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1.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(1 Suppl. 2): 15-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227259

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS - CoV - 2 pathogen, is currently a pandemic. At the moment there is not an available vaccine, so, scientific community is looking for strategies and drugs to implement prevention and prophylaxis. Several compounds are examined for this purpose. Glycyrrhizin, an alkaloid extracted from licorice plant (glycyrriza glabra), is one of the most studied molecules, both for its peculiar biological functions and for its pharmacological effects. This brief review aims to highlight the characteristics of glycyrrhizin for topical use on the nasal and ocular surfaces. The anti-inflammatory activity, the ability to inhibit the accumulation of ROS, the antiviral property, but, above all, the ability to bind the ACE receptor and the SARS - CoV-2 protein S in the extracellular environment make Glycyrrhizzin for topical use a compound with a high prophylactic potential for SARS - CoV - 2 infection, also due to its low cost and the absence of significant side effects.


Subject(s)
Glycyrrhizic Acid , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics
2.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(1 Suppl. 2): 9-13, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227258

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are a significant burden at any age, but especially in childhood and aging. The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the issue since there is no specific treatment and vaccine is not available. Moreover, respiratory symptoms cause social stigma in subjects suffering from an infection of any kind. As new drugs require a very long time to be marketed, a natural compound's interest is growing. In this regard, lactoferrin is a multifunctional protein present in secretions, mainly in breast milk. Lactoferrin has marked antimicrobial activity, including antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, and antifungal. Moreover, lactoferrin strongly affects immune response and cellular control activity. Therefore, this natural component could provide a promising effect in preventing respiratory infections and potentially also for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Lactoferrin , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(1 Suppl. 2): 3-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227257

ABSTRACT

In the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, the need to use preventive-curative treatments is compelling. A series of non-pharmacological compounds, including oligo-elements, vitamins, nutraceuticals, and bacteriotherapy, might affect the risk of COVID-19, both reinforcing the immune system and improving the inflammation resolution during respiratory infections. Non-pharmacological remedies are very popular and usually have no relevant side effects. Bacterial and natural products may potentiate the immune system against respiratory viruses. Moreover, these compounds also exert antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity. Consequently, these non-chemical remedies could be prescribed to build up the immune defence and adequately treat the upper respiratory infection. In this way, natural compounds could be used to manage people in the pandemic COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Vitamins
4.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(1 Suppl. 2): 1-2, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227256

ABSTRACT

Upper airway diseases are widespread in clinical practice. However, some aspects are still debated. The current supplement presents and discusses the most common disorders encountered in daily medical activity. The COVID-19 dramatic pandemic requires an urgent solution. Promising non-pharmacological agents are discussed. Chronic diseases are frequent in childhood, so to know risk factors is useful in their management. Allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis should be treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, but complementary compounds should be alternated to preserve health. Empty nose syndrome is a frequent complication of nasal surgery and requires adequate staging and hydrating procedure. Lastly, laryngopharyngeal reflux is an intriguing challenge for the clinician. Alginates represent a safe and effective way to relieve LPR symptoms.


Subject(s)
Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Humans , Nose , Rhinitis/therapy , Sinusitis/therapy
5.
BMJ ; 373: n1103, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226752
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226744

ABSTRACT

A novel coronaravirus, identified as SARS-CoV-2, spread throughout the world in 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to many discoveries and clinical manifestations. A young patient is presented with new, self-resolving neutropenia presenting weeks after a prolonged hospital stay for COVID-19 pneumonia. Workup included analysis for underlying infection, nutritional abnormalities, malignancy, medication and toxin exposure, all of which were negative. From 2020 to the present, few reports have described neutropenia associated with a recent COVID-19 infection. In particular, no reports have described a delayed presentation of neutropenia. The authors would like to propose that the significant inflammatory response associated with COVID-19 is likely what led to this patient's postviral neutropenia. Furthermore, in young healthy patients, bone marrow biopsy may be deferred and a watchful-waiting approach may be taken to assess for neutropenia resolution.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Neutropenia , Humans , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Pandemics
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226743

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a rare but often severe complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. While several case reports about MIS-A in the setting of COVID-19 have been published since the term was first coined in June 2020, a clear description of the underlying pathophysiology and guideline-based recommendations on the diagnostic and therapeutic approach are lacking. What has been reported is that in the absence of severe respiratory illness, MIS-A can present with hypotension or shock, high-grade fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and severe weakness days to weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we present a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with a rarely described initial symptom: unilateral neck swelling. His presentation, disease progression and treatment course provide further information about MIS-A as a complication and in formulating diagnostic guidelines.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Diarrhea , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226742

ABSTRACT

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder belonging to the family of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The disease is believed to be caused by an abnormal isoform of a cellular glycoprotein known as the prion protein. Our patient is an 84-year-old Caucasian man who presented to the geriatric clinic for evaluation of short-term memory loss and decreased concentration which started 3 months prior to initial evaluation. Rapid progression of dementia demonstrated by severe impairment in tasks with a predominantly visual component, including visual scanning, perceptual reasoning and visual spatial processing. Diagnosis of CJD was determined by characteristic ribboning on brain MRI as well as notable real-time quaking-induced conversion on cerebrospinal fluid.


Subject(s)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome , Prion Diseases , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/complications , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male
12.
N Engl J Med ; 384(19): e74, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226454
13.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(5): 340-341, 2021 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226448

Subject(s)
Humans , Smell , Taste
14.
Ann Pathol ; 41(1): 9-22, 2021 Feb.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226268

ABSTRACT

The infection due to the SARS-CoV-2 leads lesions mainly observed at the respiratory tract level, but not exclusively. The analyses of these lesions benefited from different autopsy studies. Thus, these lesions were observed in different organs, tissues and cells. These observations allowed us to rapidly improve the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with this emergent infectious disease. The virus can be detected in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, molecular biology and/or electron microscopy approaches. However, many uncertainties are still present concerning the direct role of the SARS-CoV-2 on the different lesions observed in different organs, outside the lung, such as the heart, the brain, the liver, the gastrointestinal tract, the kidney and the skin. In this context, it is pivotal to keep going to increase the different tissue and cellular studies in the COVID-19 positive patients aiming to better understanding the consequences of this new infectious disease, notably considering different epidemiological and co-morbidities associated factors. This could participate to the development of new therapeutic strategies too. The purpose of this review is to describe the main histological and cellular lesions associated with the infection due to the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
/pathology , Autopsy , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
15.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 20-24, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal management of pneumomediastinum in patients with a novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 14 patients with pneumomediastinum and COVID-19 infection without mechanical ventilation. We discussed the world data on pneumomediastinum in patients with coronavirus infection. RESULTS: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the annual number of own observations of spontaneous pneumomediastinum did not exceed 1-2 patients. The mechanism of pneumomediastinum is explained by the Macklin effect. COVID-19 pandemic in the Russian Federation was followed by increase of the number of patients with pneumomediastinum up to 2.4% of the total number of patients in the thoracic department. In this sample, pneumomediastinum occurred at all variants of the course of coronavirus infection. The timing of pneumomediastinum ranged from 2 to 18 (median 14) days after clinical manifestation of COVID-19. In 2 out of 14 cases, pneumomediastinum was the main symptom of coronavirus infection at admission. One patient had a combination of pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. In 6 cases, pneumomediastinum was stable and regressed under conservative therapy. Eight patients underwent Razumovsky suprajugular mediastinotomy. There were no postoperative deaths. Recurrent pneumomediastinum was noted in one patient. CONCLUSION: The causes of pneumomediastinum in some patients with coronavirus infection, peculiarities of diagnosis and treatment and clarification of indications for invasive interventions require further study.


Subject(s)
Mediastinal Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology
16.
Cutis ; 106(6): 318-320, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225960

ABSTRACT

Varicella-zoster virus infection causes 2 distinct forms of disease: varicella (commonly known as chickenpox) and herpes zoster (HZ)(commonly known as shingles). Primary varicella-zoster virus infection results in the diffuse vesicular rash that is characteristic of chickenpox. Following primary infection, varicella-zoster virus remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglia. This latent phase usually lasts for several decades before reactivation occurs. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation normally presents as HZ in middle-aged adults. A number of cutaneous skin manifestations have appeared in relation to the newly diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and continue to emerge every day. We report a case of HZ complication in a COVID-19-positive woman who was 27 weeks pregnant.


Subject(s)
/complications , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Activation , Adult , Female , Herpes Zoster/virology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Pregnancy
17.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(5): 413-415, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225927
19.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(5): 333-335, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225925
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