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1.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114116, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether ambient temperature exposure contributes to death from asthma remains unknown to date. We therefore conducted a case-crossover study in China to quantitatively evaluate the association and burden of ambient temperature exposure on asthma mortality. METHODS: Using data from the National Mortality Surveillance System in China, we conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study of 15 888 individuals who lived in Hubei and Jiangsu province, China and died from asthma as the underlying cause in 2015-2019. Individual-level exposures to air temperature and apparent temperature on the date of death and 21 days prior were assessed based on each subject's residential address. Distributed lag nonlinear models based on conditional logistic regression were used to quantify exposure-response associations and calculate fraction and number of deaths attributable to non-optimum ambient temperatures. RESULTS: We observed a reverse J-shaped association between air temperature and risk of asthma mortality, with a minimum mortality temperature of 21.3 °C. Non-optimum ambient temperature is responsible for substantial excess mortality from asthma. In total, 26.3% of asthma mortality were attributable to non-optimum temperatures, with moderate cold, moderate hot, extreme cold and extreme hot responsible for 21.7%, 2.4%, 2.1% and 0.9% of asthma mortality, respectively. The total attributable fraction and number was significantly higher among adults aged less than 80 years in hot temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to non-optimum ambient temperature, especially moderate cold temperature, was responsible for substantial excess mortality from asthma. These findings have important implications for planning of public-health interventions to minimize the adverse respiratory damage from non-optimum ambient temperature.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cold Temperature , Adult , Asthma/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Hot Temperature , Humans , Mortality , Temperature
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1724, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663979

ABSTRACT

This study introduces localized surface plasmon resonance (L-SPR) mediated heating filter membrane (HFM) for inactivating universal viral particles by using the photothermal effect of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs). Plasmonic metal NPs were coated onto filter membrane via a conventional spray-coating method. The surface temperature of the HFM could be controlled to approximately 40-60 °C at room temperature, owing to the photothermal effect of the gold (Au) NPs coated on them, under irradiation by visible light-emitting diodes. Due to the photothermal effect of the HFMs, the virus titer of H1Npdm09 was reduced by > 99.9%, the full inactivation time being < 10 min, confirming the 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) assay. Crystal violet staining showed that the infectious samples with photothermal inactivation lost their infectivity against Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Moreover, photothermal inactivation could also be applied to reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, showing reduction rate of 99%. We used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques to confirm the existence of viral genes on the surface of the HFM. The results of the TCID50 assay, crystal violet staining method, and qRT-PCR showed that the effective and immediate reduction in viral infectivity possibly originated from the denaturation or deformation of membrane proteins and components. This study provides a new, simple, and effective method to inactivate viral infectivity, leading to its potential application in various fields of indoor air quality control and medical science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hot Temperature , Light , Metal Nanoparticles , Micropore Filters , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Virion , Virus Inactivation , Air Pollution, Indoor , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Dogs , Gold/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 295, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of heat inactivation and chemical bulklysis on SARS-CoV-2 detection. RESULTS: About 6.2% (5/80) of samples were changed to negative results in heat inactivation at 60 °C and about 8.7% (7/80) of samples were changed to negative in heat inactivation at 100 °C. The Ct values of heat-inactivated samples (at 60 °C, at 100 °C, and bulk lysis) were significantly different from the temperature at 56 °C. The effect of heat on Ct value should be considered when interpreting diagnostic PCR results from clinical samples which could have an initial low virus concentration. The efficacy of heat-inactivation varies greatly depending on temperature and duration. Local validation of heat-inactivation and its effects is therefore essential for molecular testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reverse Transcription , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Hot Temperature , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 850: 158003, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have studied the association between daily average temperature (DAT) and daily COVID-19 confirmed cases, which show considerable heterogeneity, even opposite results, among different regions. Such heterogeneity suggests that characterizing the association on a large area scale would ignore the local variation, even obtain false results in some local regions. So, characterizing the spatial distribution of heterogeneous DAT-COVID-19 associations and exploring the causes plays an important role on making temperature-related region-specific intervention measures and early-warning systems. METHODS: Aiming to characterize the spatial distribution of associations between DAT and COVID-19 confirmed cases in the continental United States, we proposed a novel two-stage strategy. In the first stage, we used the common stratified distributed lag nonlinear model to obtain the rough state-specific associations. In the second stage, conditional autoregression was used to spatially smooth the rough estimations. Furtherly, based on the idea, two modified strategies were used to investigate the time-varying associations and the modification effects derived from the vaccination campaign. RESULTS: Around one-third of states exhibit no significant association between DAT and daily confirmed COVID-19 cases. Most of the remaining states present a low risk at low DAT and a high risk at high DAT, but several states present opposite associations. The average association curve presents a 'S' shape with positive association between -8 - 18 °C and keeping flat out of the range. An increased vaccination coverage rate will increase the risk when DAT < 12 °C, but slightly affect the risk when DAT > 12 °C. CONCLUSION: A considerable spatial heterogeneity of DAT-COVID-19 associations exists in America and the average association curve presents a 'S' shape. The vaccination campaign significantly modifies the association when DAT is low, but only make a slight modification when DAT is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Temperature , COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography , Hot Temperature , Humans , United States/epidemiology
6.
Am J Med ; 135(1): 10-11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976980
7.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 122(8): 1965-1974, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971708

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to determine the effects of heat acclimation on endurance exercise-induced hepcidin elevation under hot conditions. METHODS: Fifteen healthy men were divided into two groups: endurance training under hot conditions (HOT, 35 °C, n = 8) and endurance training under cool conditions (CON, 18 °C, n = 7). All subjects completed 10 days of endurance training (8 sessions in total), consisting of 60 min of continuous exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) under their assigned environment condition. Subjects completed a heat stress exercise test (HST, 60 min exercise at 60% [Formula: see text]) to evaluate the exercise-induced thermoregulatory and hepcidin responses under hot conditions (35 °C) before (pre-HST) and after (post-HST) the training period. RESULTS: Core temperature during exercise in the post-HST decreased significantly in the HOT group compared to pre-HST (P = 0.004), but not in the CON group. The HOT and CON groups showed augmented exercise-induced plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation in the pre-HST (P = 0.002). Both groups had significantly attenuated increases in exercise-induced IL-6 in the post-HST; however, the reduction of exercise-induced IL-6 elevation was not different significantly between both groups. Serum hepcidin concentrations increased significantly in the pre-HST and post-HST in both groups (P = 0.001), no significant difference was observed between both groups during each test or over the study period. CONCLUSION: 10 days of endurance training period under hot conditions improved thermoregulation, whereas exercise-induced hepcidin elevation under hot conditions was not attenuated following the training.


Subject(s)
Hepcidins , Interleukin-6 , Acclimatization , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Male
8.
BMJ ; 378: o1834, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962151
9.
BMJ ; 378: o1772, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950090
11.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 1): 113709, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930856

ABSTRACT

Adverse health effects from extreme heat remain a major risk, especially in a changing climate. Several European countries have implemented heat health action plans (HHAPs) to prevent ill health and excess mortality from heat. This paper assesses the state of implementation of HHAPs in the WHO European Region and discusses barriers and successes since the early 2000s. The results are based on a web-based survey among 53 member states on the current national and federal HHAPs in place. Guided by the eight core elements of HHAPs as outlined by the WHO Regional Office for Europe guidance from 2008, we analyzed which elements were fully or partially implemented and which areas of improvement countries identified. HHAP adaptations to account for COVID-19 were sought via literature search and expert consultations. 27 member states provided information, of which 17 countries reported having a HHAP. Five out of eight core elements, namely agreement on a lead body, accurate and timely alert systems, heat-related health information plans, strategies to reduce health exposure, and care for vulnerable groups, were at least partially implemented in all 17 plans. Alert systems were implemented most often at 94%. The least often implemented items were real-time surveillance, long-term urban planning, and preparedness of health and social systems. Five countries had published COVID-19 guidance online. Our findings suggest a progressive improvement in the development and rollout of HHAPs overall and awareness of vulnerable population groups in WHO/Europe, while integration of HHAPs into long-term climate change and health planning remains a challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Planning , Hot Temperature , Humans , Policy , United States , World Health Organization
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2118260119, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908380

ABSTRACT

Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems have been repurposed for various applications such as gene knockdown, viral interference, and diagnostics. However, the identification and characterization of thermophilic orthologs will expand and unlock the potential of diverse biotechnological applications. Herein, we identified and characterized a thermostable ortholog of the Cas13a family from the thermophilic organism Thermoclostridium caenicola (TccCas13a). We show that TccCas13a has a close phylogenetic relation to the HheCas13a ortholog from the thermophilic bacterium Herbinix hemicellulosilytica and shares several properties such as thermostability and inability to process its own pre-CRISPR RNA. We demonstrate that TccCas13a possesses robust cis and trans activities at a broad temperature range of 37 to 70 °C, compared with HheCas13a, which has a more limited range and lower activity. We harnessed TccCas13a thermostability to develop a sensitive, robust, rapid, and one-pot assay, named OPTIMA-dx, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. OPTIMA-dx exhibits no cross-reactivity with other viruses and a limit of detection of 10 copies/µL when using a synthetic SARS-CoV-2 genome. We used OPTIMA-dx for SARS-CoV-2 detection in clinical samples, and our assay showed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrated that OPTIMA-dx is suitable for multiplexed detection and is compatible with the quick extraction protocol. OPTIMA-dx exhibits critical features that enable its use at point of care (POC). Therefore, we developed a mobile phone application to facilitate OPTIMA-dx data collection and sharing of patient sample results. This work demonstrates the power of CRISPR-Cas13 thermostable enzymes in enabling key applications in one-pot POC diagnostics and potentially in transcriptome engineering, editing, and therapies.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , COVID-19 , CRISPR-Associated Proteins , Clostridiales , Endodeoxyribonucleases , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/classification , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biotechnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/chemistry , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/classification , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , Clostridiales/enzymology , Endodeoxyribonucleases/chemistry , Endodeoxyribonucleases/classification , Endodeoxyribonucleases/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Hot Temperature , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3714, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908171

ABSTRACT

Proteins can be empowered via SpyTag for anchoring and nanoassembly, through covalent bonding to SpyCatcher partners. Here we generate a switchable version of SpyCatcher, allowing gentle purification of SpyTagged proteins. We introduce numerous histidines adjacent to SpyTag's binding site, giving moderate pH-dependent release. After phage-based selection, our final SpySwitch allows purification of SpyTag- and SpyTag003-fusions from bacterial or mammalian culture by capture at neutral pH and release at pH 5, with purity far beyond His-tag methods. SpySwitch is also thermosensitive, capturing at 4 °C and releasing at 37 °C. With flexible choice of eluent, SpySwitch-purified proteins can directly assemble onto multimeric scaffolds. 60-mer multimerization enhances immunogenicity and we use SpySwitch to purify receptor-binding domains from SARS-CoV-2 and 11 other sarbecoviruses. For these receptor-binding domains we determine thermal resilience (for mosaic vaccine development) and cross-recognition by antibodies. Antibody EY6A reacts across all tested sarbecoviruses, towards potential application against new coronavirus pandemic threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hot Temperature , Animals , Antibodies , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mammals , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896844

ABSTRACT

Filtering facepiece respirators have been widely used in the fields of occupational health and public hygiene, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, disposable respirators have been in high demand, and the waste generated from these disposable products poses a problem for the environment. Here, we aimed to test a practical decontamination method to allow for the reuse of KN95 respirators. In this study, three types of KN95 respirators were heated at 80 °C and 90 °C for different durations (15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, and 24 h). The filtration efficiencies of the tested KN95 respirators before and after heating were measured, and the changes in microstructure were imaged with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, a neural network model based on the nonlinear autoregressive with external input (NARX) to predict the filtration efficiency of the KN95 respirator was established. The results show that the temperature and time of dry heating affected particle prevention. The higher the temperature and the longer the heating time, the more obvious the decline in the filtration efficiency of the respirators. When the heating temperature reached 100 °C, the respirator may be no longer suitable for reuse. These results show that a dry heat temperature between 70 °C and 90 °C, and a heating time between 30 min and 2 h is assumed to be a suitable and effective decontamination method for respirators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Filtration , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Ventilators, Mechanical
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869599

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the effects of policies restricting human activities during the COVID-19 epidemic on the characteristics of Night Land Surface Temperature (NLST) and Night Urban Heat Islands (NUHI) in five major European cities. In fact, the focus of this study was to explore the role of anthropogenic factors in the formation and intensity of NUHI. The effect of such factors was uncontrollable before the COVID-19 outbreak on the global scale and in a real non-laboratory environment. In this study, two indices, the concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Nighttime Lights (NL), were used as indicators of the number of anthropogenic activities. The data were collected before the COVID-19 outbreak and after its prevalence in 2019-2020. A Paired samples t-test and a Pearson correlation were used to examine the differences or significant relationships between the variables and indicators studied throughout the two periods. The results of the study confirmed a direct and significant relationship between NO2 and NL indices and the NUHI and NLST variables; however, using strict restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, the NO2 and NL indices decreased seriously, leading to significant changes in the characteristics of the NUHI and NLST in the five cities. This study has some implications for urban planners and politicians, e.g., the environmental impacts of changing the nature and level of anthropogenic activities can greatly affect the pattern and intensity of the Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) (as a serious environmental challenge).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hot Temperature , Berlin , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , London , Nitrogen Dioxide , Pandemics , Paris , Policy
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862785

ABSTRACT

High ambient temperatures pose a significant risk to health. This study investigates the heatwave mortality in the summer of 2020 during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and related countermeasures. The heatwaves in 2020 caused more deaths than have been reported since the Heatwave Plan for England was introduced in 2004. The total and cause-specific mortality in 2020 was compared to previous heatwave events in England. The findings will help inform summer preparedness and planning in future years as society learns to live with COVID-19. Heatwave excess mortality in 2020 was similar to deaths occurring at home, in hospitals, and in care homes in the 65+ years group, and was comparable to the increases in previous years (2016-2018). The third heatwave in 2020 caused significant mortality in the younger age group (0-64) which has not been observed in previous years. Significant excess mortality was observed for cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and Alzheimer's and Dementia across all three heatwaves in persons aged 65+ years. There was no evidence that the heatwaves affected the proportional increase of people dying at home and not seeking heat-related health care. The most significant spike in daily mortality in August 2020 was associated with a period of high night-time temperatures. The results provide additional evidence that contextual factors are important for managing heatwave risks, particularly the importance of overheating in dwellings. The findings also suggest more action is also needed to address the vulnerability in the community and in health care settings during the acute response phase of a heatwave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Hot Temperature , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
18.
Ther Drug Monit ; 44(5): 701-706, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak has been classified as a pandemic. Because many coronaviruses are heat sensitive, heat inactivation of patient samples at 56°C before testing reduces the risk of transmission. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of heat inactivation of patient blood samples on plasma concentrations of 5 second-generation antipsychotics and their metabolites. METHODS: Blood samples were collected during routine clinical therapeutic drug monitoring examination between April 3, 2021, and April 19, 2021. Samples were divided into 2 groups: group A, noninactivated raw sample, and group B, inactivated samples. Inactivation was performed by a 30-minute incubation at 56°C. The levels of the 5 drugs and their metabolites before and after sample heat inactivation were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared. Furthermore, correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were conducted. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the levels of the 5 drugs and their metabolites (ie, risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, aripiprazole, dehydroaripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, norquetiapine, clozapine, and norclozapine) in the noninactivated group A and the inactivated group B ( P > 0.05). Each drug's concentration values in inactivated and noninactivated treatments correlated (Spearman rs > 0.98; P < 0.001). The results of the noninactivated treatment methods and samples alone showed good consistency via Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Blood sample heat inactivation had no significant effect on the therapeutic drug monitoring of 5 second-generation antipsychotics and their metabolites. This inactivated treatment method should be recommended to effectively protect laboratory staff from virus contamination.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Aripiprazole , Benzodiazepines/analysis , Drug Monitoring/methods , Hot Temperature , Humans
19.
Lancet ; 398(10301): 685-697, 2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Associations between high and low temperatures and increases in mortality and morbidity have been previously reported, yet no comprehensive assessment of disease burden has been done. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the global and regional burden due to non-optimal temperature exposure. METHODS: In part 1 of this study, we linked deaths to daily temperature estimates from the ERA5 reanalysis dataset. We modelled the cause-specific relative risks for 176 individual causes of death along daily temperature and 23 mean temperature zones using a two-dimensional spline within a Bayesian meta-regression framework. We then calculated the cause-specific and total temperature-attributable burden for the countries for which daily mortality data were available. In part 2, we applied cause-specific relative risks from part 1 to all locations globally. We combined exposure-response curves with daily gridded temperature and calculated the cause-specific burden based on the underlying burden of disease from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, for the years 1990-2019. Uncertainty from all components of the modelling chain, including risks, temperature exposure, and theoretical minimum risk exposure levels, defined as the temperature of minimum mortality across all included causes, was propagated using posterior simulation of 1000 draws. FINDINGS: We included 64·9 million individual International Classification of Diseases-coded deaths from nine different countries, occurring between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2016. 17 causes of death met the inclusion criteria. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, lower respiratory infection, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed J-shaped relationships with daily temperature, whereas the risk of external causes (eg, homicide, suicide, drowning, and related to disasters, mechanical, transport, and other unintentional injuries) increased monotonically with temperature. The theoretical minimum risk exposure levels varied by location and year as a function of the underlying cause of death composition. Estimates for non-optimal temperature ranged from 7·98 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 7·10-8·85) per 100 000 and a population attributable fraction (PAF) of 1·2% (1·1-1·4) in Brazil to 35·1 deaths (29·9-40·3) per 100 000 and a PAF of 4·7% (4·3-5·1) in China. In 2019, the average cold-attributable mortality exceeded heat-attributable mortality in all countries for which data were available. Cold effects were most pronounced in China with PAFs of 4·3% (3·9-4·7) and attributable rates of 32·0 deaths (27·2-36·8) per 100 000 and in New Zealand with 3·4% (2·9-3·9) and 26·4 deaths (22·1-30·2). Heat effects were most pronounced in China with PAFs of 0·4% (0·3-0·6) and attributable rates of 3·25 deaths (2·39-4·24) per 100 000 and in Brazil with 0·4% (0·3-0·5) and 2·71 deaths (2·15-3·37). When applying our framework to all countries globally, we estimated that 1·69 million (1·52-1·83) deaths were attributable to non-optimal temperature globally in 2019. The highest heat-attributable burdens were observed in south and southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and North Africa and the Middle East, and the highest cold-attributable burdens in eastern and central Europe, and central Asia. INTERPRETATION: Acute heat and cold exposure can increase or decrease the risk of mortality for a diverse set of causes of death. Although in most regions cold effects dominate, locations with high prevailing temperatures can exhibit substantial heat effects far exceeding cold-attributable burden. Particularly, a high burden of external causes of death contributed to strong heat impacts, but cardiorespiratory diseases and metabolic diseases could also be substantial contributors. Changes in both exposures and the composition of causes of death drove changes in risk over time. Steady increases in exposure to the risk of high temperature are of increasing concern for health. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death/trends , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Mortality/trends , Bayes Theorem , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology
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