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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1098, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239298

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Socio-demographic factors are known to influence epidemic dynamics. The town of Nice, France, displays major socio-economic inequalities, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE), 10% of the population is considered to live below the poverty threshold, i.e. 60% of the median standard of living. OBJECTIVE: To identify socio-economic factors related to the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in Nice, France. METHODS: The study included residents of Nice with a first positive SARS-CoV-2 test (January 4-February 14, 2021). Laboratory data were provided by the National information system for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) screening (SIDEP) and socio-economic data were obtained from INSEE. Each case's address was allocated to a census block to which we assigned a social deprivation index (French Deprivation index, FDep) divided into 5 categories. For each category, we computed the incidence rate per age and per week and its mean weekly variation. A standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated to investigate a potential excess of cases in the most deprived population category (FDep5), compared to the other categories. Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed and a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) applied to analyse the number of cases and socio-economic variables per census blocks. RESULTS: We included 10,078 cases. The highest incidence rate was observed in the most socially deprived category (4001/100,000 inhabitants vs 2782/100,000 inhabitants for the other categories of FDep). The number of observed cases in the most social deprivated category (FDep5: N = 2019) was significantly higher than in the others (N = 1384); SIR = 1.46 [95% CI:1.40-1.52; p < 0.001]. Socio-economic variables related to poor housing, harsh working conditions and low income were correlated with the new cases of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Social deprivation was correlated with a higher incidence of SARS-CoV-2 during the 2021 epidemic in Nice. Local surveillance of epidemics provides complementary data to national and regional surveillance. Mapping socio-economic vulnerability indicators at the census block level and correlating these with incidence could prove highly useful to guide political decisions in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Housing , Poverty
2.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 14: 21501319231180448, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239004

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, the Department of Veterans Affairs responded to the COVID-19 pandemic and escalating unsheltered homelessness in Los Angeles by sanctioning a tent turned tiny shelter encampment at the West Los Angeles Veterans Affairs medical center. Initially, staff offered linkages to on-campus VA healthcare. However, as many Veterans living in the encampment struggled to avail themselves of these services, our "encampment medicine" team was launched to provide on-site care coordination and healthcare at the tiny shelters. This case study showcases the team's engagement with a Veteran experiencing homelessness struggling with opioid use disorder and depicts how this co-located, comprehensive care team allowed for trusting care relationships formed with, and empowerment of the Veterans living in the encampment. The piece highlights a healthcare model that engages with persons experiencing homelessness on their own terms while building trust and solidarity, focuses on the sense of community that formed in the tiny shelter encampment, and gives recommendations for how homeless services might adapt to use the strengths of this unique community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , United States , Humans , Housing , Pandemics , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
3.
Nurs Health Sci ; 24(2): 499-507, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324109

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at identifying the social determinants related to COVID-19 infection in South Korea. This secondary analysis used data from the 2020 Community Health Survey, a nationwide sample taken to understand the health status of Korean residents. The participants were 220 970 adults 19 years of age or older. COVID-19-related social determinants were age, education level, marital status, household income, hypertension, eating habits, social support, and regional income. The risk of COVID-19 infection increased in those who were under 40 years, were high school graduates or higher, were single, had a household income over US$ 4166.7, ate breakfast 5-7 times a week, had three or more helpers during COVID-19, and lived in a region with above-average income. Hypertension reduced the risk of COVID-19 infection. In conclusion, adults with high socioeconomic activity showed a high risk for COVID-19 infection, which was assumed to include only adults living in residential housing in the community. Further studies are required to include adults living in long-term care or communal living facilities, known to be frequently infected with the corona virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Educational Status , Housing , Humans , Social Determinants of Health
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0280979, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326385

ABSTRACT

Emerging infection diseases (EIDs) are an increasing threat to global public health, especially when the disease is newly emerging. Institutions of higher education (IHEs) are particularly vulnerable to EIDs because student populations frequently share high-density residences and strongly mix with local and distant populations. In fall 2020, IHEs responded to a novel EID, COVID-19. Here, we describe Quinnipiac University's response to SARS-CoV-2 and evaluate its effectiveness through empirical data and model results. Using an agent-based model to approximate disease dynamics in the student body, the University established a policy of dedensification, universal masking, surveillance testing via a targeted sampling design, and app-based symptom monitoring. After an extended period of low incidence, the infection rate grew through October, likely due to growing incidence rates in the surrounding community. A super-spreader event at the end of October caused a spike in cases in November. Student violations of the University's policies contributed to this event, but lax adherence to state health laws in the community may have also contributed. The model results further suggest that the infection rate was sensitive to the rate of imported infections and was disproportionately impacted by non-residential students, a result supported by the observed data. Collectively, this suggests that campus-community interactions play a major role in campus disease dynamics. Further model results suggest that app-based symptom monitoring may have been an important regulator of the University's incidence, likely because it quarantined infectious students without necessitating test results. Targeted sampling had no substantial advantages over simple random sampling when the model incorporated contact tracing and app-based symptom monitoring but reduced the upper boundary on 90% prediction intervals for cumulative infections when either was removed. Thus, targeted sampling designs for surveillance testing may mitigate worst-case outcomes when other interventions are less effective. The results' implications for future EIDs are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , SARS-CoV-2 , Housing
5.
Environ Pollut ; 331(Pt 2): 121875, 2023 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321619

ABSTRACT

Globally, approximately 1.2 million deaths among non-smokers are attributed to second-hand smoke (SHS) per year. Multi-unit housing is becoming the common type of residential dwelling in developed cities and the issue of neighbour SHS is of rising concern especially as 'Work From Home' became the norm during and post COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this pilot study is to measure and compare the air quality of households that are exposed to SHS and unexposed households among smoking and non-smoking households in Singapore. A total of 27 households were recruited from April to August 2021. Households were categorized into smoking households with neighbour SHS, smoking households without neighbour SHS, non-smoking households with neighbour SHS, and non-smoking household without neighbour SHS. Air quality of the households was measured using calibrated particulate matter (PM2.5) sensors for 7-16 days. Socio-demographic information and self-reported respiratory health were collected. Regression models were used to identify predictors associated with household PM2.5 concentrations and respiratory health. Mean PM2.5 concentration was significantly higher among non-smoking households with neighbour SHS (n = 5, mean = 22.2, IQR = 12.7) than in non-smoking household without neighbour SHS (n = 2, mean = 4.1, IQR = 5.8). Smoking activity at enclosed areas in homes had the lowest PM2.5 concentration (n = 7 mean = 15.9, IQR = 11.0) among the three smoking locations. Exposure to higher household PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with poorer respiratory health. A 'smoke-free residential building' policy is recommended to tackle the issue of rising neighbour SHS complaints and health concerns in densely populated multi-unit housing in Singapore. Public education campaigns should encourage smokers to smoke away from the home to minimize SHS exposure in household members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Housing , Pilot Projects , Singapore/epidemiology , Pandemics
6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1096246, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325593

ABSTRACT

Background: The Housing Collaborative project at Eastern Virginia Medical School has developed a method of adapting public health guidance from public housing communities, which face tremendous health challenges in cardiometabolic health, cancer, and other major health conditions. In this paper, we describe how academic and community partners in the Housing Collaborative came together to do this work with a focus on COVID-19 testing in the context of the emerging pandemic. Methods: The academic team used virtual community engagement methods to interact with the Housing Collaborative Community Advisory Board (HCCAB) and a separate cohort of research participants (N = 102) recruited into a study of distrust in COVID-19 guidance. We conducted a series of 44 focus group interviews with participants on related topics. Results from these interviews were discussed with the HCCAB. We used the collaborative intervention planning framework to inform adaptation of public health guidance on COVID-19 testing delivered in low-income housing settings by including all relevant perspectives. Results: Participants reported several important barriers to COVID-19 testing related to distrust in the tests and those administering them. Distrust in housing authorities and how they might misuse positive test results seemed to further undermine decision making about COVID-19 testing. Pain associated with testing was also a concern. To address these concerns, a peer-led testing intervention was proposed by the Housing Collaborative. A second round of focus group interviews was then conducted, in which participants reported their approval of the proposed intervention. Conclusion: Although the COVID-19 pandemic was not our initial focus, we were able to identify a number of barriers to COVID-19 testing in low-income housing settings that can be addressed with adapted public health guidance. We struck a balance between community input and scientific rigor and obtained high quality, honest feedback to inform evidence-based recommendations to guide decisions about health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Housing , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Poverty , Public Health
7.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(2): 580-589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318964

ABSTRACT

Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) add legal professionals, trained specifically to tackle health-related social needs (HRSN), to the health care team. We evaluated the impact on health outcomes and health care utilization of a MLP housed in a large federally qualified health center in Colorado (MLP-CO). Clients screened for I-HELP (Income, Housing, Employment, Legal status, Personal stability) needs were surveyed at baseline and six months post-enrollment. Reasons for legal aid were legal immigration status (46.5%), income (30.8%), personal/family stability (14.8%), housing (4.8%), and education (1.2%). Overall, 61.4% attributed great/moderate improvements in their health care experience to the MLP-CO. Statistically significant improvements were noted for days with poor physical/mental health, and feelings of stress/worry. There was a reduction in emergency department visits, hospitalization days, and missed appointments, but only the latter was statistically significant. In conclusion, MLPs are a promising innovation to achieve the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's quadruple aim.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Housing , Colorado , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Vulnerable Populations
8.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(4): 1821-1843, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317630

ABSTRACT

We sought to estimate the impact of temporary financial assistance (TFA) for housing-related expenses from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs on costs for a variety of health care services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Veterans who entered the Supportive Services for Veteran Families (SSVF) program between 10/2015 and 9/2018. We assessed the effect of TFA on health care costs using a multivariable difference-in-difference approach. Outcomes were direct medical costs of health care encounters (i.e., emergency department, outpatient mental health, inpatient mental health, outpatient substance use disorder treatment, and residential behavioral health) in the VA system. Temporary financial assistance was associated with a decrease in ED (-$11, p<.003), outpatient mental health (-$28, p<.001), outpatient substance use disorder treatment (-$25, p<.001), inpatient mental health (-$258, p<.001), and residential behavioral health (-$181, p<.001) costs per quarter for Veterans in the rapid re-housing component of SSVF. These results can inform policy debates regarding proper solutions to housing instability.


Subject(s)
Housing Instability , Ill-Housed Persons , Public Housing , Veterans , Humans , Health Care Costs , Health Expenditures , Ill-Housed Persons/psychology , Housing , Retrospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , United States , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
9.
Healthc Q ; 26(1): 18-23, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314270

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the City of Toronto opened temporary shelter hotels with on-site supports for people previously living on the street, in encampments or in emergency shelters. The Beyond Housing program was created to enhance service offerings in the shelter hotel system and to support people not engaging with services. Using a Housing First approach, Beyond Housing offers three main interventions: (1) case management, (2) care coordination and (3) on-site and community-based mental health and social supports. This commentary explores the strengths and challenges of implementing Beyond Housing within temporary shelter hotels, and then discusses the lessons learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Housing , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Support
10.
Bone ; 172: 116762, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300445

ABSTRACT

Social isolation is a potent form of psychosocial stress and is a growing public health concern, particularly among older adults. Even prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has significantly increased the prevalence of isolation and loneliness, researchers have been concerned about a rising "epidemic" of loneliness. Isolation is associated with an increased risk for many physical and mental health disorders and increased overall mortality risk. In addition to social isolation, older adults are also at greater risk for osteoporosis and related fractures. While researchers have investigated the negative effects of other forms of psychosocial stress on bone, including depression and PTSD, the effects of social isolation on bone have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that social isolation would lead to bone loss in male and female C57BL/6J mice. 16-week-old mice were randomized into social isolation (1 mouse/cage) or grouped housing (4 mice/cage) for four weeks. Social isolation significantly decreased trabecular (BV/TV, BMD, Tb. N., Tb. Th.) and cortical bone (Ct.Th., Ct.Ar., Ct.Ar./Tt.Ar., pMOI) parameters in male, but not female mice. Isolated male mice had signs of reduced bone remodeling represented by reduced osteoblast numbers, osteoblast-related gene expression and osteoclast-related gene expression. However, isolated females had increased bone resorption-related gene expression, without any change in bone mass. Overall, our data suggest that social isolation has negative effects on bone in male, but not female mice, although females showed suggestive effects on bone resorption. These results provide critical insight into the effects of isolation on bone and have key clinical implications as we grapple with the long-term health impacts of the rise in social isolation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bone Resorption , COVID-19 , Female , Male , Mice , Humans , Animals , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Housing , Pandemics , Bone Density , Cortical Bone , Social Isolation
11.
Public Health Nurs ; 40(4): 487-496, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of unstably housed, medically vulnerable residents living at the Haven, a novel, non-congregate integrated care shelter operating in a historic hotel during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design. SAMPLE/MEASUREMENT: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in February and March 2022 with a purposive sample of 20 residents living in the integrated care shelter. Data were analyzed in May and June 2022 using the thematic analysis methods described by Braun and Clarke. RESULTS: Six women and 14 men, ages 23-71 (M = 50, SD = 14), were interviewed. Lengths of stay at the time of the interview ranged from 74 to 536 days (M = 311 days). Medical co-morbidities and substance use details were collected at baseline. Three themes were identified: (1) Autonomy, (2) supportive environments, and (3) stability and the need for permanent housing. Participants characterized the integrated care, non-congregate model as having multiple advantages over traditional shelter systems. Participants emphasized the role of nurses and case managers in providing a respectful, caring environment in the integrated shelter model. CONCLUSION: Participants described acute physical and mental health needs which were largely met by the innovative integrated shelter care model. The effect of homelessness and housing insecurity on health is well documented, but few solutions exist that promote autonomy. Participants in this qualitative study emphasized the benefits of living in a non-congregate integrated care shelter and the services which promoted their self-management of chronic diseases. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Patients were the participants in the study, but were not involved in the design, analysis of interpretation of the data, or preparation of the manuscript. Due to this project's small scope, we could not involve patients or the public after the study concluded data collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Ill-Housed Persons , Male , Humans , Female , Housing , Pandemics
12.
J Community Psychol ; 50(4): 1816-1830, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276609

ABSTRACT

People experiencing homelessness are vulnerable to disasters and hazards and are at risk for contracting COVID-19. In this study, we gathered data from 10 community-based organizations (CBO's) in the United States that work to provide services for people experiencing homelessness. The combined CBO's span across rural, urban, and a mixture of both settings. We identified three needs that the CBO's indicated to be urgent: (1) the increased need for basic services among guests/clients, (2) new organizational challenges for the CBO's, and (3) issues related to emergency management and disasters. Among these urgent needs, respondents also indicated the need for emotional support for staff and volunteers experiencing burnout during the COVID-19 response. They also expressed some unique aspects of new care delivery systems, such as clients' willingness to engage in rehabilitation programs because of noncongregate sheltering options corresponding with those support services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Ill-Housed Persons , Housing , Humans , Social Problems , United States
13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(10): 1052-1060, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253125

ABSTRACT

Importance: The population of homeless older adults is growing and experiences premature mortality. Little is known about factors associated with mortality among homeless older adults. Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with mortality in a cohort of homeless adults 50 years and older. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cohort study (Health Outcomes in People Experiencing Homelessness in Older Middle Age [HOPE HOME]), 450 adults 50 years and older who were homeless at baseline were recruited via venue-based sampling in Oakland, California. Enrollment occurred in 2 phases, from July 2013 to June 2014 and from August 2017 to July 2018, and participants were interviewed at 6-month intervals. Exposures: Baseline and time-varying characteristics, including sociodemographic factors, social support, housing status, incarceration history, chronic medical conditions, substance use, and mental health problems. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality through December 31, 2021, based on state and local vital records information from contacts and death certificates. All-cause mortality rates were compared with those in the general population from 2014 to 2019 using age-specific standardized mortality ratios with 95% CIs. Results: Of the 450 included participants, median (IQR) age at baseline was 58.1 (54.5-61.6) years, 107 (24%) were women, and 360 (80%) were Black. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 55 (38-93) months, 117 (26%) participants died. Median (IQR) age at death was 64.6 (60.3-67.5) years. In multivariable analyses, characteristics associated with mortality included a first episode of homelessness at 50 years and older (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.13-2.32), homelessness (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.23-2.68) or institutionalization (aHR, 6.36; 95% CI, 3.42-11.82) at any follow-up compared with being housed, fair or poor self-rated health (aHR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.13-2.40), and diabetes (aHR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06-2.26). Demographic characteristics, substance use problems, and mental health problems were not independently associated. All-cause standardized mortality was 3.5 times higher (95% CI, 2.5-4.4) compared with adults in Oakland. The most common causes of death were heart disease (n = 17 [14.5%]), cancer (n = 17 [14.5%]), and drug overdose (n = 14 [12.0%]). Conclusions and Relevance: The cohort study found that premature mortality was common among homeless older adults and associated factors included late-life homelessness and ongoing homelessness. There is an urgent need for policy approaches to prevent and end homelessness among older adults in the US.


Subject(s)
Ill-Housed Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , Aged , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278129

ABSTRACT

With the global spread of various human-to-human epidemics, public health issues have become a focus of attention. Therefore, it is of great importance to improve the quantitative risk assessment of the construction of resilient cities in terms of epidemic disasters. Starting with the dimensions of social activities and material space, this paper took Qingdao, China, with a population of 5 million, as an example, and took its seven municipal districts as the research scope. In this paper, five risk factors, including the Population density index, Night light index, Closeness index of roads, Betweenness index of roads and Functional mixed nuclear density index were selected for weighted superposition analysis. We conducted a quantitative assessment of the spatial risk of epidemic disaster so as to obtain the classification and spatial structure of the epidemic disaster risk intensity. The results show that: ① The roads with a large traffic flow are most likely to lead to the risk of urban spatial agglomeration, and the areas with a large population density and large mixture of infrastructure functions are also important factors causing the risk of epidemic agglomeration. ② The analysis results regarding the population, commerce, public services, transportation, residence, industry, green space and other functional places can reflect the high-risk areas for epidemic diseases with different natures of transmission. ③ The risk intensity of epidemic disasters is divided into five risk grade areas. Among them, the spatial structure of epidemic disasters, composed of the first-level risk areas, is characterized by "one main area, four secondary areas, one belt and multiple points" and has the characteristics of spatial diffusion. ④ Catering, shopping, life services, hospitals, schools and transportation functional places are more likely to cause crowd gathering. The management of these places should be focused on prevention and control. At the same time, medical facilities should be established at fixed points in all high-risk areas to ensure the full coverage of services. In general, the quantitative assessment of the spatial risk of major epidemic disasters improves the disaster risk assessment system in the construction of resilient cities. It also focuses on risk assessment for public health events. It is helpful to accurately locate the agglomeration risk areas and epidemic transmission paths that are prone to outbreak or cause epidemic transmission in cities so as to assist the relevant practitioners in containing the epidemic from the initial stage of transmission in a timely manner and prevent the further spread of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Epidemics , Humans , Cities , China , Housing
15.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 25(4): 781-790, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282239

ABSTRACT

High levels of reactive chemicals may be emitted to the indoor air during household surface cleaning, leading to poorer air quality and potential health hazards. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-based cleaners have gained popularity in recent years, especially in times of COVID-19. Still, little is known regarding the effects of H2O2 cleaning on indoor air composition. In this work we monitored time-resolved H2O2 concentrations during a cleaning campaign in an occupied single-family residence using a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) H2O2 analyzer. During the cleaning experiments, we investigated how unconstrained (i.e., "real-life") surface cleaning with a hydrogen peroxide solution influenced the indoor air quality of the house, and performed controlled experiments to investigate factors that could influence H2O2 levels including surface area and surface material, ventilation, and dwell time of the cleaning solution. Mean peak H2O2 concentrations observed following all surface cleaning events were 135 ppbv. The factors with the greatest effect on H2O2 levels were distance of the cleaned surface from the detector inlet, type of surface cleaned, and solution dwell time.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Housing , Ventilation
16.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 44: 233-254, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263300

ABSTRACT

Housing quality is essential for population health and broader well-being. The World Health Organization Housing and health guidelines highlight interventions that protect occupants from cold and hot temperatures, injuries, and other hazards. The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the importance of ventilation standards. Housing standards are unevenly developed, implemented, and monitored globally, despite robust research demonstrating that retrofitting existing houses and constructing high-quality new ones can reduce respiratory, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases. Indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities, and people with low incomes face cumulative disadvantages that are exacerbated by poor-quality housing. These can be partially ameliorated by community-based programs to improve housing quality, particularly for children and older people, who are hospitalized more often for housing-related illnesses. There is renewed interest among policy makers and researchers in the health and well-being of people in public and subsidized housing, who are disproportionately disadvantaged by avoidable housing-related diseases and injuries. Improving the overall quality of new and existing housing and neighborhoods has multiple cobenefits, including reducing carbon emissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Housing Quality , Child , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Housing , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
J Adv Nurs ; 79(5): 1868-1881, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264761

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The objective of this study was to describe and understand irregular migrants' (IMs') experiences of health disparities while living in informal settlements (ISs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: Thirty-four IMs originating from different African countries living in ISs took part in this study. Data were collected between January and March 2022 through three focus groups and 17 in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data with ATLAS.ti computer software. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: (1) Extreme vulnerability: ISs and abuse; (2) Inequality in health treatment has increased during COVID-19; and (3) The impact of COVID-19 on the health of IMs: help from non-governmental organizations and nurses. CONCLUSION: Irregular migrants are at a higher risk of exposure to COVID-19 due to their precarious living conditions, administrative situation and access to the health system. It is recommended that specific programmes be strengthened to improve health care for this population. IMPACT: What problem did the study address? This study examines IMs' experiences of health disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic. What were the main findings? IMs are at higher risk of exposure to COVID-19 due to social, health, housing and work inequalities. Community health nurses alongside non-governmental organizations have facilitated the implementation of measures to protect this population against COVID-19. Where and on whom will the research have an impact? With the aim of improving care for IMs, strategies have been suggested for health institutions to address problems relating to accessing the health system, and to promote networking between non-governmental organizations and community health nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Housing , Qualitative Research , Health Services Accessibility
18.
J Aging Stud ; 65: 101126, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285511

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown measures imposed as a result affected the lives of people in all parts of society across the world. In 2020, during the first UK national lockdown, older adults (aged 70 years and over) were told to 'shield' within their homes, as they were regarded as being at higher risk of serious COVID-19 infection compared to other age groups. This paper explores older adults' experiences of COVID-19 lockdown measures whilst living in housing with care schemes for older people. The purpose is to examine the impact of the lockdown measures on scheme life including social connections amongst residents and their general everyday wellbeing during this time. We present qualitative findings based on interviews with 72 residents who took part in longitudinal and cross-sectional interviews across 26 housing with care schemes. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach to examine specifically their experiences of living in housing with care schemes during the 2020 UK lockdown. The paper highlights that COVID-19 restrictions had a detrimental impact on the social connections and interactions of older residents living in housing with care schemes, as well as on their feelings of autonomy and independence. Despite this, residents adapted and coped with self-isolation restrictions and sought out positive ways to maintain social contact with others inside and outside to the scheme. We further highlight the tensions that providers of housing for older adults faced in promoting residents' autonomy and connectedness whilst also trying to provide a safe living environment and protect residents from risk of COVID-19 infection. Our findings apply not only to a pandemic situation but to the broader understanding of how housing with care for older adults must navigate between autonomy and support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Housing , Aged , Humans , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , England , Pandemics , Wales
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241153

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 significantly impacted residents' health status and daily activities in suburban residential areas. This study elucidated the relationship between health scores, daily activities, and housing types. The method was a questionnaire survey of 378 residents of suburban residential estates in Teraikedai, Kongo District, Japan, during the COVID-19 self-isolation period. Since the survey cohort was New Town, the suburban residential area identified by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism was targeted. The questions included participant demographics, the Basic Survey on Japanese Social Life, and the SF-12v2. The Tukey-Kramer HSD test and stepwise decreasing logistic regression were used for the statistical analysis of the responses. The COVID-19 self-isolation led to lower physical and mental health scores than usual, and the health scores of residents living in detached houses were better than those of residents in apartments, both those over the age of 65 and those under the age of 65. There was also a correlation between residents' daily activities and their health scores. For those aged under 65 years, the health scores of residents living in detached houses were significantly better than those living in apartments, indicating that daily activities such as sports and recreational hobbies may contribute to health scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Housing , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mental Health
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240194

ABSTRACT

According to the social stress process model, global crises are macro-level stressors that generate physiological stress and psychological distress. However, existing research has not identified immigrants' COVID-19 containment policy stressors or examined the social stress of sending remittances amid crises. Drawing on in-depth longitudinal interviews with 46 Venezuelan immigrants-half before and half during the pandemic-in Chile and Argentina, we identified the COVID-19 containment policies' stressors. We focused on Venezuelan immigrants because they constitute one of the largest internationally displaced populations, with most migrating within South America. We found that the governmental COVID-19 containment measures in both countries generated four stressors: employment loss, income loss, devaluation of employment status, and inability to send needed remittances. Moreover, sending remittances helped some migrants cope with concerns about loved ones in Venezuela. However, sending remittances became a social stressor when immigrants struggled to simultaneously sustain their livelihoods and send financial support to relatives experiencing hardships in Venezuela. For some immigrants, these adversities generated other stressors (e.g., housing instability) and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Broadly, for immigrants, the stressors of global crises transcend international borders and generate high stress, which strains their psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Population Dynamics , Emigration and Immigration , Argentina , Chile , Venezuela , Developing Countries , Housing , Policy , Economics
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