approach of management against the pandemic to destroy the target sequence of RNA in SARS-CoV-2 by viral inhibition.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Transfer Techniques , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , RNA, Guide/administration & dosage , RNA, Guide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Cladistics ; 37(5): 461-488, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201590

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in humans in 2002. Despite reports showing Chiroptera as the original animal reservoir of SARS-CoV, many argue that Carnivora-hosted viruses are the most likely origin. The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 also involves Chiroptera-hosted lineages. However, factors such as the lack of comprehensive phylogenies hamper our understanding of host shifts once MERS-CoV emerged in humans and Artiodactyla. Since 2019, the origin of SARS-CoV-2, causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), added to this episodic history of zoonotic transmission events. Here we introduce a phylogenetic analysis of 2006 unique and complete genomes of different lineages of Orthocoronavirinae. We used gene annotations to align orthologous sequences for total evidence analysis under the parsimony optimality criterion. Deltacoronavirus and Gammacoronavirus were set as outgroups to understand spillovers of Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus among ten orders of animals. We corroborated that Chiroptera-hosted viruses are the sister group of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-related viruses. Other zoonotic events were qualified and quantified to provide a comprehensive picture of the risk of coronavirus emergence among humans. Finally, we used a 250 SARS-CoV-2 genomes dataset to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and Chiroptera-hosted coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Genome, Viral , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Pangolins/virology , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(4): 483-494, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172552

ABSTRACT

The zoonotic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2), which causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019), has resulted in a pandemic. This has led to an urgent need to understand the molecular determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection, factors associated with COVID-19 heterogeneity and severity, and therapeutic options for these patients. In this review, we discuss the role of host factors in SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe variations in host factor expression as mechanisms underlying the symptoms and severity of COVID-19. We focus on two host factors, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also discuss genetic variants associated with COVID-19 severity revealed in selected patients and based on genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Furthermore, we highlight important advances in cell and chromatin biology, such as single-cell RNA and chromatin sequencing and chromosomal conformation assays, as methods that may aid in the discovery of viral-host interactions in COVID-19. Understanding how regulation of host factor genes varies in physiological and pathological states might explain the heterogeneity observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection, help identify pathways for therapeutic development, and identify patients most likely to progress to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , Gene Expression , Genetic Variation , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
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