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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936217, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Considering the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, sufficient information about common and serious adverse events is needed to rapidly distribute COVID-19 vaccines worldwide. We report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) with adrenal insufficiency after initial vaccination with Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with fever and an altered mental status 7 days after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. The patient had a history of end-stage renal disease and epilepsy treated with valproate. He was diagnosed with NMS based on the clinical findings of hyperthermia, muscular rigidity, and an elevated creatine kinase level. Additionally, a reduction in the response of cortisol to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation was observed in the rapid ACTH stimulation test. The patient was treated with dantrolene, bromocriptine, and hydrocortisone, and he responded well to treatment. Dantrolene and bromocriptine were tapered off over 4 weeks. Hydrocortisone was also tapered, and the patient was discharged on oral hydrocortisone (30 mg). CONCLUSIONS The present case suggests a possible link between the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine and NMS with adrenal insufficiency based on the temporal relationship between vaccine administration and disease onset, although the patient was taking valproate, a potential cause of NMS. Having a high level of suspicion is important because the diagnosis of NMS with adrenal insufficiency is often challenging due to non-specific clinical manifestations. However, this case does not negate the utility of vaccination because these complications are extremely rare and can be treated with early diagnosis and proper management.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Bromocriptine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dantrolene/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome/diagnosis , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome/etiology , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome/therapy , Vaccination/adverse effects , Valproic Acid/adverse effects
3.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641982

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211063976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582484

ABSTRACT

The underlying cause of many complications associated with severe COVID-19 is attributed to the inflammatory cytokine storm that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which appears to be the leading cause of death in COVID-19. Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory activity through repression of pro-inflammatory genes and inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, which makes them a potential medical intervention to diminish the upregulated inflammatory response. Early in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the role of corticosteroids was unclear. Corticosteroid use in other indications such as ARDS and septic shock has proven benefit while its use in other respiratory viral pneumonias is associated with reduced viral clearance and increased secondary infections. This review article evaluates the benefits and harms of systemic corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 to assist clinicians in improving patient outcomes, including patient safety. Dexamethasone up to 10 days is the preferred regimen to reduce mortality risk in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen support, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. If dexamethasone is unavailable, other corticosteroids can be substituted at equivalent doses. Higher doses of corticosteroids may be beneficial in patients who develop ARDS. Corticosteroids should be avoided early in the disease course when patients do not require oxygen support because of potential harms.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/adverse effects , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463755

ABSTRACT

Background: A significant number of patients with COVID-19 experience prolonged symptoms, known as Long COVID. The most frequent symptoms are fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. We describe a patient suffering from Long COVID in whom adrenal involvement was highlighted. Methods: The patient described Long COVID symptoms that persist 3 months after the negativization of the molecular swab test. The main symptoms were weakness, brain fog, dizziness, and muscular and joint pain. All routine lab panels for inflammation, anemia, and thyroid and liver function were conducted. Moreover, salivary cortisol and DHEA-S determinations were used to compute the adrenal stress index (ASI). Results: All tests were negative, except the ASI that showed very low levels of free cortisol. The patient started hydrocortisone acetate supplementation. Conclusion: Long COVID symptoms could be explained by an adrenal involvement, due to a COVID-19 action on adrenal glands and by a iatrogenic side effect of high glucocorticoid therapy during the COVID-19 infection. Salivary cortisol determination is effective for establishing a correct recovery plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Glands , COVID-19/complications , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013101, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely given to children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Their use is still controversial and the decision to administer the intervention can vary by centre and/or by individual doctors within that centre. OBJECTIVES: This review is designed to assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic corticosteroids in children between birth and 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science in June 2020. We also searched four clinical trials registers and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, including single and multiple doses, and all types of corticosteroids administered via any route and at any time-point in the perioperative period. We excluded studies if steroids were administered therapeutically. We included individually randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with two or more groups (e.g. multi-drug or dose comparisons with a control group) but not 'head-to-head' trials without a placebo or a group that did not receive corticosteroids. We included studies in children, from birth up to 18 years of age, including preterm infants, undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB. We also excluded studies in patients undergoing heart or lung transplantation, or both; studies in patients already receiving corticosteroids; in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and in patients given steroids at the time of cardiac surgery for indications other than cardiac surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the Covidence systematic review manager to extract and manage data for the review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by consultation with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We found 3748 studies, of which 888 were duplicate records. Two studies had the same clinical trial registration number, but reported different populations and interventions. We therefore included them as separate studies. We screened titles and abstracts of 2868 records and reviewed full text reports for 84 studies to determine eligibility. We extracted data for 13 studies. Pooled analyses are based on eight studies. We reported the remaining five studies narratively due to zero events for both intervention and placebo in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, the final meta-analysis included eight studies with a combined population of 478 participants. There was a low or unclear risk of bias across the domains. There was moderate certainty of evidence that corticosteroids do not change the risk of in-hospital mortality (five RCTs; 313 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.07) for children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. There was high certainty of evidence that corticosteroids reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (six RCTs; 421 participants; mean difference (MD) 11.37 hours lower, 95% CI -20.29 to -2.45) after the surgery. There was high-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay (six RCTs; 421 participants; MD 0.28 days lower, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.24) and moderate-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of the postoperative hospital stay (one RCT; 176 participants; mean length of stay 22 days; MD -0.70 days, 95% CI -2.62 to 1.22). There was moderate certainty of evidence for no effect of the intervention on all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (five RCTs; 313 participants; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.07) or cardiovascular mortality at the longest follow-up (three RCTs; 109 participants; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.46). There was low certainty of evidence that corticosteroids probably make little to no difference to children separating from CPB (one RCT; 40 participants; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.92). We were unable to report information regarding adverse events of the intervention due to the heterogeneity of reporting of outcomes. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for several reasons, including imprecision due to small sample sizes, a single study providing data for an individual outcome, the inclusion of both appreciable benefit and harm in the confidence interval, and publication bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids  probably do not change the risk of mortality for children having heart surgery using CPB at any time point. They probably reduce the duration of postoperative ventilation in this context, but have little or no effect on the total length of postoperative ICU stay or total postoperative hospital stay. There was inconsistency in the adverse event outcomes reported which, consequently, could not be pooled. It is therefore impossible to provide any implications and policy-makers will be unable to make any recommendations for practice without evidence about adverse effects. The review highlighted the need for well-conducted RCTs powered for clinical outcomes to confirm or refute the effect of corticosteroids versus placebo in children having cardiac surgery with CPB. A core outcome set for adverse event reporting in the paediatric major surgery and intensive care setting is required.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Bias , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Heart-Lung Machine/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
9.
Endocrine ; 71(3): 586-594, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233294

ABSTRACT

Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a life-threatening condition requiring life-long glucocorticoid (GC) substitution therapy, as well as stress adaptation to prevent adrenal crises. The number of individuals with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency in Europe is estimated to be 20-50/100.000. A growing number of AI cases are due to side effects of GC treatment used in different treatment strategies for cancer and to immunotherapy in cancer treatment. The benefit of hormone replacement therapy is evident but long-term adverse effects may arise due to the non-physiological GC doses and treatment regimens used. Given multiple GC replacement formulations available comprising short-acting, intermediate, long-acting and novel modified-release hydrocortisone as well as subcutaneous formulations, this review offers a concise summary on the latest therapeutic improvements for treatment of AI and prevention of adrenal crises. As availability of various glucocorticoid formulations and access to expert centers across Europe varies widely, European Reference Networks on rare endocrine conditions aim at harmonizing treatment and ensure access to specialized patient care for individual case-by-case treatment decisions. To improve the availability across Europe to cost effective oral and parenteral formulations of hydrocortisone will save lives.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Europe , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4292-4302, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118163

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with different levels of disease severity. In our multicenter study, 543 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were classified as non-severe group and severe group, and then were compared respectively for all-cause mortality and length of hospital stay between those who received corticosteroids and not. By searching in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and CNKI, we identified 13 retrospective studies and 6 random control trials eligible for criteria of inclusion, and conducted comprehensive meta-analyses assessing the impacts of corticosteroids on mortality, length of stay, duration of RNA clearance and duration of fever. Our multicenter study demonstrated that low-dose corticosteroids can reduce mortality in the multivariable Cox regression analysis for severe patients (p = .03), while presented no influence in univariable analysis for non-severe patients (p = .14). From multivariable analyses, patients with corticosteroids in non-severe group had longer duration of hospitalization (p = .003), but did not in severe group (p = .18). Moreover, for severe patients, corticosteroids can evidently shorten duration of fever. The same results were summarized in the meta-analyses supplemented with the result that corticosteroids delayed viral clearing in non-severe patients. Corticosteroids should be considered based on patient's condition. For patients with non-severe COVID-19, corticosteroid was not recommended as a routine therapeutic initiative as that presented prolonged duration of hospitalization and delayed viral clearing, as well as no positive impact on prognosis. While low-dose corticosteroids may benefit patients with severe COVID-19 for it can manifestly lower risk of death and improve the clinical status to some extent.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(6): 834-845, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in millions of deaths and overburdened healthcare systems worldwide. Systemic low-dose corticosteroids have proven clinical benefit in patients with severe COVID-19. Higher doses of corticosteroids are used in other inflammatory lung diseases and may offer additional clinical benefits in COVID-19. At present, the balance between benefits and harms of higher vs. lower doses of corticosteroids for patients with COVID-19 is unclear. METHODS: The COVID STEROID 2 trial is an investigator-initiated, international, parallel-grouped, blinded, centrally randomised and stratified clinical trial assessing higher (12 mg) vs. lower (6 mg) doses of dexamethasone for adults with COVID-19 and severe hypoxia. We plan to enrol 1,000 patients in Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland and India. The primary outcome is days alive without life support (invasive mechanical ventilation, circulatory support or renal replacement therapy) at day 28. Secondary outcomes include serious adverse reactions at day 28; all-cause mortality at day 28, 90 and 180; days alive without life support at day 90; days alive and out of hospital at day 90; and health-related quality of life at day 180. The primary outcome will be analysed using the Kryger Jensen and Lange test adjusted for stratification variables and reported as adjusted mean differences and median differences. The full statistical analysis plan is outlined in this protocol. DISCUSSION: The COVID STEROID 2 trial will provide evidence on the optimal dosing of systemic corticosteroids for COVID-19 patients with severe hypoxia with important implications for patients, their relatives and society.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Denmark , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , India , Life Support Care/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Survival Analysis , Sweden , Switzerland
12.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub ; 165(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067888

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus disease outbreak requires that physicians work in collaboration with other physicians especially in intensive care and emergency units. To fight against this new disease, whose pathogenesis, effects, and results have not been clearly demonstrated, especially in patients with the pre-existing chronic disease, requires special expertise and perspectives. Due to the need for dynamic glucocorticoid treatment at different stages of the disease in patients with adrenal insufficiency, the existence of reports indicating that "coronavirus disease 2019" also affects the adrenal reserve, and the use of glucocorticoids also in advanced stages in patients with Coronavirus disease require this issue to be emphasized with precision. Herein, treatment of the pre-existing adrenal insufficiency in patients with actual Coronavirus disease and the effects of the this critical disease on the adrenal gland have been reviewed.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Glands/metabolism , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Adrenal Insufficiency/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Disease Progression , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Physiological
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054632

ABSTRACT

We report an interesting case of a 38-year-old woman presenting with reverse Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) secondary to an Addisonian crisis, her second such episode. A few years prior, she had presented with typical TTS in the setting of Addisonian crisis; diagnostic work-up revealing Auto-Immune Polyglandular Syndrome Type II (APS II). We believe this to be the first case report of typical and variant phenotypes of TTS in a patient with APS II. The pathogenic link between these two conditions is explored. In patients presenting with Addisonian crises and refractory shock, the possibility of concurrent TTS should be considered. TTS muddies the diagnostic waters and poses therapeutic challenges as outlined.


Subject(s)
Addison Disease/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Addison Disease/complications , Adult , Disease Progression , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/complications , Recurrence , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Thyroxine/therapeutic use
14.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(4): 363-366, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak originated in Wuhan (China) rapidly turned into a pandemic. Due to a national compulsive decree of quarantine, office visits for chronic disease control were delay. Hypopituitarism includes all clinical conditions that result in partial or complete failure of the pituitary gland's ability to secrete hormones. Pituitary insufficiency per se has been associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular disease, which is an important risk factor for COVID-19 disease severity. OBJECTIVE: To report the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with hypopituitarism, discuss the implications of the treatments the patient was taking and grade up the value of telemedicine in the present scenario. METHODS: Report of the clinical record of a patient with hypopituitarism and infection with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: During the span of the infection, the patient remained on the same hormonal therapeutic scheme (thyroid, gonadal and adrenal axis). The dose of hydrocortisone was not changed during the course of the infection as she was asymptomatic. We use telemedicine to control and advise her on the treatment. CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should carefully follow up on the evolution of patients with hypopituitarism to provide them a safer outcome. The use of telemedicine as a methodology for selected patients acquires relevance in the present epidemiological context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypopituitarism/drug therapy , Asymptomatic Infections , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hypopituitarism/complications
15.
J Crit Care ; 62: 46-48, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939047

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 ARDS have distinct physiological and immunological phenotypes compared to patients with non-COVID ARDS. Patients with COVID-19 ARDS (n = 32) had a significant improvement in PaO2: FiO2 ratio (p = 0.046) following low-dose steroid treatment, unlike patients with non-COVID ARDS (n = 16) (p = 0.529). Patients with COVID-19 ARDS had a greater fall in CRP compared to patients with non-COVID ARDS, albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Our novel findings highlight differences in the underlying physiological and immunological phenotypes between COVID-19 and non-COVID ARDS, with implications for future ARDS studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , London/epidemiology , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Respiratory Mechanics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 554, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-804167

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Italy, since the end of February 2020, is experiencing the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that may present as an acute respiratory infection. We report on COVID-19 pneumonia in the context of a complex case of Cushing's disease (CD). Case Report: A 67-year-old man with CD, who was admitted to our hospital, presented with signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency with persistent hypotension and glycemia toward the lower limits. We progressively withdrew almost all treatments for diabetes and CD (pasireotide and metyrapone), and i.v. hydrocortisone was necessary. A tendency to hyperkalemia was probably associated to enoxaparin. We summarized the many possible interactions between medications of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and COVID-19. Conclusion: Adrenal insufficiency might be a clinical challenge that needs a prompt treatment also in CS patients during COVID-19 infection. We should consider the possibility to titrate or temporary halt medical therapies of CS in the context of COVID-19 infection. Unexpected hyperkalemia in CS patients under treatment with heparin might be the signal of aldosterone suppression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cushing Syndrome/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Metyrapone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cushing Syndrome/complications , Cushing Syndrome/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1330-1341, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739604

ABSTRACT

Importance: Effective therapies for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are needed, and clinical trial data have demonstrated that low-dose dexamethasone reduced mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who required respiratory support. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of corticosteroids compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective meta-analysis that pooled data from 7 randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of corticosteroids in 1703 critically ill patients with COVID-19. The trials were conducted in 12 countries from February 26, 2020, to June 9, 2020, and the date of final follow-up was July 6, 2020. Pooled data were aggregated from the individual trials, overall, and in predefined subgroups. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effect meta-analysis of overall mortality, with the association between the intervention and mortality quantified using odds ratios (ORs). Random-effects meta-analyses also were conducted (with the Paule-Mandel estimate of heterogeneity and the Hartung-Knapp adjustment) and an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effect analysis using risk ratios. Exposures: Patients had been randomized to receive systemic dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, or methylprednisolone (678 patients) or to receive usual care or placebo (1025 patients). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. A secondary outcome was investigator-defined serious adverse events. Results: A total of 1703 patients (median age, 60 years [interquartile range, 52-68 years]; 488 [29%] women) were included in the analysis. Risk of bias was assessed as "low" for 6 of the 7 mortality results and as "some concerns" in 1 trial because of the randomization method. Five trials reported mortality at 28 days, 1 trial at 21 days, and 1 trial at 30 days. There were 222 deaths among the 678 patients randomized to corticosteroids and 425 deaths among the 1025 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.53-0.82]; P < .001 based on a fixed-effect meta-analysis). There was little inconsistency between the trial results (I2 = 15.6%; P = .31 for heterogeneity) and the summary OR was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.48-1.01; P = .053) based on the random-effects meta-analysis. The fixed-effect summary OR for the association with mortality was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.50-0.82; P < .001) for dexamethasone compared with usual care or placebo (3 trials, 1282 patients, and 527 deaths), the OR was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.43-1.12; P = .13) for hydrocortisone (3 trials, 374 patients, and 94 deaths), and the OR was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.29-2.87; P = .87) for methylprednisolone (1 trial, 47 patients, and 26 deaths). Among the 6 trials that reported serious adverse events, 64 events occurred among 354 patients randomized to corticosteroids and 80 events occurred among 342 patients randomized to usual care or placebo. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of critically ill patients with COVID-19, administration of systemic corticosteroids, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
20.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1298-1306, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739601

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe lung damage. Corticosteroids are a possible therapeutic option. Objective: To determine the effect of hydrocortisone on treatment failure on day 21 in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and acute respiratory failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized double-blind sequential trial conducted in France, with interim analyses planned every 50 patients. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure were enrolled from March 7 to June 1, 2020, with last follow-up on June 29, 2020. The study intended to enroll 290 patients but was stopped early following the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive low-dose hydrocortisone (n = 76) or placebo (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome, treatment failure on day 21, was defined as death or persistent dependency on mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. Prespecified secondary outcomes included the need for tracheal intubation (among patients not intubated at baseline); cumulative incidences (until day 21) of prone position sessions, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and inhaled nitric oxide; Pao2:Fio2 ratio measured daily from day 1 to day 7, then on days 14 and 21; and the proportion of patients with secondary infections during their ICU stay. Results: The study was stopped after 149 patients (mean age, 62.2 years; 30.2% women; 81.2% mechanically ventilated) were enrolled. One hundred forty-eight patients (99.3%) completed the study, and there were 69 treatment failure events, including 11 deaths in the hydrocortisone group and 20 deaths in the placebo group. The primary outcome, treatment failure on day 21, occurred in 32 of 76 patients (42.1%) in the hydrocortisone group compared with 37 of 73 (50.7%) in the placebo group (difference of proportions, -8.6% [95.48% CI, -24.9% to 7.7%]; P = .29). Of the 4 prespecified secondary outcomes, none showed a significant difference. No serious adverse events were related to the study treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure, low-dose hydrocortisone, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce treatment failure (defined as death or persistent respiratory support) at day 21. However, the study was stopped early and likely was underpowered to find a statistically and clinically important difference in the primary outcome. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02517489.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
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