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1.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 28: 1610261, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789439

ABSTRACT

We report on children with cancer in Hungary suffering from COVID-19, surveying a 13-months-long period of time. We performed a retrospective clinical trial studying the medical documentation of children treated in seven centers of the Hungarian Pediatric Oncology-Hematology Group. About 10% of children admitted to tertiary hemato-oncological centers for anti-neoplastic treatment or diagnosis for de novo malignancies were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nearly two-thirds of the infected patients were asymptomatic or had only mild symptoms but showed seropositivity by 1-4.5 months after positive PCR. One third of the SARS-CoV-2-positive children were hospitalized due to symptomatic COVID-19. Five children required antiviral treatment with remdesivir. One child was referred to the intensive care unit, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Delay in the scheduled anti-cancer treatment did not exceed 2 weeks in the majority (89%) of cases. There was only one patient requiring treatment deferral longer than a month. There was no COVID-19-related death in patients under 18 years of age, and nor was multisystem inflammatory syndrome diagnosed. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection did not represent an untoward risk factor among children with cancer in Hungary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266840, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785207

ABSTRACT

In Hungary, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for 459 laboratory confirmed human cases between 2004 and 2019, while the first human Usutu virus (USUV) infection was confirmed only in 2018. A comprehensive serosurvey was conducted among blood donors to assess the WNV and USUV seroprevalence in 2019, one year after the largest European WNV epidemic. Altogether, 3005 plasma samples were collected and screened for WNV and USUV specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All reactive samples were further tested for tick-borne encephalitis virus IgG antibodies by ELISA. Indirect immunofluorescence test and microneutralization assay were used as confirmatory methods. Overall, the WNV seroprevalence was 4.32%, and in five blood donors USUV seropositivity was confirmed. The highest seroprevalence was measured in Central, Eastern and Southern Hungary, while the Western part of the country proved to be less affected. There was a statistically strong association between the WNV seroprevalence of 2019 and the cumulative incidence in the period of 2004 and 2019 calculated for every NUTS 3 region. The last WNV serological screening was performed in 2016 and the prevalence of anti-WNV IgG proved to be 2.19%. One year after the 2018 WNV outbreak, a significant increase in seroprevalence was observed in the Hungarian population and evidence for USUV seropositivity was also obtained. The spatial pattern of seroprevalence can support the identification of high-risk areas raising awareness of the need for increased surveillance, such as screening vector, equine, and avian populations. The communication with general practitioners and other professionals in primary health care services can support the early identification of acute human cases. Education and awareness-raising on the importance of protection against mosquito vectors amongst residents are also important parts of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne , Flavivirus , West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Horses , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714780

ABSTRACT

The segregated colonies (SCs) in Hungary are populated mainly but not exclusively by Roma. Their health care use is restricted in many respects. It has not been studied yet, whether fair COVID-19 vaccination coverage achieved in Hungary is accompanied with fair effectiveness in SCs. Using census data, the vaccination coverage in SCs and the complementary areas (CAs) in the same settlements of the country was determined. To describe the settlement level differences, the vaccination coverage (until June 30, 2021) in SCs were compared to those in CAs by age, sex, and eligibility for exemption certificate standardized measures. Aggregating settlement level data, the level of geographic discrimination in Hungary was also determined. According to nationwide aggregates, crude vaccination coverage was significantly lower in SCs (40.05%, 95% CI 39.87%-40.23%) than in CAs (65.42%, 95% CI 65.37%-65.46%). The relative standardized vaccination coverage was 0.643 (95% CI 0.639-0.647) in SCs. A total of 437 of the 938 investigated settlements showed significant local vaccination disparities. Hungarian citizens living in SCs, mainly of Roma ethnicity, are a distinct high-risk group. Special intervention adapted to SCs is needed to mitigate inequality in vaccination coverage and further consequences of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social representation of restricted health care use during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been evaluated properly yet in Hungary. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to quantify the effect of COVID-19 pandemic measures on general practitioner (GP) visits, specialist care, hospitalization, and cost-related prescription nonredemption (CRPNR) among adults, and to identify the social strata susceptible to the pandemic effect. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on nationally representative data of 6611 (Nprepandemic = 5603 and Npandemic = 1008) adults. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors influencing health care use by odds ratios (ORs) along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). To identify the social strata susceptible to the pandemic effect, the interaction of the time of data collection with the level of education, marital status, and Roma ethnicity, was tested and described by iORs. RESULTS: While the CRPNR did not change, the frequency of GP visits, specialist care, and hospitalization rates was remarkably reduced by 22.2%, 26.4%, and 6.7%, respectively, during the pandemic. Roma proved to be not specifically affected by the pandemic in any studied aspect, and the pandemic restructuring of health care impacted the social subgroups evenly with respect to hospital care. However, the pandemic effect was weaker among primary educated adults (iORGP visits, high-school vs. primary-education = 0.434; 95% CI 0.243-0.776, ORspecialist visit, high-school vs. primary-education = 0.598; 95% CI 0.364-0.985), and stronger among married adults (iORGP visit, widowed vs. married = 2.284; 95% CI 1.043-4.998, iORspecialist visit, widowed vs. married = 1.915; 95% CI 1.157-3.168), on the frequency of GP visits and specialist visits. The prepandemic CRPNR inequality by the level of education was increased (iORhigh-school vs. primary-education = 0.236; 95% CI 0.075-0.743). CONCLUSION: Primary educated and widowed adults did not follow the general trend, and their prepandemic health care use was not reduced during the pandemic. This shows that although the management of pandemic health care use restrictions was implemented by not increasing social inequity, the drug availability for primary educated individuals could require more support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 240-256, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial and complement activation were both associated with immunothrombosis, a key determinant of COVID-19 severity, but their interrelation has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:Ag) concentration, VWF collagen binding activity (VWF:CBA), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity (ADAMTS13:Ac), and their ratios in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and to investigate how these parameters and their constellation with complement activation relate to disease severity and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: Samples of 102 hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positivity were included in our observational cohort study. Patients were stratified according to the peak severity of COVID-19 disease in agreement with the World Health Organization ordinal scale. Twenty-six convalescent plasma donors with previous COVID-19 disease formed the control group. VWF:Ag concentration and VWF:CBA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); ADAMTS13:Ac was determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Complement C3 and C3a were measured by turbidimetry and ELISA, respectively. Clinical covariates and markers of inflammation were extracted from hospital records. RESULTS: VWF:Ag and VWF:CBA were elevated in all groups of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and increased in parallel with disease severity. ADAMTS13:Ac was decreased in patients with severe COVID-19, with the lowest values in nonsurvivors. High (> 300%) VWF:Ag concentrations or decreased (< 67%) ADAMTS13:Ac were associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease or in-hospital mortality. The concomitant presence of decreased ADAMTS13:Ac and increased C3a/C3 ratio-indicating complement overactivation and consumption-was a strong independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an interaction between the VWF-ADAMTS13 axis and complement overactivation and consumption plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Complement C3/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Complement Activation , Convalescence , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 35(2): 209-216, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare the prevalence of acute infection and seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers (HCWs) and medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A high-volume, single-center analysis was conducted in the period of July 1‒August 1, 2020, at the Semmelweis University. Naso- and oropharyngeal samples were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and blood samples for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. A questionnaire was also administered about the infection symptoms and the obtained results were assessed by profession and site of care delivery. RESULTS: From the total cohort (N = 7948), 4478 (56%) and 3470 (44%) were health professionals and medical students, respectively. They were mainly female (67%), and the mean age of HCWs and students was 40 and 25 years, respectively. By profession, physicians (1.5%) and other HCWs (1.8%) showed a comparable SARS-CoV-2 exposure. International students had the highest (2.1%), whereas Hungarian students had the lowest (0.6%) prevalence of seropositivity. The highest prevalence was detected among the staff of COVID-19 wards (12.1%). By PCR, medical students showed the lowest occurrence of active infection with a prevalence of 0.17%, while physicians and other HCWs had a higher prevalence (1.46% and 1.71%, respectively). By site of care delivery, positive test results were the most frequent at COVID-19 wards (3.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians and other HCWs showed comparable SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity prevalence, approximately twice as high as in the general population of Budapest. Hungarian students had lower prevalence of seropositivity than this reference. High prevalence among international students suggests that they had imported the infection. The very high prevalence of documented exposure among staff members at COVID-19 wards urges for improving the safety measures. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2022;35(2):209-16.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has had a global major healthcare, social and economic impact. In present study we aim to adapt the Fear of COVID-19 Scale to Hungarian. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forward-backward translation method was used to translate the English version of the scale to Hungarian. Participants were a convenience sample of 2175 university students and employees. The study was conducted between January 18th and February 12th 2021. The test battery included Hungarian versions of Fear of COVID-19 scale, short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-H) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: The scale showed one-factor structure, the loadings on the factor were significant and strong (from .47 to .84). Internal consistency was very good (α = .84). Construct validity for the Fear of COVID-19 Scale was supported by significant and positive correlations with STAI (r = 0.402; p < 0.001) and BDI-H (r = 0.270; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Hungarian version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale is a reliable and valid tool in assessing fear of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Psychometrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Faculty/psychology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High school education took place in the form of distance learning during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic worldwide, including Hungary. Decreased physical activity and an increase in inactive behaviours may lead to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. AIM: Our study targeted changes in physical activity (aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening) and screen time in adolescents and young adults during the pandemic. METHODS: High school students were interviewed in 66 public schools in 37 Hungarian cities (N = 2508). Survey items on physical activity and screen time were derived from the WHO Health Behaviour of School-aged Children Survey and the Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey. A 2 × 2 factorial ANCOVA was used to test the effects of gender (male vs. female) and/or age (adolescents vs. young adults) on the reported changes in physical activity and screen time before and during lockdown (covariate: BMI Z-score). RESULTS: The majority of the cohort indicated less physical activity. Aerobic and muscle-strengthening type of exercises significantly decreased, and screen time increased during distance education. Male individuals showed a higher decrease in the level of aerobic exercise, and young adults reported a higher increase in the time spent in front of the screen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Screen Time , Students , Young Adult
9.
Seizure ; 94: 136-141, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies examining epilepsy as a COVID-related death risk have come to conflicting conclusions. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of epilepsy among COVID-related deaths in Hungary. METHODS: Each COVID-19 infection case is required to be reported on a daily basis to the National Public Health Center of Hungary. This online report includes the beginning and end of the infection, as well as information on comorbidities. Death during infection is regarded as COVID-related. The anonymized data of each deceased patient are published on an information website (www.koronavirus.gov.hu) and provides up-to-date information on each patient with the date of death, the patient's sex, age, and chronic illness. RESULTS: There were 11,968 patients who died of COVID-19 in Hungary between 13 March 2020 and 23 January 2021. Among 11,686 patients with no missing values for comorbidities, 255 patients had epilepsy (2.2%). Epilepsy was much more common among those who died at a young age: 9.3% of those who died under the age of 50 had epilepsy, compared with only 1.3% in those over the age of 80. The younger an age group was, the higher was the prevalence of epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Patients who died of COVID-19 under the age of 50 were 10 to 20 times more likely to have epilepsy than what would have been expected from epidemiological data. Our results highlight the need for increased protection of young people with epilepsy from COVID-19 infection and the development of a vaccination strategy accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Adolescent , Child , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6660-6670, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544317

ABSTRACT

With the wide spread of Coronavirus, most people who infected with the COVID-19, will recover without requiring special treatment. Whereas, elders and those with underlying medical problems are more likely to have serious illnesses, even be threatened with death. Many more disciplines try to find solutions and drive master plan to this global trouble. Consequently, by taking one particular population, Hungary, this study aims to explore a pattern of COVID-19 victims, who suffered from some underlying conditions. Age, gender, and underlying medical problems form the structure of the clustering. K-Means and two step clustering methods were applied for age-based and age-independent analysis. Grouping of the deaths in the form of two different scenarios may highlight some concepts of this deadly disease for public health professionals. Our result for clustering can forecast similar cases which are assigned to any cluster that it will be a serious cautious for the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/complications , Sex Factors , Young Adult
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(3): 398-404, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Hungarian vaccination campaign was conducted with five different vaccines during the third wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2021. This observational study (HUN-VE: Hungarian Vaccine Effectiveness) estimated vaccine effectiveness against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19-related mortality in 3.7 million vaccinated individuals. METHODS: Incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related mortality were calculated using data from the National Public Health Centre surveillance database. Estimated vaccine effectiveness was calculated as 1 - incidence rate ratio ≥7 days after the second dose for each available vaccine versus an unvaccinated control group using mixed-effect negative binomial regression controlling for age, sex and calendar day. RESULTS: Between 22 January 2021 and 10 June 2021, 3 740 066 Hungarian individuals received two doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), HB02 (Sinopharm), Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik-V), AZD1222 (AstraZeneca), or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines. Incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related death were 1.73-9.3/100 000 person-days and 0.04-0.65/100 000 person-days in the fully vaccinated population, respectively. Estimated adjusted effectiveness varied between 68.7% (95% CI 67.2%-70.1%) and 88.7% (95% CI 86.6%-90.4%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection, and between 87.8% (95% CI 86.1%-89.4%) and 97.5% (95% CI 95.6%-98.6%) against COVID-19-related death, with 100% effectiveness in individuals aged 16-44 years for all vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Our observational study demonstrated the high or very high effectiveness of five different vaccines in the prevention SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Orv Hetil ; 162(44): 1751-1760, 2021 10 31.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496601

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A COVID-19-pandémia kapcsán számos tanulmány vizsgálta a tünetek gyakoriságát és a járványterjedés jellemzoit gyermekkorban, kevés azonban az alapellátás adatait összefoglaló publikáció. Közleményünkben 12 házi gyermekorvosi praxis 545 SARS-CoV-2-fertozött betegének adatait elemeztük a 2. (n = 293) és a 3. (n = 252) járványhullámban. Célkituzés: A gyermekkori fertozések tünettanának és epidemiológiai jellemzoinek összehasonlítása korcsoportok és járványhullámok között. Módszer: Valamennyi alapellátó praxis egységes retrospektív adatgyujtést végzett ugyanazon paraméterek regisztrálásával. Eredmények: A 10 év alatti betegekben a láz, a nátha és a köhögés dominált (30-50%), míg a 10 év felettiekben magas arányban regisztráltunk általános tüneteket is (30-40% fejfájás, gyengeség, szaglászavar). A 2. hullámban a 11-18 évesek (68%), a 3. hullámban a 0-10 évesek (53%) voltak többségben. A 3. hullámban szignifikánsan emelkedett a légúti tünetek elofordulása, az általános tünetek gyakorisága jelentosen csökkent, és szignifikánsan nott a családon belüli expozíció aránya (36% vs. 58%) a 2. hullámmal összehasonlítva. A gyermekrol családtagra történo továbbterjedés 24% és 16% volt a két járványhullámban, és mértékét az életkor befolyásolta. Megbeszélés: A klinikai kép az életkorral és a feltételezett vírusvariánssal mutatott összefüggést: 10 év alatt a légúti tünetek domináltak, 10 év felett szignifikánsan több általános tünetet regisztráltunk a 0-10 évesekhez képest. A 3. járványhullámban az alfa-variáns terjedésével gyakoribbá váltak a légúti tünetek, az iskolabezárások következtében megváltozott az életkori megoszlás, és megemelkedett a családi expozíció okozta fertozések aránya. A fertozés továbbadása háztartáson belül mindkét hullámban alacsony maradt. Következtetés: A COVID-19 klinikai megjelenését és terjedési jellemzoit jelentosen befolyásolta az érintett gyermekpopuláció életkori összetétele, a cirkuláló vírusvariáns és az aktuális korlátozó intézkedések. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(44): 1751-1760. INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a large number of publications examined the frequency of symptoms and the mode of transmission in childhood but only a few community-based studies have been published. In our paper, 545 pediatric COVID-19 patients' data were collected by 12 primary care pediatricians in the second (n = 293) and third (n = 252) waves of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of symptoms and household transmission in different age groups and between the two waves. METHOD: Patients' data and disease characteristics were recorded retrospectively in the same manner by all participating pediatricians. RESULTS: In patients of <10 years of age, fever, rhinorrhea and cough were registered the most frequently (30-50%), in contrast to patients of >10 years, where high frequency of general symptoms was found (30-40% headache, weakness, anosmia). In the third wave, the ratio of the age group 11-18 years declined from 68% to 47%, the frequency of respiratory symptoms increased significantly, while the ratio of general symptoms decreased. Household exposition was more frequent in the third wave (36% vs. 58%), while the transmission rate from children to family members was 24% and 16%, respectively, and it varied with age. DISCUSSION: Clinical manifestation showed relation to age and virus variant: the older age associated with higher frequency of general symptoms and the spread of the alpha variant led to the predominance of respiratory symptoms over general complaints. Prolonged school closures affected the age distribution and increased the frequency of household exposition. Secondary household transmission remained low. CONCLUSION: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 disease were highly influenced by age, dominant virus variant and mitigation measures. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(44): 1751-1760.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(41)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475574

ABSTRACT

It is a fundamental question in disease modeling how the initial seeding of an epidemic, spreading over a network, determines its final outcome. One important goal has been to find the seed configuration, which infects the most individuals. Although the identified optimal configurations give insight into how the initial state affects the outcome of an epidemic, they are unlikely to occur in real life. In this paper we identify two important seeding scenarios, both motivated by historical data, that reveal a complex phenomenon. In one scenario, the seeds are concentrated on the central nodes of a network, while in the second one, they are spread uniformly in the population. Comparing the final size of the epidemic started from these two initial conditions through data-driven and synthetic simulations on real and modeled geometric metapopulation networks, we find evidence for a switchover phenomenon: When the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is close to its critical value, more individuals become infected in the first seeding scenario, but for larger values of [Formula: see text], the second scenario is more dangerous. We find that the switchover phenomenon is amplified by the geometric nature of the underlying network and confirm our results via mathematically rigorous proofs, by mapping the network epidemic processes to bond percolation. Our results expand on the previous finding that, in the case of a single seed, the first scenario is always more dangerous and further our understanding of why the sizes of consecutive waves of a pandemic can differ even if their epidemic characters are similar.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Orv Hetil ; 162(41): 1631-1636, 2021 10 10.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463346

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Az öngyilkosság fo rizikófaktorának a pszichiátriai zavarokat tekintjük. A COVID-19 többek között neuropszichiátriai kórképek kialakulásához is vezethet. Ezen túl a pandémia egyéb velejárói, mint például az izoláció vagy a munkahelyvesztés, a társadalom egészséges tagjaiban is stresszhez, végül pszichiátriai zavarokhoz vezethetnek. Célkituzés: Vizsgálatunk célja annak a teóriának a tesztelése volt, hogy a fenti tényezok miatt együtt járt-e a járvány a hazai suicid halálozás csökkeno trendjének irányváltásával. Módszer: Vizsgálatunkban a megszakított idosorok elemzésének módszerét használtuk, a becslésekhez kvázi-Poisson-regressziót alkalmazva, hogy összehasonlítsuk a 2010 és 2020 közötti idoszak havi bontású adataiból kirajzolódó trendek alapján a járvány idoszakában (2020. március-december) "elvárt" öngyilkossági esetszámokat a ténylegesen bekövetkezett esetek számával. Eredmények: A COVID-19-hónapok alatt a férfiak által elkövetett öngyilkosságok száma szignifikánsan, 18%-kal nott, ahhoz a trendhez képest, amely a COVID-19 hiányában állt volna elo. A teljes populációban szintén szignifikáns, 16%-os emelkedést lehetett megfigyelni, míg a nok által elkövetett öngyilkosságok száma nem tért el szignifikánsan a pre-COVID-19-idoszak trendje alapján elvárt értéktol. Megbeszélés és következtetés: A járvány kitörése utáni idoszakban a magyar férfiak szignifikánsan gyakrabban követtek el öngyilkosságot, míg a noknél az adatok nem tükröztek lényegi változást. A más országokban kivitelezett vizsgálatok eredményei érdekes módon inkább csökkenést vagy nem szignifikáns változást jeleztek, amikor a COVID-19-éra suicid számait az azt megelozo idoszakok számaival hasonlították össze. A hazai és a nemzetközi eredmények közti eltérések magyarázata egyelore még nem ismert, így a téma mindenképpen további vizsgálatokat igényel. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(41): 1631-1636. INTRODUCTION: Psychiatric disorders are the main risk factors for suicide. COVID-19 may result in the appearance of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Moreover, other corollaries of the pandemic (e.g., isolation, job loss) may lead to increasing stress and, ultimately, psychiatric disorders even among the non-infected population. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the theory of whether the pandemic, due to the aforementioned factors, was associated with the reversal of the declining suicide rate trend in Hungary. METHOD: To compare the observed number of suicides during the COVID-19 months (March-December 2020) with the expected numbers, we used an interrupted time series model and, for the estimations, quasi-Poisson regression. Expected numbers were calculated based on trends derived from monthly data between 2010 and 2020. RESULTS: During the months of the pandemic, the number of suicides among males rose significantly by 18% compared to the hypothetical trend that would have occurred in the absence of COVID-19. A significant increase (16%) was also observed in the total population. By contrast, the number of female suicides did not differ significantly from the number expected based on the pre-COVID-19 trend. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: After the outbreak of the epidemic, Hungarian males committed significantly more suicides, while no relevant changes were observed among females. Interestingly, studies from other countries found either no change or decrease when comparing suicide numbers from the COVID-19 period with the corresponding numbers from the pre-COVID-19 period. The explanation for this discrepancy is still lacking, so further investigations are needed. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(41): 1631-1636.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide/prevention & control
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe COVID-19 morbidity, mortality, case fatality and excess death in a country-wide study of municipalities in Hungary, exploring the association with socioeconomic status. METHODS: The spatial distribution of morbidity, mortality and case fatality was mapped using hierarchical Bayesian smoothed indirectly standardised ratios. Indirectly standardised ratios were used to evaluate the association between deprivation and the outcome measures. We looked separately at morbidity and mortality in the 10 districts with the highest and 10 districts with the lowest share of Roma population. RESULTS: Compared with the national average, the relative incidence of cases was 30%-36% lower in the most deprived quintile but the relative mortality and case fatality were 27%-32% higher. Expressed as incidence ratios relative to the national average, the most deprived municipalities had a relative incidence ratio of 0.64 (CI: 0.62 to 0.65) and 0.70 (CI: 0.69 to 0.72) for males and females, respectively. The corresponding figures for mortality were 1.32 (CI: 1.20 to 1.44) for males and 1.27 (CI: 1.16 to 1.39) for females and for case fatality 1.27 (CI: 1.16 to 1.39) and 1.32 (CI: 1.20 to 1.44) for males and females, respectively. The excess death rate (per 100 000) increased with deprivation levels (least deprived: 114.12 (CI: 108.60 to 119.84) and most deprived: 158.07 (CI: 149.30 to 167.23)). The 10 districts where Roma formed the greatest share of the population had an excess mortality rate 17.46% higher than the average for the most deprived quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Those living in more deprived municipalities had a lower risk of being identified as a confirmed COVID-19 case but had a higher risk of death. An inverse association between trends in morbidity and mortality by socioeconomic conditions should be a cause for concern and points to the need for responses, including those involving vaccination, to pay particular attention to inequalities and their causes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2231-2248, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361319

ABSTRACT

Data about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic's collateral damage on ischemic stroke (IS) care during the second epidemic wave in Central Europe are limited. We sought to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Hungarian IS care during the two epidemic waves. This retrospective observational study was based on a nationwide reimbursement database that encompasses all IS admissions and all reperfusion interventions, i.e., intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular therapy (EVT) from 2 January 2017 to 31 December 2020 in Hungary. COVID-19 pandemic's effect on the number of IS admissions and reperfusion interventions were analyzed using different statistics: means, medians, trends, relative rates, and linear relationships. The mean and median values of IS admissions and reperfusion interventions decreased only in some measure during the COVID-periods. However, trend analysis demonstrated a significant decline from the trends. The decline's dynamic and amplitude have differed for each variable. In contrast to IVT, the number of IS admissions and EVTs negatively correlated with the epidemic waves' amplitude. Besides, the decrease in the number of IS admissions was more pronounced than the decrease in the number of reperfusion interventions. Our study demonstrated a significant disruption in IS care during the COVID-19 epidemic in Hungary, in which multiple different factors might play a role. The disproportionate reduction of IS admission numbers could partially be explained by the effect of health emergency operative measures and changes in patients' social behavior. Further studies are needed to evaluate the causes of our observations.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
17.
J Mycol Med ; 31(4): 101198, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356371

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data suggests that invasive fungal infections (IFI) might complicate COVID-19. Our goal was to describe characteristics of IFI among critically ill COVID-19 adults. METHODS: A retrospective observational case-series analysis was done between March-July 2020. Consecutive patients with critical COVID-19 were eligible, and have been included when proven or putative/probable IFI could be confirmed during their course. For COVID-19 diagnosis, ECDC definitions and WHO severity criteria were followed. Candidaemia was diagnosed according to the ESCMID 2012 guideline. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) was defined following EORTC/MSG, ECMM/ISHAM and modified AspICU criteria. Outcome variables were rates of IFIs, in-hospital all-cause mortality, rate and time to negative respiratory SARS-CoV-2 PCR. RESULTS: From 90 eligible patients, 20 (22.2%) fulfilled criteria for IFI. Incidence rate for IFI was 2.02 per 100 patient-days at ICU. Patients were mostly elderly males with significant comorbidities, requiring mechanical ventilation because of ARDS. IFI could be classified as candidaemia in 7/20 (40%), putative/probable IPA in 16/20 (80.0%). Isolated species of candidaemia episodes were Candida albicans (4/9, 44.4%), Candida glabrata (3/9, 33.3%), Candida parapsilosis (1/9, 11.1%), Candida metapsilosis (1/9, 11.1%). Mold isolates from lower respiratory tract were Aspergillus fumigatus, BAL galactomannan positivity was prevalent (16/20, 80.0%). Mortality was 12/20 (60.0%) with a median time to death of 31.0±37.0 (5-89) days. Only 9/20 (45.0%) patients reached SARS-CoV-2 PCR negativity after a median time of 20.0±12.0 (3-38) days. CONCLUSION: In this small cohort of critically ill COVID-19 adults, morbidity and mortality related to invasive fungal infections proved to be significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Candidemia , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6660-6670, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330342

ABSTRACT

With the wide spread of Coronavirus, most people who infected with the COVID-19, will recover without requiring special treatment. Whereas, elders and those with underlying medical problems are more likely to have serious illnesses, even be threatened with death. Many more disciplines try to find solutions and drive master plan to this global trouble. Consequently, by taking one particular population, Hungary, this study aims to explore a pattern of COVID-19 victims, who suffered from some underlying conditions. Age, gender, and underlying medical problems form the structure of the clustering. K-Means and two step clustering methods were applied for age-based and age-independent analysis. Grouping of the deaths in the form of two different scenarios may highlight some concepts of this deadly disease for public health professionals. Our result for clustering can forecast similar cases which are assigned to any cluster that it will be a serious cautious for the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/complications , Sex Factors , Young Adult
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1462, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Preventive behaviours are an essential way to slow down and eliminate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to estimate adherence to preventive behaviors and to identify whether any subgroups were not adopting these behaviours and for whom greater engagement in these approaches was indicated. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from a random sample of a panel representing men and women of adult age residing in Hungary (N = 5254). The survey included questions about the frequencies of preventive behaviours, perceived susceptibility and severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: We found four factors of preventive behaviours: using physical barriers (mask and gloves), avoidance of close contacts, personal hygiene, and preparation. We identified two broadly adherent groups (36.8 and 45.3%) and two non-adherent groups (13.1 and 4.8%). Being male and being aged between 18 and 29 years were the strongest predictors of non-adherence. Concern about the severity of COVID-19 was a predictor of adherence. CONCLUSIONS: To ensure maximal adherence to preventive behaviours for COVID-19, additional strategies should focus on their adoption by men and young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 1609774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219000

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined cumulative excess mortality in European countries in the year of the Covid-19 pandemic and characterized the dynamics of the pandemic in different countries, focusing on Hungary and the Central and Eastern European region. Methods: Age-standardized cumulative excess mortality was calculated based on weekly mortality data from the EUROSTAT database, and was compared between 2020 and the 2016-2019 reference period in European countries. Results: Cumulate weekly excess mortality in Hungary was in the negative range until week 44. By week 52, it reached 9,998 excess deaths, corresponding to 7.73% cumulative excess mortality vs. 2016-2019 (p-value = 0.030 vs. 2016-2019). In Q1, only Spain and Italy reported excess mortality compared to the reference period. Significant increases in excess mortality were detected between weeks 13 and 26 in Spain, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherland and Sweden. Romania and Portugal showed the largest increases in age-standardized cumulative excess mortality in the Q3. The majority of Central and Eastern European countries experienced an outstandingly high impact of the pandemic in Q4 in terms of excess deaths. Hungary ranked 11th in cumulative excess mortality based on the latest available data of from the EUROSTAT database. Conclusion: Hungary experienced a mortality deficit in the first half of 2020 compared to previous years, which was followed by an increase in mortality during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, reaching 7.7% cumulative excess mortality by the end of 2020. The excess was lower than in neighboring countries with similar dynamics of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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