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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 719485, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775832

ABSTRACT

The association between hunger and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is less known especially in vulnerable populations receiving HIV care and treatment services. Caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are vulnerable and likely to experience hunger due to additional economic pressure in caring for OVC. Using data from the community-based, USAID-funded Kizazi Kipya project, this study assesses the association between hunger and ART adherence among caregivers of OVC in Tanzania. HIV positive caregivers enrolled in the project from January to July 2017 were analyzed. The outcome variable was adherence to ART, defined as "not having missed any ART dose in the last 30 days," and household hunger, measured using the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), was the main independent variable. Data analysis included multivariable logistic regression. The study analyzed 11,713 HIV positive caregivers who were on ART at the time of enrollment in the USAID Kizazi Kipya project in 2017. Aged 48.2 years on average, 72.9% of the caregivers were female. While 34.6% were in households with little to no hunger, 59.4 and 6.0% were in moderate hunger and severe hunger households, respectively. Overall, 90.0% of the caregivers did not miss any ART dose in the last 30 days. ART adherence rates declined as household hunger increased (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of adhering to ART was significantly lower by 42% among caregivers in moderate hunger households than those in little to no hunger households (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.50-0.68). The decline increased to 47% among those in severe hunger households (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.69). Hunger is an independent and a significant barrier to ART adherence among caregivers LHIV in Tanzania. Improving access to adequate food as part of HIV care and treatment services is likely to improve ART adherence in this population.


Subject(s)
Child, Orphaned , HIV Infections , Caregivers , Child , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hunger , Middle Aged , Tanzania/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264315, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714777

ABSTRACT

About 2 billion people worldwide suffer moderate or severe forms of food insecurity, calling for correctional measures involving economic strengthening interventions. This study assessed the impact of household economic strengthening (HES) intervention on food security among caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Tanzania. The study was longitudinal in design, based on OVC caregivers' baseline (2017-2018) and midline (2019) data from the USAID Kizazi Kipya project. Food security, the outcome, was measured using the Household Hunger Scale (HHS) in three categories: little to no hunger (food secure), moderate hunger, and severe hunger. Membership in the USAID Kizazi Kipya-supported economic strengthening intervention (i.e. WORTH Yetu) was the main independent variable. Data analysis involved generalized estimating equation (GEE) for multivariate analysis. With mean age of 50.3 years at baseline, the study analyzed 132,583 caregivers, 72.2% of whom were female. At midline, 7.6% of all caregivers enrolled at baseline were members in WORTH Yetu. Membership in WORTH Yetu was significantly effective in reducing household hunger among the caregivers: severe hunger dropped from 9.4% at baseline to 4.1% at midline; moderate hunger dropped from 65.9% at baseline to 62.8% at midline; and food security (i.e., little to no hunger households) increased from 25.2% at baseline to 33.1% at midline. In the multivariate analysis, membership in WORTH Yetu reduced the likelihood of severe hunger by 47% (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.48-0.59), and moderate hunger by 21% (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.83), but increased the likelihood of food security by 45% (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.39-1.51). The USAID Kizazi Kipya's model of household economic strengthening for OVC caregivers was effective in improving food security and reducing household hunger in Tanzania. This underscores the need to expand WORTH Yetu coverage. Meanwhile, these results indicate a potential of applying the intervention in similar settings to address household hunger.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Child, Orphaned , Food Security , Hunger , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tanzania
3.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716364

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702775

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the types of shocks that disrupt and negatively impact urban household food security is of critical importance to develop relevant and targeted food security emergency preparedness policies and responses, a fact magnified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. This gap is addressed by the current study which draws from the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) city-wide household food insecurity survey of Nairobi city in Kenya. It uses both descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling using General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to examine the relationship between household food security and 16 different shocks experienced in the six months prior to the administration of the survey. The findings showed that only 29% of surveyed households were completely food secure. Of those experiencing some level of food insecurity, more experienced economic (55%) than sociopolitical (16%) and biophysical (10%) shocks. Economic shocks such as food price increases, loss of employment, and reduced income were all associated with increased food insecurity. Coupled with the lack of functioning social safety nets in Nairobi, households experiencing shocks and emergencies experience serious food insecurity and related health effects. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a major negative economic impact on many vulnerable urban households. As such, there is need for new policies on urban food emergencies with a clear emergency preparedness plan for responding to major economic and other shocks that target the most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Hunger , Income , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580785

ABSTRACT

The impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had, and will continue to have, on food security and child health is especially concerning. A rapid, Short Message Service (SMS) Maternal and Child Health survey was conducted in South Africa in June 2020 (n = 3140), with a follow-up in July 2020 (n = 2287). This was a national cross-sectional survey conducted among pregnant women and mothers registered with the MomConnect mhealth platform. Logistic regression was conducted to explore the associations between breastfeeding, maternal depressive symptoms, and hunger in the household. High breastfeeding initiation rates and the early introduction of other foods or mixed milk feeding were found. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this survey sample was 26.95%, but there was no association between breastfeeding behaviour and depressive symptom scores (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.27). A positive correlation was found between not breastfeeding and not going to the health clinic. The odds of hungry mothers breastfeeding were significantly lower (OR = 0.66; p = 0.045). This result also holds in a multivariate framework, including covariates such as depressive symptoms, attendance of a PHC facility, and whether the infant was older than 3 months. Support for breastfeeding must include support, such as economic support, for breastfeeding mothers, to enable them to access nutritious diets. Mothers also need reassurance on the quality of their breastmilk and their ability to breastfeed and should be encouraged to continue to attend the health clinic regularly.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hunger , Infant , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
7.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511823

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the types of shocks that disrupt and negatively impact urban household food security is of critical importance to develop relevant and targeted food security emergency preparedness policies and responses, a fact magnified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. This gap is addressed by the current study which draws from the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) city-wide household food insecurity survey of Nairobi city in Kenya. It uses both descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling using General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to examine the relationship between household food security and 16 different shocks experienced in the six months prior to the administration of the survey. The findings showed that only 29% of surveyed households were completely food secure. Of those experiencing some level of food insecurity, more experienced economic (55%) than sociopolitical (16%) and biophysical (10%) shocks. Economic shocks such as food price increases, loss of employment, and reduced income were all associated with increased food insecurity. Coupled with the lack of functioning social safety nets in Nairobi, households experiencing shocks and emergencies experience serious food insecurity and related health effects. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a major negative economic impact on many vulnerable urban households. As such, there is need for new policies on urban food emergencies with a clear emergency preparedness plan for responding to major economic and other shocks that target the most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Hunger , Income , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Young Adult
9.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6691, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478861

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious health and socioeconomic impacts on people all over the world. It was expected that Africa would be the hardest hit; consequently, Nigeria and other African nations worked with non-government organisations to institute a framework for controlling the spread of the disease and the resultant economic woes. The measures, however, largely focused on urban centres, whereas the spread of the virus and the disease transcended imported urban cases to spread through the rural community. This study explored the experiences of traditional rulers, who are closest to rural people, in the fight against COVID-19. METHODS: A qualitative research design was adopted and data were collected from eight Nigerian traditional rulers through interviews. The collected data were coded inductively using NVivo v12 and were then analysed thematically. RESULTS: Findings showed that the traditional rulers adopted measures such as the use of town criers to raise awareness among rural people about COVID-19. Findings also revealed that the protection measures led to increased economic hardship for rural people in Nigeria. Doubt about the existence of the virus and widespread poverty were found to be the major hindrances in the fight against the pandemic. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that traditional rulers collaborate with the government to make free protective equipment available for poor rural people, and collaborate with youths and religious leaders to properly fight the 'infodemic' through continuous community education and awareness-raising.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Rural Population , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hunger , Nigeria/epidemiology , Poverty , Qualitative Research
10.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(4): 100589, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458725

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is defined by limited access to adequate food. As a result, it is associated with chronic disease for millions of Americans. Healthcare systems take responsibility for improving patient health and thus are well positioned to create food security interventions that improve health. Given that dietary recommendations now emphasize plant-based foods (such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains), interventions could prioritize distributing plant-based foods that promote health and reduce food insecurity. We developed a plant-based food pantry at the Massachusetts General Hospital Revere Healthcare Center, an academic medical center-affiliated community clinic that serves many patients with food insecurity. We partnered with a local food bank and used a color-coded nutrition ranking system to prioritize healthy foods. What began as a pilot program for patients with food insecurity and chronic disease expanded to serve the entire clinic population in response to rising community level food insecurity resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. We developed and modified a workflow that provided an average of 384 recipients (i.e., patients and their household members) with food monthly during the 10-month study period. A total of 117,742 pounds of food was distributed. Next steps for the food pantry will include investigating health outcomes, assessing patient satisfaction with plant-based foods, and securing sustainable funding. Our experience can be used to guide other health organizations interested in the intersection of food security and chronic disease management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Academic Medical Centers , Food Supply , Health Promotion , Hospitals, General , Humans , Hunger , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; 37(1): 30-63, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324496

ABSTRACT

Moving forward from 2020, Africa faces an eminent challenge of food safety and security in the coming years. The World Food Programme (WFP) of the United Nations (UN) estimates that 20% of Africa's population of 1.2 billion people face the highest level of undernourishment in the world, likely to worsen due to COVID-19 pandemic that has brought the entire world to its knees. Factors such as insecurity and conflict, poverty, climate change and population growth have been identified as critical contributors to the food security challenges on the continent. Biotechnological research on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) provides a range of opportunities (such as increased crop yields, resistance to pests and diseases, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality) in addressing the hunger, malnutrition and food security issues on the continent. However, the acceptance and adoption of GMOs on the continent has been remarkably slow, perhaps due to contrasting views about the benefits and safety concerns associated with them. With the reality of food insecurity and the booming population in Africa, there is an eminent need for a more pragmatic position to this debate. The present review presents an overview of the current situation of food safety and security and attempts to reconcile major viewpoints on GMOs research considering the current food safety and security crisis in the African continent.


Subject(s)
Food Security , Food Supply , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Africa , Agriculture , Animals , Biotechnology , COVID-19 , Crops, Agricultural , Droughts , Health Policy , Humans , Hunger , Insecticides , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pesticides , Plants, Genetically Modified
14.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200170, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1285223

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This scientific note presents preliminary developments of the Covid-19 pandemic on unemployment, poverty, and hunger in Brazil. The data on unemployment rate, un employment insurance claims, contingent of families in extreme poverty, and food insecurity was collected in government information systems, research published by public agencies, scientific articles, and in news portals. In an upward trajectory since 2015, the increase in unemployment and the number of families in extreme poverty was exacerbated after the pandemic began, drastically reducing the purchase power and access to healthy and adequate food, affecting mainly women and the populations of the Northern and Northeastern regions. Between January and September 2020, there was a 3% increase in unemployment in Brazil and, in October 2020, there were almost 485 thousand more families in extreme poverty compared to January of the same year. There are inadequate and insufficient responses from the Brazilian government to the articulated set of problems. The Covid-19 pandemic is a new element that potentiates the recent increase in hunger in Brazil, which occurs in parallel with the dismantling of the Food and Nutrition Security programs and the expansion of fiscal austerity measures, started with the political-economic crisis in 2015. There is an urgent need to recover the centrality of the agenda to fight hunger in Brazil, associated with the development of more robust contributions on the impact of the pandemic on the phenomena of poverty and hunger.


RESUMO Nesta nota científica apresentam-se desdobramentos preliminares da pandemia de Covid-19 sobre o desemprego, a pobreza e a fome no Brasil. Utilizaram-se dados sobre a taxa de desocupação, solicitações de seguro-desemprego e contingente de famílias em extrema pobreza e em insegurança alimentar, coletados em sistemas de informação governamentais, em pesquisas publicadas por órgãos públicos, em artigos científicos e em portais de notícias. Em trajetória ascendente, desde 2015, identificou-se um aumento do desemprego e do número de famílias em extrema pobreza após a instauração da pandemia, o que pode reduzir drasticamente o poder de compra e o acesso à alimentação adequada e saudável, afetando, principalmente, as mulheres e a população das regiões Norte e Nordeste. Entre janeiro e setembro de 2020, houve o aumento de 3% desemprego no Brasil e, em outubro de 2020, havia quase 485 mil famílias a mais em situação de extrema pobreza, relativamente a janeiro do mesmo ano. Verificam-se respostas inadequadas e insuficientes do governo brasileiro frente ao conjunto articulado de problemas. A pandemia de Covid-19 consiste em um novo elemento potencializador do aumento recente da fome no Brasil, que ocorre paralelamente ao desmonte dos programas de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional e à ampliação de medidas de austeridade fiscal iniciadas com a crise político-econômica em 2015. Urge resgatar a centralidade da agenda de combate à fome no Brasil, associadamente ao desenvolvimento de contribuições mais robustas sobre o impacto da pandemia nos fenômenos da pobreza e da fome.


Subject(s)
Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Food Supply , COVID-19 , Social Vulnerability
15.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 283-289, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219577

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review paper is to explore the strategies employed to tackle micronutrient deficiencies with illustrations from field-based experience. Hidden hunger is the presence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies (particularly iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A), which can occur without a deficit in energy intake as a result of consuming an energy-dense, but nutrient-poor diet. It is estimated that it affects more than two billion people worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where there is a reliance on low-cost food staples and where the diversity of the diet is limited. Finding a way to improve the nutritional quality of diets for the poorest people is central to meeting the UN sustainable development goals particularly sustainable development goal 2: end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. As we pass the midpoint of the UN's Decade for Action on Nutrition, it is timely to reflect on progress towards achieving sustainable development goal 2 and the strategies to reduce hidden hunger. Many low- and middle-income countries are falling behind national nutrition targets, and this has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic as well as other recent shocks to the global food system which have disproportionately impacted the world's most vulnerable communities. Addressing inequalities within the food system must be central to developing a sustainable, cost-effective strategy for improving food quality that delivers benefit to the seldom heard and marginalised communities.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Hunger , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Micronutrients/deficiency , Agriculture , Biofortification , COVID-19 , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Eating , Food Security , Food, Fortified , Humans , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Poverty , United Nations
16.
Eur J Health Econ ; 22(7): 1025-1038, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208569

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Covid19 pandemic is producing dramatic effects on the economic and social life of many countries, which in turn may further undermine people's health and well-being. This note focuses on some potential effects on the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goal 2 'Zero Hunger' (Target 2.1) and, specifically, on the prevalence of undernourishment. After discussing the main changes induced by the Covid19 outbreak in various dimensions of food security, as identified by the preliminary literature on the topic, the note presents the dynamic estimates (GMM) of the recent determinants of food security, measured through the prevalence of undernourishment (SDG indicator 2.1.1), using a sample of 84 developing countries observed over the period 2000-2017. Since the rate of economic growth turns out to be a relevant determinant, the analysis quantifies the potential consequences that the economic downturn caused by the pandemic may have on the short- and long-run achievements of SDG 2 if proper counterbalancing measures will not be implemented. Such consequences in the short run would consist of millions of new undernourished people, while in the long run the progress made towards the 'Zero Hunger' goal are at risk of being completely reversed in the majority of countries. The note concludes by suggesting some directions for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Food Supply , Goals , Humans , Hunger , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 18(4): 413-428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172621

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Lack of social welfare programs for vulnerable households during the coronavirus outbreak in Nigeria caused severe pain and economic hardship to households as millions suffered hunger in Nigeria and Africa at large.Method: To explore the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria, a qualitative study was conducted with 70 participants from Lagos, Nigeria. We conducted 52 individual and 2 group interviews with 18 key stakeholders involved with enforcing lockdown orders. Responses were analyzed in themes using content and discourse analysis.Result: The participants stated that the greatest challenge faced by many amidst the pandemic is hunger and starvation and described government palliatives as grossly insufficient. This is linked to the high population of Nigerians living below poverty line, who depends on daily earning for survival.Discussion: Therefore, these viewpoints must be taken into account by the policymakers and social welfare providers when designing social welfare policies and interventions for poor/vulnerable Nigerians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fear , Hunger , Poverty , Starvation , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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