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1.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(3): 1-11, 20210821.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811622

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La atención domiciliaria busca brindar una solución a los problemas de salud en el domicilio con el apoyo de profesionales, técnicos del área de la salud y la participación de la familia, en tiempos de pandemia por COVID-19 se deben ajustar las dinámicas a este nuevo contexto Objetivo: Comprender el significado de la experiencia de enfermería brindando cuidado en atención domiciliaria en época de pandemia Materiales y Métodos: Estudio fenomenológico hermenéutico que incluyó a 15 enfermeros que laboran en una institución de hospitalización domiciliaria. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad, se analizó la información y se generaron las categorías que representan la experiencia Resultados: El análisis fenomenológico arrojó las siguientes categorías existenciales. El distanciamiento social un cambio en la cotidianidad, La prevención del contagio es responsabilidad de todos y desafíos para el paciente y familia en el domicilio. Conclusión: El personal de enfermería debe ser responsable del cumplimento de los protocolos de bioseguridad y por el bien de ellos mismos, sus pacientes y familiares, el trabajo en equipo y la educación permanente con la escucha activa hacen que esta pandemia por la que atraviesa el mundo no deteriore el cuidado de los pacientes que requieren cuidado en los domicilios.


Introduction: Home-based care seeks to provide a solution to home health care issues supported by healthcare professionals, practitioners and the participation of the family, whose dynamics in COVID-19 times should be adjusted to this new context. Objective: To understand the significance of the nursing experience providing care in home-based care settings in pandemic times. Materials and Methods: A hermeneutic-phenomenological study was conducted with 15 nurses who work in a home care service provider. In-depth interviews were conducted from which the information was analyzed and classified into categories representing the experiences. Results: The following categories were obtained from the phenomenological analysis: social distancing as a change in daily life, preventing COVID-19 infection is everyone's responsibility and home care challenges for patients and families. Conclusions: Nursing professionals must ensure compliance with biosafety protocols and for the good of themselves, their patients and families, teamwork and continuing education with active listening ensure that home care of patients does not deteriorate in these pandemic times


Introdução: A atenção domiciliar busca dar uma solução aos problemas de saúde no domicílio com o apoio de profissionais, técnicos da área da saúde e a participação da família, em tempos de pandemia pela COVID-19, a dinâmica deve ser ajustada a este novo contexto. Objetivo: Compreender o significado da experiência da enfermagem no cuidado na atenção domiciliar em tempos de pandemia. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo fenomenológico hermenêutico que incluiu 15 enfermeiras que trabalham em uma instituição de internação domiciliar. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade, analisadas as informações e foram geradas as categorias que representam a experiência. Resultados:A análise fenomenológica gerou as seguintes categorias existenciais. O distanciamento social uma mudança no cotidiano, a prevenção do contágio é responsabilidade de todos e desafios para o paciente e família em casa. Conclusão: A equipe de enfermagem deve se responsabilizar pelo cumprimento dos protocolos de biossegurança e para o bem de si próprios, de seus pacientes e familiares, o trabalho em equipe e a educação permanente com escuta ativa fazem com que essa pandemia na qual o mundo atravessa não prejudique o atendimento aos pacientes que necessitam de cuidados domiciliares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , House Calls
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In this study, pharmacists conducted home visits for individuals of medically underserved populations in Taiwan (i.e., socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, middle-aged or older adults, and individuals living alone, with dementia, or with disabilities) to understand their medication habits. We quantified medication problems among various groups and investigated whether the pharmacist home visits helped to reduce the medication problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 2016 to March 2019, pharmacists visited the homes of the aforementioned medically underserved individuals in Taipei to evaluate their drug-related problems and medication problems. Age, living alone, diagnoses of dementia or disabilities, and socioeconomic disadvantages contributed significantly to inadequate disease and medical treatment knowledge and self-care skills as well as lifestyle inappropriateness among patients. The patients who were living alone and socioeconomically disadvantaged stored their drugs in inappropriate environments. RESULTS: After the pharmacists visited the patients' homes twice, the patients improved considerably in their disease and medical treatment knowledge, self-care skills, and lifestyles (p < 0.001). Problems related to the uninstructed reduction or discontinuation of drug use (p < 0.05) and use of expired drugs (p < 0.001) were also mitigated substantially. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Through the home visits, the pharmacists came to fully understand the medicine (including Chinese medicine) and health food usage behaviors of the patients and their lifestyles, enabling them to provide thorough health education. After the pharmacists' home visits, the patients' drug-related problems were mitigated, and their knowledge of diseases, drug compliance, and drug storage methods and environments improved, reducing drug waste. Our findings can help policymakers address the medication problems of various medically underserved groups, thereby improving the utilization of limited medical resources.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Pharmacists , Aged , House Calls , Humans , Medication Errors , Middle Aged , Social Class
3.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 490-502, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758472

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Virtual home visits may improve chronic disease management. However, whether they are suitable for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to compare the agreement and acceptance of virtual home visits and in-person home visits in PD patients. METHODS: This was a paired, single center, noninferiority trial. Participants received a virtual home visit and an in-person home visit simultaneously. A home visit checklist was built for standardization visits. The content was divided into three parts: domestic habits (57 items), bag exchange procedures (56 items), and exit site care (53 items). Satisfaction questionnaires for both patients and nurses were designed to assess attitudes toward home visits and socioeconomic effects. RESULTS: A total of 30 PD patients were enrolled in a single center. The information collected from virtual home visits and in-person home visits was found to be highly consistent. The perfect agreement was found in 52/57, 49/56, and 44/53 items (Cohen's kappa 0.81-1.00), substantial agreement in 4/57, 7/56, and 8/53 items (Cohen's kappa 0.61-0.80). Patients reported almost identical satisfaction for virtual home visits and in-person home visits (Z = 0.39, p = 0.70). PD nurses reported similar feasibility and patient cooperation for the two visit types (Z = 0.99, p = 0.33; Z = 1.65, p = 0.10, respectively). In addition, virtual home visits were found to be more cost-effective than in-person home visits. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual home visits information collection was similar to in-person home visits in PD. There were no differences in participant satisfaction and feasibility between the two visit types.


Subject(s)
House Calls , Peritoneal Dialysis , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Patient Compliance , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(6): e28835, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684898

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Due to the increasing number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Japan, hospitals are unable to provide admission and immediate inpatient care. The after-hours house call (AHHC) service offers telephone consultations and in-home care to patients awaiting admission. Currently, there is no report on the management of COVID-19 patients when inpatient beds are insufficient.We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated by an AHHC medical service in Osaka and Tokyo, between April and May 2021 (during the fourth wave in Japan). Patients were classified into 2 groups: Moderate I and Moderate II, according to the severity of infection under Japanese guidelines. A retrospective study of the hospital records and follow-up telephone consultations was performed.The AHHC treated a total of 55 COVID-19 patients (17 with Moderate I, 38 with Moderate II disease). The median ages (interquartile range) were 63 (49-80.5) and 64 (50.8-81), respectively. In each group, approximately 30% of AHHC patients received out-of-hospital oxygen therapy for the duration of their treatment until it was no longer required. Major symptoms, including shortness of breath or difficulty breathing (47.1% and 78.9%, respectively) and fever or chills (41.2% and 76.3%, respectively) were lower in the Moderate I group than in the Moderate II group. Overall, 16.4% of patients died, with 17.6% in the Moderate I group and 15.8% in the Moderate II group.We found the proportion of mortality in patients treated by the AHHC was slightly higher to that of patients treated in Japanese hospitals. This study will provide an alternative management of patients requiring oxygen in situations where hospital beds are in short supply.


Subject(s)
After-Hours Care , COVID-19 , Home Care Services , House Calls , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitals , Hotlines , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Public Health Nurs ; 39(1): 40-47, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Australia, sustained nurse home-visiting (SNHV) programs are designed and implemented to promote positive outcomes for mothers with young children experiencing complex life challenges. Despite the crucial role of trained public health nurses, there is a dearth of research about their experiences delivering these programs to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) families with limited English proficiency (LEP). AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences of public health nurses in providing services to CALD families with LEP. METHOD: Two focus groups were conducted with 13 public health nurses in two major local health districts in Sydney. The focus groups were audio recorded for transcription purposes, and thematically analyzed. A socioecological framework was applied during the analysis process. RESULT: Five major themes were identified: (1) program issues; (2) service system issues in understanding and responding to diverse women; (3) issues working with interpreters; (4) trusting relationships; and (5) mother-related facilitators. DISCUSSION: To achieve better access and engagement for CALD families, it is crucial that public health nurses increase their knowledge and awareness about potential challenges, such as female interpreter availability, and facilitators, such as engaging the broader family, in order to effectively deliver healthcare services to diverse populations.


Subject(s)
House Calls , Nurses , Australia , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Focus Groups , Health Services Accessibility , Humans
6.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(1): 70-78, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616200

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Early reports highlighted challenges in delivering home visiting programs virtually during the COVID-19 pandemic but the extent of the changes in program implementation and their implications remains unknown. We examine program activity and families' perceptions of virtual home visiting during the first nine months of the pandemic using implementation data for Family Connects (FC), an evidence-based and MIECHV-eligible, postpartum nurse home visiting program. DESCRIPTION: Aggregate program implementation data for five FC sites for January-November of 2019 and 2020 are compared. The COVID-19 Modification Survey is used to analyze families' reactions to virtual program delivery. ASSESSMENT: Post-pandemic onset, FC's program completion rates amounted to 86% of the pre-pandemic activity level. Activity in key components of the intervention-home-visitor education and referrals to community agencies-was maintained at 98% and 87% of the pre-pandemic level respectively. However, education and referrals rates declined among families of color and low-income families. Finally, families reported a positive response to the program, with declines in feelings of isolation and increases in positive attitudes toward in-person medical care-seeking due to FC visits. CONCLUSIONS: During the first nine months of the COVID-19 pandemic, families' interest in home visiting remained strong, performance metrics were maintained at high levels, and families responded positively to the virtual delivery of home visiting. Home visiting programs should continue implementation with virtual modifications during the remainder of the pandemic but attention is needed to address growing disparities in access to home visiting benefits among marginalized communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , House Calls , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(1): 140-142, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615980

ABSTRACT

Parents of infants and young children who experience harsh circumstances are among those most vulnerable to the added stressors associated with COVID-19. Home visiting models have been shown to enhance outcomes for parents and infants when delivered in person, but in many parts of the world, the pandemic rendered in-person home visits difficult or impossible. In this special section, we examine adaptations made by home visiting programs to allow continued service delivery through telehealth, and strategies for assessing whether interventions maintain reach and fidelity when implemented remotely. In the first paper, Bullinger et al. (program implementers of SafeCare) provide evidence of the increased risk of maltreatment during COVID-19 for many families, and thus the need for home visiting services. Rybinska et al., developers and implementers of Family Connects, present evidence regarding their success in reaching families through telehealth. Roben and colleagues, in the third paper, report that clinicians implementing Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up through telehealth maintained fidelity at similar rates seen through in-person implementation. Finally, Tabachnick et al. describe procedures for collecting physiological data from infants and parents while conducting assessments remotely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Child , Child, Preschool , House Calls , Humans , Infant , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(1): 159-172, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611237

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyze program activity for Family Connects (FC), an evidence-based postpartum home-visiting intervention, during the COVID-19 pandemic. When the pandemic began, FC transitioned to a virtual protocol which maintains key psychosocial components of the in-person protocol and adjusts health assessments to address the lack of in-person contact. Program performance is contrasted for periods before the pandemic onset (April 2019-March 2020) and after the onset (April 2020-March 2021), involving 10,280 scheduled visits and 6696 visited families (46% non-Hispanic white; 20% non-Hispanic Black; 23% Hispanic; and 10% other race). Post-pandemic onset, FC program participation rates were at 89.8% of pre-pandemic levels. Home visitors observed post-onset increases in families' concerns about home safety but declines in families' needs related to infant care. Community connections were facilitated for 42.9% of visited families post-pandemic onset compared to 51.1% pre-pandemic onset. We conclude that post-pandemic onset virtual delivery rates of FC declined but are high enough to merit continued implementation during a period when some families will decline in-person visits. When in-person visits are deemed safe per public health guidelines, the findings suggest a hybrid approach that could maximize program outreach by prioritizing in-person contact and offering virtual delivery as a second choice.


En este ensayo, analizamos la actividad de programación de Conexión de Familia (FC), una intervención de visitas a casa posteriores al parto con base en la evidencia, durante la pandemia COVID-19. Cuando comenzó la pandemia, FC pasó a un protocolo virtual el cual mantiene componentes sicosociales claves del protocolo presencial y ajusta las evaluaciones de salud para considerar la falta de contacto personal. La actuación del programa se contrasta por períodos antes del comienzo de la pandemia (abril 2019 - marzo 2020) y después del comienzo (abril 2020 - marzo 2021), lo cual involucra 10,280 visitas y 6,696 familias visitadas (46% blancas no hispanas, 20% negras no hispanas, 23% hispanas, 10% de otras razas). Al comienzo de la postpandemia, el nivel de participación en el programa FC estaba al 89.8% del nivel de prepandemia. Los visitantes a casa observaron aumentos posteriores al comienzo en preocupaciones de las familias sobre la seguridad del hogar, pero bajas en necesidades familiares relacionadas con el cuidado de los infantes. Las conexiones comunitarias se facilitaron para el 42.9% de las familias visitadas después del comienzo de la pandemia, comparadas con el 51.1% antes del comienzo de la pandemia. En resumen, la actividad de programación de FC declinó después del comienzo de la pandemia, pero se mantuvo suficientemente alta como para ameritar la continuación de la implementación durante un período cuando algunas familias rechazaron las visitas en persona. Cuando las visitas en persona se estiman seguras según las directrices de salud pública, los resultados indican que un acercamiento híbrido pudiera conducir al máximo el alcance del programa por medio de darle prioridad al contacto en persona y ofrecer el servicio virtual como segunda opción.


Dans cet article nous analysons l'activité de programme pour une Family Connects (FC), une intervention postpartum à domicile fondée sur des données probantes, durant la pandémie du COVID-19. Lorsque la pandémie a commencé la FC a transitionné à protocole virtuel qui maintient les composantes psychosociales clé du protocole en personne et ajusté les évaluations de santé afin de répondre au manque de contact en personne. La performance du programme est comparée pour des périodes avant le début de la pandémie (avril 2019-mars 2020) et après le début de la pandémie (avril 2020-mars 2021), comprenant 10280 visites programmées et 6696 familles visitées (46% de blancs n'étant pas hispaniques, 20% de noirs n'étant pas hispaniques, 23% d'hispaniques et 10% d'autres races). Les taux de participation au programme FC, après le début de la pandémie, étaient à 89,8% des niveaux avant pandémie. Les visiteurs à domicile ont observé des augmentations des inquiétudes des familles à propos de la sécurité à la maison après le début de la pandémie mais des déclins dans les besoins familiaux liés au soin du nourrisson. Les liens avec la communauté ont été facilités pour 42,9% des familles visitées après le début de la pandémie, comparé à 51,1% avant le début de la pandémie. Pour conclure, l'activité de programme du FC a décliné après le début de la pandémie mais est restée suffisamment élevée pour mériter une exécution continue durant une période où certaines familles ont décliné les visites à domicile. Quand les visites à domicile ont été estimées sûres suivant les directives de santé publique les résultats suggèrent qu'une approche hybride pourrait maximiser la sensibilisation au programme en privilégiant le contact en personne et en offrant une prestation virtuelle comme second choix.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , House Calls , Humans , Infant , Postpartum Period , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(1): 69-81, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589089

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disrupted many of the preventive service sectors designed to promote infant mental health. The purpose of this study is to examine provider and supervisor transition strategies as well as maternal-child outcomes during the transition from in-person to virtual early childhood home visitation services in Los Angeles County. Los Angeles County is one of the largest home visitation sectors in the U.S. and disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Transitioning from in-person to virtual home visitation was an important step in ensuring the continuity of infant mental health services. Home visitors reported relative ease in transitioning to virtual services themselves but noted that families encountered greater difficulty. The most helpful strategies to support this transition included training, ongoing reflective supervision, and provision of technology. Family level analysis revealed that positive screening rates for anxiety and depression decreased during the pandemic as did referrals for most support services. These findings likely highlight challenges in delivering virtual home visitation. Understanding how transitions in a key infant serving sector were managed serves an important role in forecasting for the future and preparing for future public heath emergencies.


El COVID-19 ha interrumpido muchos de los sectores de servicios preventivos diseñados para promover la salud mental infantil. El propósito de este estudio es examinar las estrategias de transición del proveedor y del supervisor, así como también los resultados materno-infantiles durante la transición de los servicios de visitas en la temprana niñez a casa, presenciales a virtuales, en el Condado Los Ángeles. El Condado Los Ángeles es uno de los más grandes sectores de visitas a casa en los Estados Unidos y desproporcionalmente afectado por la pandemia del COVID-19. La transición de las visitas a casa presenciales a virtuales fue un importante paso para asegurar la continuidad de los servicios de salud mental infantil. Los visitadores a casa reportaron una facilidad relativa en el proceso de transición a los servicios virtuales para sí mismos, pero notaron que las familias encontraron mayor dificultad. Entre las estrategias que más ayudaron a apoyar esta transición se incluyen el entrenamiento, la continuada supervisión con reflexión y el suministro de tecnología. Los análisis del nivel familiar revelaron que los positivos puntajes de detección de la ansiedad y depresión disminuyeron durante la pandemia como también sucedió con las referencias a la mayoría de los servicios de apoyo. Estos resultados subrayan probablemente los retos de ofrecer las visitas virtuales a casa. Comprender cómo las transiciones en un sector clave de servicios a infantes se manejaron sirve como un importante papel para pronosticar el futuro y prepararse para las futuras emergencias en el campo de la salud pública.


Le COVID-19 a perturbé bien des secteurs de service de prévention conçus pour promouvoir la santé mentale du nourrisson. Le but de cette étude est d'examiner les stratégies de transition du prestataire et du superviseur durant la transition de services de visite à domicile de la petite enfance en personne à virtuels dans le Comté de Los Angeles aux Etats-Unis. Le Comté de la ville de Los Angeles est l'un des plus grands secteurs de visites à domicile aux Etats-Unis et disproportionnellement impacté par la pandémie du COVID-19. La transition d'une visite à domicile en personne à une visite virtuelle a été un pas important pour s'assurer de la continuité des services de santé mentale du nourrisson. Les visiteurs à domicile ont fait état d'une facilité relative dans la transition aux services virtuels en eux-mêmes mais ont noté que les familles faisaient face à une difficulté plus grande. Les stratégies les plus utiles pour soutenir cette transition ont inclus la formation, la réflexion continue de la supervision et l'aide de la technologie. Les analyses au niveau familial ont révélé que des taux de dépistage positifs pour l'anxiété et la dépression ont baissé durant la pandémie comme l'ont fait les références pour la plupart des services de soutien. Ces résultats mettent en lumière les défis rencontrés par la visite virtuelle à domicile. Comprendre comment, dans un secteur clé de service au nourrisson, les transitions sont gérées sert un rôle important pour prévoir le futur et se préparer à des urgences de santé publique dans le futur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Child , Child, Preschool , House Calls , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(1): 143-158, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589081

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many child maltreatment risk factors and may have affected maltreatment among vulnerable families. We surveyed 258 certified providers of an evidence-based home visiting program, SafeCare, about their perception of the impact of the pandemic on the families they serve. We examined if the providers perceived an overall change in child maltreatment and family violence risk among the families with young children they served and factors that may have contributed to changes. Regressions estimated the relationship between providers' assessment of families' ability to social distance, emotional struggles, and access to public resources/services with providers' perception of child maltreatment and family violence risk in the home. Findings indicate that 87% of providers believed maltreatment risk had increased during the pandemic. Providers serving families who were unable to social distance due to employment were more likely to report increased supervisory neglect and material neglect among the families they serve. Providers reporting that families were struggling with elevated frustration levels also reported more family conflict and material neglect among the families they serve. Results from this research can inform strategic decision-making for policies and programs that address the challenges low-income families with young children face in emergency situations.


La pandemia del COVID-19 ha afectado muchos factores de riesgo de maltrato del niño y pudiera haber afectado el maltrato en familias vulnerables. Les preguntamos en una encuesta a 258 proveedores certificados de un programa de visitas a casa con base en la evidencia, SafeCare®, acerca de sus percepciones del impacto de la pandemia en las familias a quienes les ofrecían el servicio. Examinamos si los proveedores percibían un cambio general en el maltrato del niño y el riesgo de violencia familiar en familias con niños pequeños a las que les servían y los factores que pudieran haber contribuido a los cambios. Las regresiones calcularon la relación entre la evaluación de los proveedores acerca de la habilidad de la familia para mantener la distancia social física, los problemas emocionales, así como el acceso a recursos y servicios públicos, con la percepción de los proveedores acerca del maltrato infantil y el riesgo de violencia familiar en la casa. Los resultados indican que el 87 por ciento de los proveedores creía que el riesgo de maltrato había aumentado durante la pandemia. Aquellos proveedores que les servían a familias que no podían mantener la distancia social física debido al empleo, estuvieron más propensas a reportar el aumento en la negligencia de supervisión y la negación de material en las familias a quienes les servían. Los proveedores que reportaron que las familias estaban luchando con elevados niveles de frustración también reportaron más conflicto familiar y negación de material en las familias a las que les servían. Los resultados de esta investigación pueden apoyar la toma de decisiones estratégica para políticas y programas que se enfoquen en los retos que enfrentan las familias de bajos recursos con niños pequeños en situaciones de emergencia.


La pandémie du COVID-19 a affecté bien des facteurs de risque de la maltraitance de l'enfant et peut avoir affecté la maltraitance chez les familles vulnérables. Nous avons questionné 258 prestataires certifiés d'un programme de visite à domicile fondé sur des données probantes, SafeCare®, sur leur perception de l'impact de la pandémie sur les familles qu'ils servent. Nous avons examiné si les prestataires ont perçu un changement général de la maltraitance de l'enfant et dans le risque de violence familiale au sein des familles avec les jeunes enfants qu'ils servaient et les facteurs qui ont pu contribuer à ces changements. Des régressions ont estimé la relation entre l'évaluation qu'ont fait les prestataires de la capacité des familles à assurer la distanciation sociale, des difficutés émotionnelles et de l'accès aux resources/services publiques avec la perception des prestataires de la maltraitance de l'enfant et du risque de violence familiale à la maison. Les résultats indiquent que 87 pourcent des prestataires pensaient que le risque de maltraitance avait augmenté durant la pandémie. Les prestataires servant les familles qui ne pouvaient pas assurer la distanciation sociale à cause de leur emploi étaient plus à même de faire état d'une négligence acrue de la supervision et de négligence matérielle chez les familles qu'ils servent. Les prestataires indiquant que les familles faisaient face à des difficultés avec des niveaux de frustration élevés ont aussi fait état de plus de conflit familial et de néglicence matérielle chez les familles qu'ils servent. Les résultats de ces recherches peuvent aider les prises de décision stratégiques pour les politiques et les programmes qui répondent aux défis des familles défavorisées avec de jeunes enfants dans des situations d'urgence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Domestic Violence , Telemedicine , Child , Child, Preschool , House Calls , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Public Health ; 111(11): 1939-1941, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526717

ABSTRACT

Indigenous populations have been disproportionally affected by COVID-19, particularly those in rural and remote locations. Their unique environments and risk factors demand an equally unique public health response. Our rural Native American community experienced one of the highest prevalence outbreaks in the world, and we developed an aggressive management strategy that appears to have had a considerable effect on mortality reduction. The results have implications far beyond pandemic response, and have reframed how our community addresses several complicated health challenges. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(11):1939-1941. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306472).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Indigenous Peoples , Rural Population , Aged , Arizona/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , House Calls , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , United States , United States Indian Health Service
12.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(12): 1603-1610, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499409

ABSTRACT

As of spring 2020, contact-restricting measures were necessary to contain the incidence of infection with the SARS-CoV­2 virus in Germany. However, these restrictions posed particular challenges to families, especially families in high-stress situations. This paper examines how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the life of families and if long-term support in the context of early childhood intervention could be continued. The following analyses are based on qualitative research with psychosocially stressed mothers of young children, two surveys of health professionals who provide long-term support to families in early childhood intervention, and a survey of municipal actors who are responsible for the management and implementation of early childhood intervention in German communities.During the pandemic, families in high-stress conditions report existential fears and general overstrain. Intrafamilial conflicts seem to increase. Home visits in the context of long-term psychosocial support were initially primarily replaced by phone calls, video calls or other forms of "support from a distance." During the course of the pandemic, many professionals have begun conducting home visiting again, but several elements of support from a distance continue to be used as a supplement.Due to the pandemic-related additional burdens on the families who were accompanied by early childhood intervention, the continuation of support was even more important than it already was. Having been tested by necessity during the pandemic, several formats of support from a distance may have the potential to complement the usual assistance provided by health professionals in early childhood intervention and thus contribute to its quality development push.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Germany/epidemiology , House Calls , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 215, 2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of control over life situations is an important social determinant that may negatively affect parental and child health. This study took place in an area of Stockholm, Sweden with high indications of socioeconomic disadvantage, a large part of the population with foreign background, as well as higher levels of poor health than the county average. It investigated staff perceptions of pathways from situations of low control, potentially leading to health inequities, affecting families enrolled in an early childhood home visiting programme during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 23 child health care nurses and parental advisors working in a home visiting programme. The data was analysed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in five pathways on two explanatory levels, affecting parents' health and parenting capacity and children's health and well-being, potentially damaging health and leading to health inequities. The first four pathways related to control at the personal explanatory level: Families facing instability and insecurity; Caring for children in crowded and poor housing conditions; Experiencing restricted access to resources; and Parenting with limited social support. The fifth pathway, Living in a segregated society, covered the collective experience of lack of control on community level. The Covid-19 pandemic was observed to negatively affect all pathways and thus potentially aggravate health inequities for this population. The pandemic has also limited the delivery of home visits to the families which creates further barriers in families' access to resources and increases isolation for parents with already limited social support. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of pathways connected to health inequities presented in this study highlights the importance of considering this variety of influences when designing interventions for socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The additional negative consequences of Covid-19 indicate the need for sustainable preventive early childhood interventions for families in such areas. The study also emphasizes the need for further research as well as policy action on possible long-term effects of changing behaviours during the Covid-19 period on child health and health equity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered (11 August 2016) in the ISRCTN registry ( ISRCTN11832097 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , COVID-19/epidemiology , House Calls , Humans , Observation , Qualitative Research , Sweden/epidemiology
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003744, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, breastfeeding promotion is a national health priority. Regular perinatal home visits by community health workers (CHWs) have helped promote exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in underresourced settings. Innovative, digital approaches including mobile video content have also shown promise, especially as access to mobile technology increases among CHWs. We measured the effects of an animated, mobile video series, the Philani MObile Video Intervention for Exclusive breastfeeding (MOVIE), delivered by a cadre of CHWs ("mentor mothers"). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial from November 2018 to March 2020 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The trial was conducted in collaboration with the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Trust, a nongovernmental community health organization. We quantified the effect of the MOVIE intervention on EBF at 1 and 5 months (primary outcomes), and on other infant feeding practices and maternal knowledge (secondary outcomes). We randomized 1,502 pregnant women in 84 clusters 1:1 to 2 study arms. Participants' median age was 26 years, 36.9% had completed secondary school, and 18.3% were employed. Mentor mothers in the video intervention arm provided standard-of-care counseling plus the MOVIE intervention; mentor mothers in the control arm provided standard of care only. Within the causal impact evaluation, we nested a mixed-methods performance evaluation measuring mentor mothers' time use and eliciting their subjective experiences through in-depth interviews. At both points of follow-up, we observed no statistically significant differences between the video intervention and the control arm with regard to EBF rates and other infant feeding practices [EBF in the last 24 hours at 1 month: RR 0.93 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.01, P = 0.091); EBF in the last 24 hours at 5 months: RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.04, P = 0.152)]. We observed a small, but significant improvement in maternal knowledge at the 1-month follow-up, but not at the 5-month follow-up. The interpretation of the results from this causal impact evaluation changes when we consider the results of the nested mixed-methods performance evaluation. The mean time spent per home visit was similar across study arms, but the intervention group spent approximately 40% of their visit time viewing videos. The absence of difference in effects on primary and secondary endpoints implies that, for the same time investment, the video intervention was as effective as face-to-face counseling with a mentor mother. The videos were also highly valued by mentor mothers and participants. Study limitations include a high loss to follow-up at 5 months after premature termination of the trial due to the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in mentor mother service demarcations. CONCLUSIONS: This trial measured the effect of a video-based, mobile health (mHealth) intervention, delivered by CHWs during home visits in an underresourced setting. The videos replaced about two-fifths of CHWs' direct engagement time with participants in the intervention arm. The similar outcomes in the 2 study arms thus suggest that the videos were as effective as face-to-face counselling, when CHWs used them to replace a portion of that counselling. Where CHWs are scarce, mHealth video interventions could be a feasible and practical solution, supporting the delivery and scaling of community health promotion services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at clinicaltrials.gov (#NCT03688217) on September 27, 2018.


Subject(s)
Audiovisual Aids , Breast Feeding , Community Health Services/methods , Community Health Workers , Counseling , Health Promotion/methods , House Calls , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Maternal-Child Health Services , Mentors , Mothers , Motion Pictures , Organizations , Pandemics , Pregnancy , South Africa , Videotape Recording
15.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(3): 1-11, 20210821.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1395466

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La atención domiciliaria busca brindar una solución a los problemas de salud en el domicilio con el apoyo de profesionales, técnicos del área de la salud y la participación de la familia, en tiempos de pandemia por COVID-19 se deben ajustar las dinámicas a este nuevo contexto Objetivo: Comprender el significado de la experiencia de enfermería brindando cuidado en atención domiciliaria en época de pandemia Materiales y Métodos: Estudio fenomenológico hermenéutico que incluyó a 15 enfermeros que laboran en una institución de hospitalización domiciliaria. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad, se analizó la información y se generaron las categorías que representan la experiencia Resultados: El análisis fenomenológico arrojó las siguientes categorías existenciales. El distanciamiento social un cambio en la cotidianidad, La prevención del contagio es responsabilidad de todos y desafíos para el paciente y familia en el domicilio. Conclusión: El personal de enfermería debe ser responsable del cumplimento de los protocolos de bioseguridad y por el bien de ellos mismos, sus pacientes y familiares, el trabajo en equipo y la educación permanente con la escucha activa hacen que esta pandemia por la que atraviesa el mundo no deteriore el cuidado de los pacientes que requieren cuidado en los domicilios.


Introduction: Home-based care seeks to provide a solution to home health care issues supported by healthcare professionals, practitioners and the participation of the family, whose dynamics in COVID-19 times should be adjusted to this new context. Objective: To understand the significance of the nursing experience providing care in home-based care settings in pandemic times. Materials and Methods: A hermeneutic-phenomenological study was conducted with 15 nurses who work in a home care service provider. In-depth interviews were conducted from which the information was analyzed and classified into categories representing the experiences. Results: The following categories were obtained from the phenomenological analysis: social distancing as a change in daily life, preventing COVID-19 infection is everyone's responsibility and home care challenges for patients and families. Conclusions: Nursing professionals must ensure compliance with biosafety protocols and for the good of themselves, their patients and families, teamwork and continuing education with active listening ensure that home care of patients does not deteriorate in these pandemic times


Introdução: A atenção domiciliar busca dar uma solução aos problemas de saúde no domicílio com o apoio de profissionais, técnicos da área da saúde e a participação da família, em tempos de pandemia pela COVID-19, a dinâmica deve ser ajustada a este novo contexto. Objetivo: Compreender o significado da experiência da enfermagem no cuidado na atenção domiciliar em tempos de pandemia. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo fenomenológico hermenêutico que incluiu 15 enfermeiras que trabalham em uma instituição de internação domiciliar. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade, analisadas as informações e foram geradas as categorias que representam a experiência. Resultados:A análise fenomenológica gerou as seguintes categorias existenciais. O distanciamento social uma mudança no cotidiano, a prevenção do contágio é responsabilidade de todos e desafios para o paciente e família em casa. Conclusão: A equipe de enfermagem deve se responsabilizar pelo cumprimento dos protocolos de biossegurança e para o bem de si próprios, de seus pacientes e familiares, o trabalho em equipe e a educação permanente com escuta ativa fazem com que essa pandemia na qual o mundo atravessa não prejudique o atendimento aos pacientes que necessitam de cuidados domiciliares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , House Calls
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323234

ABSTRACT

Preventive home visits (PHVs) are offered to older persons with the purpose of promoting health and preventing risks on an individual level. However, aspects of health need to be considered on a societal level as well. This study aims to get a deeper understanding of perceptions of the usability of the information compiled during the PHVs to promote health, among older persons, on a societal level. Three online focus groups were conducted with heads of unit of PHVs, heads of department, and politicians responsible for health and welfare in seven municipalities in Sweden (n = 12). The findings were visualised in the core category Enable an inclusive society and the interrelated categories Monitoring determinants of health and Enabling exchange of information. The information from the PHVs could be used to monitor determinants of health by identifying assets, challenges, shifts, trends, and future needs in the society. Moreover, exchange of information from the PHVs could occur within and outside the health and welfare organisation. However, the potential use was affected by hindrances illustrated in the category Obstacles to interpreting and communicating the information. To conclude, using the information from the PHVs could possibly contribute to an inclusive society, where persons not usually represented in decision making are given a voice.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , House Calls , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Sweden
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 674843, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305700

ABSTRACT

The community health worker (CHW) asthma home-visiting model developed by Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) is an evidence-based approach proven to improve health outcomes and quality of life. In addition, it has been shown to be an effective and culturally appropriate approach to helping people with asthma understand the environmental and behavioral causes of uncontrolled asthma, while acquiring the skills they need to control their asthma. This paper describes the development and implementation of training curricula for CHWs and supervisors in the asthma home visiting program. To facilitate dissemination, this program took advantage of the current healthcare landscape in Washington State resulting from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) approval of the 1115 Medicaid Waiver project. Key aspects of the training program development included: (1) Engagement: forming a Community Advisory Board with multiple stakeholders to help prioritize training content; (2) Curriculum Development: building the training on evidence-based home-visit protocols previously developed at PHSKC; (3) Implementation of the training program; (4) Evaluation of the training; and (5) Adaptation of the training based on lessons learned. We describe key factors in the training program's improvement including the use of a community-based participatory approach to engage stakeholders at multiple phases of the project and ensure regional adaption; combining in-person and online modules for delivery; and holding learning collaboratives for post-training and technical support. We also outline our training program evaluation plan and the planned evaluation of the home visit program which the trainees will deliver, both of which follow the RE-AIM framework. However, because the COVID-19 pandemic has curtailed training activities and prohibited the trainees from implementation of these CHW home visit practices, our evaluation is currently incomplete. Therefore, this case study provides insight into the adaptation of the training program, but not the delivery of the home visit program, the outcomes of which remain to be seen.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Aged , Asthma/therapy , Community Health Workers , House Calls , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Washington
19.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 125, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on primary care in Germany regarding the number of consultations, the prevalence of specific reasons for consultation presented by the patients, and the frequency of specific services performed by the GP. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study based on standardised GP interviews in a quota sampling design comparing the time before the COVID-19 pandemic (12 June 2015 to 27 April 2017) with the time during lockdown (21 April to 14 July 2020). The sample included GPs in urban and rural areas 120 km around Hamburg, Germany, and was stratified by region type and administrative districts. Differences in the consultation numbers were analysed by multivariate linear regressions in mixed models adjusted for random effects on the levels of the administrative districts and GP practices. RESULTS: One hundred ten GPs participated in the follow-up, corresponding to 52.1% of the baseline. Primary care practices in 32 of the 37 selected administrative districts (86.5%) could be represented in both assessments. At baseline, GPs reported 199.6 ± 96.9 consultations per week, which was significantly reduced during COVID-19 lockdown by 49.0% to 101.8 ± 67.6 consultations per week (p < 0.001). During lockdown, the frequency of five reasons for consultation (-43.0% to -31.5%) and eleven services (-56.6% to -33.5%) had significantly decreased. The multilevel, multivariable analyses showed an average reduction of 94.6 consultations per week (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a dramatic reduction of the number of consultations in primary care. This effect was independent of age, sex and specialty of the GP and independent of the practice location in urban or rural areas. Consultations for complaints like low back pain, gastrointestinal complaints, vertigo or fatigue and services like house calls/calls at nursing homes, wound treatments, pain therapy or screening examinations for the early detection of chronic diseases were particularly affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Health Services/trends , Primary Health Care/trends , Referral and Consultation/trends , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Germany , House Calls , Humans , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Nursing Homes , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
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