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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 118-122, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112897

ABSTRACT

Institutions of higher education adopted different approaches for the fall semester 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Approximately 45% of colleges and universities implemented online instruction, more than one fourth (27%) provided in-person instruction, and 21% used a hybrid model (1). Although CDC has published COVID-19 guidance for institutions of higher education (2-4), little has been published regarding the response to COVID-19 outbreaks on college and university campuses (5). In August 2020, an Indiana university with approximately 12,000 students (including 8,000 undergraduate students, 85% of whom lived on campus) implemented various public health measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Despite these measures, the university experienced an outbreak involving 371 cases during the first few weeks of the fall semester. The majority of cases occurred among undergraduate students living off campus, and several large off-campus gatherings were identified as common sources of exposure. Rather than sending students home, the university switched from in-person to online instruction for undergraduate students and instituted a series of campus restrictions for 2 weeks, during which testing, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine programs were substantially enhanced, along with educational efforts highlighting the need for strict adherence to the mitigation measures. After 2 weeks, the university implemented a phased return to in-person instruction (with 85% of classes offered in person) and resumption of student life activities. This report describes the outbreak and the data-driven, targeted interventions and rapid escalation of testing, tracing, and isolation measures that enabled the medium-sized university to resume in-person instruction and campus activities. These strategies might prove useful to other colleges and universities responding to campus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Universities/organization & administration , /epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Patient Isolation , Quarantine
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 114-117, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112896

ABSTRACT

During September 3-November 16, 2020, daily confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported to the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) increased at a rate of 24% per week, from a 7-day average of 674 (August 28-September 3) to 6,426 (November 10-16) (1). The growth rate during this interval was the highest to date in Wisconsin and among the highest in the United States during that time (1). To characterize potential sources of this increase, the investigation examined reported outbreaks in Wisconsin that occurred during March 4-November 16, 2020, with respect to their setting and number of associated COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Laboratories , Long-Term Care , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Wisconsin/epidemiology
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 109-113, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112895

ABSTRACT

On March 19, 2020, the governor of California issued a statewide stay-at-home order to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* The order reduced accessibility to and patient attendance at outpatient medical visits,† including preventive services such as cervical cancer screening. In-person clinic visits increased when California reopened essential businesses on June 12, 2020.§ Electronic medical records of approximately 1.5 million women served by Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), a large integrated health care system, were examined to assess cervical cancer screening rates before, during, and after the stay-at-home order. KPSC policy is to screen women aged 21-29 years every 3 years with cervical cytology alone (Papanicolaou [Pap] test); those aged 30-65 years were screened every 5 years with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cytology (cotesting) through July 15, 2020, and after July 15, 2020, with HPV testing alone, consistent with the latest recommendations from U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.¶ Compared with the 2019 baseline, cervical cancer screening rates decreased substantially during the stay-at-home order. Among women aged 21-29 years, cervical cytology screening rates per 100 person-months declined 78%. Among women aged 30-65 years, HPV test screening rates per 100 person-months decreased 82%. After the stay-at-home order was lifted, screening rates returned to near baseline, which might have been aided by aspects of KPSC's integrated, organized screening program (e.g., reminder systems and tracking persons lost to follow-up). As the pandemic continues, groups at higher risk for developing cervical cancers and precancers should be evaluated first. Ensuring that women receive preventive services, including cancer screening and appropriate follow-up in a safe and timely manner, remains important.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 26(4): 167-175, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On March 11, 2020 the WHO announced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Lockdown restrictions, compromised access to medical care and fear of potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 have forced patients with non-COVID-19 illnesses such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) to stay home. This situation can lead to delay in T1D diagnosis and insulin treatment resulting in rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and therefore increased risk of complications and death.  . AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of DKA at the onset of T1D in children diagnosed in our department during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from March 2020 till May 2020 in comparison to corresponding period of the previous year. . MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data of children with newly diagnosed T1D. DKA was defined according to ISPAD guidelines. . RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 34 children in group 2020 and 52 in group 2019 with an average age 9.90 ±4.9 vs. 9.59±4.7 years with mean HbA1c 12.9 ±2.4 vs. 11.5 ±2.2%, respectively. The incidence of DKA was higher by 12% in group 2020 vs. 2019 (52.94% vs 40.38%; p = 0.276).  Regarding the DKA severity (2020 vs. 2019) 32.35% vs. 11.54% were severe (p = 0.026), 17.65 vs. 13% were moderate (p = 0.759), and 2.94 vs. 15.38% were mild (p = 0.081). None of the analyzed patients were COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown changes in society and health care system, the DKA rate has increased by 12 percentage points with more severe cases noted in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Regular education of the whole society about the symptoms of diabetes could contribute to faster diagnosis of T1D and reduction of DKA prevalence. .


Subject(s)
/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quarantine/trends , Risk Factors
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112723

ABSTRACT

Evidence of short-term impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on family life is emerging. Continued research can shed light on potential longer-term impacts. An online survey of U.S. parents with 4- to 8-year-old children (n = 1000) was administered in October 2020. The survey examined parent-reported impacts of COVID-19 on lifestyle (e.g., work, child-care, grocery shopping), as well as current family food acquisition and eating behaviors (e.g., cooking, restaurant use). Descriptive statistics were calculated, incorporating sampling weights based on sociodemographics. In terms of COVID-19 impacts, parents reported increases in working from home, decreased work hours, and increased child care and instruction, with most children attending school or receiving care at home. Parents reported increased home cooking and online grocery shopping; only 33% reported increased take-out or delivery from restaurants. About half of parents reported that their child dined at restaurants, 62% reported getting take-out, and 57% reported delivery from restaurants at least 2-3 times per month. About half viewed dining at restaurants as safe, while take-out and delivery were seen as safe by around three-quarters. Approximately two-thirds reported recent food insecurity. These nationally-representative results illustrate possible longer-lasting shifts in family life, with the potential to impact health and well-being. Sociodemographic differences and research and policy implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Cooking , Humans , Parents , Restaurants
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112722

ABSTRACT

This study describes self-reported physical activity (PA), motivation to exercise, physical and mental health and feelings towards PA during the March-May 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. Adults over the age of 18 years (n = 238; 80.2% female) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 3, the Short Form-36 and open-ended questions about PA through an anonymous online survey. Regular exercise was undertaken by 85% of respondents prior to lockdown, but only 49.8% were able to maintain their usual level of PA. Although respondents were considered sufficiently physically active from the IPAQ, 51.5% reported not being able to maintain their usual level of PA primarily due to the closure of their gym facilities. Sixty percent of respondents reported that PA had a positive effect on their overall wellbeing. When asked to specify which aspects of wellbeing were affected, the effect on mental health was reported the most while the effect on body image or fitness was reported the least. Strategies to increase or maintain engagement in physical activity during lockdowns should be encouraged to promote positive mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Exercise , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Self Report , Young Adult
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112721

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) is delivering an exercise programme for people with dementia. The Lincolnshire partnership National Health Service (NHS) foundation Trust successfully delivered PrAISED through a video-calling platform during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This qualitative case-study aimed to identify participants that video delivery worked for, to highlight its benefits and its challenges. Interviews were conducted between May and August 2020 with five participants with dementia and their caregivers (n = 10), as well as five therapists from the Lincolnshire partnership NHS foundation Trust. The interviews were analysed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: Video delivery worked best when participants had a supporting caregiver and when therapists showed enthusiasm and had an established rapport with the client. Benefits included time efficiency of sessions, enhancing participants' motivation, caregivers' dementia awareness, and therapists' creativity. Limitations included users' poor IT skills and resources. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 pandemic required innovative ways of delivering rehabilitation. This study supports that people with dementia can use tele-rehabilitation, but success is reliant on having a caregiver and an enthusiastic and known therapist.


Subject(s)
Dementia/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation , Caregivers , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , State Medicine
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112719

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak had a negative impact on psychological status among elderly subjects, negatively affecting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Psychological factors that promote resilience might beneficially contribute also to promoting a better HRQoL among elderly subjects. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of dispositional optimism and expressive flexibility on the HRQoL of elderly outpatients during the COVID-19 outbreak. The outpatients were recruited from October 2018 to October 2019, and then followed-up during April 2020, by evaluating their HRQoL. The baseline sample consisted of 141 elderly outpatients (mean age 80.31 ± 6.84 years); the final number of outpatients included in the follow-up evaluation was 104 (mean age 80.26 ± 6.39). Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were developed to explore significant associations with the physical and mental component of HRQoL. Baseline dispositional optimism was a predictor of the mental component of HRQoL at follow-up; the flexible suppression of emotional expression was a predictor of the physical component of HRQoL at follow-up. From a psychogeriatric perspective, the accurate assessment of psychological factors, such as dispositional optimism and expressive flexibility, might help physicians and psychologists to recognize additional patients' vulnerabilities during the current emergency.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emotions , Health Status , Humans , Optimism
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112718

ABSTRACT

Several public health measures have been implemented to contain the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The adherence to control measures is known to be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to the disease. This study aimed at assessing COVID-19 knowledge in individuals who were tested for the virus. An online cross-sectional survey of 32 items, adapted to the national context, was conducted among 1656 Ecuadorians. The mean knowledge score was 22.5 ± 3 out of 28, with significant differences being observed with regard to educational attainment. People with postgraduate training scored higher than those with college, secondary and elementary instruction. Indeed, multiple linear regression revealed that lower scores were associated significantly with the latter three levels of education. Interviewees were knowledgeable about the symptoms, detection, transmission and prevention of the disease. However, they were less assertive regarding the characteristics of the virus as well as the usefulness of traditional and unproven treatments. These outcomes indicated a lack of knowledge in fundamental aspects of virus biology, which may limit the effectiveness of further prevention campaigns. Conclusively, educational and communicational programs must place emphasis on explaining the basic molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2; such information will certainly contribute to improve the public's adherence to control measures.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 emergency has imposed distanced education and has interrupted most rehabilitation services. Adolescents with disabilities have been isolated, and the burden on their families has been exacerbated. A cross-sectional survey was administered to adolescents with disability and to parents of disabled children to describe their experience during lockdown and their concerns or expectations about rehabilitation. A sample of 53 adolescents and 239 parents completed the survey. Adolescents were ages 13-18 years old (45.3% female). Most parents were between 35 and 55 years old (84.9% female). While 53.6% of the parents reported no positive effects of the lockdown, 92.5% of the adolescents expressed favorable consequences. The increased time spent with family members was judged positively by 27.2% of parents and by 64.2% of adolescents. Concern for their child's disability was expressed by 47.3% of parents, while 73.6% of adolescents expressed concerns regarding the ban on meeting friends. In both groups, anxiety symptoms were correlated with the fear of contracting COVID-19 and with financial problems. Parents would have liked even more remote support from school and healthcare professionals, which was available for most participants. Thus, socioeconomic support, assistive technology and telerehabilitation strategies might help families with disabilities during a lockdown.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Disabled Children/rehabilitation , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112716

ABSTRACT

Globally, the capacity of healthcare systems across continents has been strained and put to the test with the emergence of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The timely need to ensure the availability of healthcare facilities to isolate and manage the surge in COVID-19 cases without overwhelming existing hospital capacity has posed challenges in many countries. In this paper, we discuss the conceptualisation, preparations and operationalisation of a community healthcare facility that was set up within a short time frame to attend to the convalescent needs of a large number of COVID-19 patients in the early phase of handling the pandemic. In the first month of operations, we monitored a total of 2129 clinical encounters, with the majority of patients between 17-35 years of age and between day 2 to day 6 of illness upon admission. Overall, there was a good outcome for the patients, with only 2.3% requiring transfer back to restructured hospitals. There was also no mortality. We hope that the sharing of our experiences of the challenges and learning lessons gleaned may be useful to guide individuals in planning for the future preparedness of healthcare systems in managing pandemics.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Community Health Centers , Delivery of Health Care , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Singapore , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112715

ABSTRACT

The management of a controllable production in the manufacturing system is essential to achieve viable advantages, particularly during emergency conditions. Disasters, either man-made or natural, affect production and supply chains negatively with perilous effects. On the other hand, flexibility and resilience to manage the perpetuated risks in a manufacturing system are vital for achieving a controllable production rate. Still, these performances are strongly dependent on the multi-criteria decision making in the working environment with the policies launched during the crisis. Undoubtedly, health stability in a society generates ripple effects in the supply chain due to high demand fluctuation, likewise due to the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Incorporation of dependent demand factors to manage the risk from uncertainty during this pandemic has been a challenge to achieve a viable profit for the supply chain partners. A non-linear supply chain management model is developed with a controllable production rate to provide an economic benefit to the manufacturing firm in terms of the optimized total cost of production and to deal with the different situations under variable demand. The costs in the model are set as fuzzy to cope up with the uncertain conditions created by lasting pandemic. A numerical experiment is performed by utilizing the data set of the multi-stage manufacturing firm. The optimal results provide support for the industrial managers based on the proactive plan by the optimal utilization of the resources and controllable production rate to cope with the emergencies in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Commerce/organization & administration , Industry/organization & administration , Pandemics , Humans , Uncertainty
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112714

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological model, which describes the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 under specific consideration of the incubation period including the population with subclinical infections and being infective is presented. The COVID-19 epidemic in Greece was explored through a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis framework, and the optimal values for the parameters that determined the transmission dynamics could be obtained before, during, and after the interventions to control the epidemic. The dynamic change of the fraction of asymptomatic individuals was shown. The analysis of the modelling results at the intra-annual climatic scale allowed for in depth investigation of the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and the significance and relative importance of the model parameters. Moreover, the analysis at this scale incorporated the exploration of the forecast horizon and its variability. Three discrete peaks were found in the transmission rates throughout the investigated period (15 February-15 December 2020). Two of them corresponded to the timing of the spring and autumn epidemic waves while the third one occurred in mid-summer, implying that relaxation of social distancing and increased mobility may have a strong effect on rekindling the epidemic dynamics offsetting positive effects from factors such as decreased household crowding and increased environmental ultraviolet radiation. In addition, the epidemiological state was found to constitute a significant indicator of the forecast reliability horizon, spanning from as low as few days to more than four weeks. Embedding the model in an ensemble framework may extend the predictability horizon. Therefore, it may contribute to the accuracy of health risk assessment and inform public health decision making of more efficient control measures.


Subject(s)
/transmission , Climate , Models, Theoretical , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Seasons , Travel , Ultraviolet Rays
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112713

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Health services that were already under pressure before the COVID-19 pandemic to maximize its impact on population health, have not only the imperative to remain resilient and sustainable and be prepared for future waves of the virus, but to take advantage of the learnings from the pandemic to re-configure and support the greatest possible improvements. (2) Methods: A review of articles published by the Special Issue on Population Health and Health Services to identify main drivers for improving the contribution of health services on population health is conducted. (3) Health services have to focus not just on providing the best care to health problems but to improve its focus on health promotion and disease prevention. (4) Conclusions: Implementing innovative but complex solutions to address the problems can hardly be achieved without a multilevel and multisectoral deliberative debate. The CHRODIS PLUS policy dialog method can help standardize policy-making procedures and improve network governance, offering a proven method to strengthen the impact of health services on population health, which in the post-COVID era is more necessary than ever.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Pandemics , Population Health , Humans
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112712

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on the mental status and dietary intake of residents in Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was conducted from 11 May to 6 June 2020 corresponding to almost two weeks during and after Ramadan (23 April-23 May 2020). The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to assess anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia among the participants was 25.4%, 27.7%, and 19.6%, respectively. Participants aged ≥50 years with high income (≥8000 SAR) were at a lower risk of developing depression, whereas participants of the same age group with income 5000-7000 SAR were at high risk of developing anxiety. Students and master-educated participants suffer from median elevated depression and are required to take more multivitamins and vitamin D than others. Anxiety and depression were more common among married participants with low income. There is a wide range of Saudi residents who are at a higher risk of mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers and mental healthcare providers are advised to provide continuous monitoring of the psychological consequences during this pandemic and provide mental support.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Diet , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Eating , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No previous study has investigated the SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and the changes in the proportion of positive results due to lockdown measures from the angle of workers' vulnerability to coronavirus in Greece. Two community-based programs were implemented to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and investigate if the prevalence changes were significant across various occupations before and one month after lockdown. METHODS: Following consent, sociodemographic, clinical, and job-related information were recorded. The VivaDiag™ SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test was used. Positive results confirmed by a real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction for SARS-COV-2. RESULTS: Positive participants were more likely to work in the catering/food sector than negative participants before the lockdown. Lockdown restrictions halved the new cases. No significant differences in the likelihood of being SARS-CoV-2 positive for different job categories were detected during lockdown. The presence of respiratory symptoms was an independent predictor for rapid antigen test positivity; however, one-third of newly diagnosed patients were asymptomatic at both time points. CONCLUSIONS: The catering/food sector was the most vulnerable to COVID-19 at the pre-lockdown evaluation. We highlight the crucial role of community-based screening with rapid antigen testing to evaluate the potential modes of community transmission and the impact of infection control strategies.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Occupations , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Prevalence
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112710

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to examine whether, and to what extent, fear of contracting Covid-19 and compliance with the mandatory rules of isolation affected Polish adults' nutritional behaviors. The online study was carried out during the first wave of the pandemic on a sample of 926 adults. Through cluster analysis, three groups of respondents were isolated: 1. People who fear a Covid-19 infection and follow the isolation rules (FFR), 2. People moderately afraid of the disease and following the rules loosely (MFFR), 3. People who are not afraid of the infection and do not follow the rules of isolation. (NFFR). The clusters were profiled with consideration of different aspects of eating behaviors as well as socio-demographic and economic features. The results of the study show a close relationship between the level of fear of contracting Covid-19 and the degree to which isolation rules are followed. These two factors were found to have a significant impact on eating behaviors, such as food purchases, eating patterns, and levels of consumption. It was stated that the FFR group changed their eating behaviors the most in terms of food purchasing, eating habits (excluding diversity and quality of diet), and food product consumption. The greatest stability in the majority of the analyzed areas of nutritional behaviors was observed in the MFFR cluster. The NFFR group shown the greatest decrease both in regularity and quality of their meals. This group also exhibited a significant increase in the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The results of the study can be useful in the decision making process when introducing restrictions or managing information. They also point to the need for extensive nutritional education focused on explaining the relationship between nutrition and health during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Consumer Behavior , Fear , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland , Young Adult
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(579)2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112312

ABSTRACT

Development of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines is a global priority and the best hope for ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Remarkably, in less than 1 year, vaccines have been developed and shown to be efficacious and are already being deployed worldwide. Yet, many challenges remain. Immune senescence and comorbidities in aging populations and immune dysregulation in populations living in low-resource settings may impede vaccine effectiveness. Distribution of vaccines among these populations where vaccine access is historically low remains challenging. In this Review, we address these challenges and provide strategies for ensuring that vaccines are developed and deployed for those most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
/immunology , /virology , Disease Susceptibility , /physiology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Phylogeny
19.
Nature ; 590(7847): 553-554, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111966
20.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 113(2): 153-154, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110820

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced major changes in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The articles by El Hajra et al. and Fernández Álvarez el al. show the modifications in patient management that were performed during the state of alarm in Spain.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology
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