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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4191, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799570

ABSTRACT

Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) provide effective protection against diseases spread through airborne infectious droplets and particles. The widespread use of FFRs during the COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to supply shortages, but the disposal of single-use facemasks also threatens the environment with a new kind of plastic pollution. While limited reuse of filtering facepiece respirators has been permitted as a crisis capacity strategy, there are currently no standard test methods available for decontamination before their repeated use. The decontamination of respirators can compromise the structural and functional integrity by reducing the filtration efficiency and breathability. Digital segmentation of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans of the meltblown nonwoven layers of a specific N95 respirator model (Venus-4400) after treatment with one and five cycles of liquid hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, moist heat, and aqueous soap solution enabled us to perform filtration simulations of decontaminated respirators. The computed filtration efficiencies for 0.3 µm particles agreed well with experimental measurements, and the distribution of particle penetration depths was correlated with the structural changes resulting from decontamination. The combination of X-ray microCT imaging with numerical simulations thus provides a strategy for quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination treatments for a specific respirator model.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Equipment Reuse , Filtration , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Masks/virology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , X-Ray Microtomography
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0261802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779734

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted mainly by droplet or aerosol infection; however, it may also be transmitted by contact infection. SARS-CoV-2 that adheres to environmental surfaces remains infectious for several days. We herein attempted to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus adhering to an environmental surface by dry fogging hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus were air-dried on plastic plates and placed into a test chamber for inactivation by the dry fogging of these disinfectants. The results obtained showed that the dry fogging of hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus in CT value (the product of the disinfectant concentration and contact time)-dependent manners. SARS-CoV-2 was more resistant to the virucidal effects of aerosolized hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution than influenza A virus; therefore, higher concentrations of disinfectants or longer contact times were required to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 than influenza A virus. The present results provide important information for the development of a strategy that inactivates SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus on environmental surfaces by spatial fogging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Influenza A virus , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
3.
Euro Surveill ; 27(11)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753316

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe shortage of FFP2 and FFP3 respirators posed a serious threat to the operation of the healthcare system at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.AimOur aim was to develop and validate a large-scale facility that uses hydrogen peroxide vapour for the decontamination of used respirators.MethodsA multidisciplinary and multisectoral ad hoc group of experts representing various organisations was assembled to implement the collection and transport of used FFP2 and FFP3 respirators from hospitals covering 86% of the Finnish population. A large-scale decontamination facility using hydrogen peroxide vapour was designed and constructed. Microbiological tests were used to confirm efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination together with a test to assess the effect of decontamination on the filtering efficacy and fit of respirators. Bacterial and fungal growth in stored respirators was determined by standard methods.ResultsLarge-scale hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination of a range of FFP2 and FFP3 respirator models effectively reduced the recovery of biological indicators: Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus spores, as well as model virus bacteriophage MS2. The filtering efficacy and facial fit after hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination were not affected by the process. Microbial growth in the hydrogen peroxide vapour-treated respirators indicated appropriate microbial cleanliness.ConclusionsLarge-scale hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination was validated. After effective decontamination, no significant changes in the key properties of the respirators were detected. European Union regulations should incorporate a facilitated pathway to allow reuse of appropriately decontaminated respirators in a severe pandemic when unused respirators are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Decontamination/methods , Finland , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Pandemics , Ventilators, Mechanical
4.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 74(4): 536-542, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583477

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) to inactivate the chimpanzee adenovirus AZD1222 vaccine strain used in the production of recombinant COVID-19 vaccine for application in cleaning validation in pharmaceutical industries production areas. Two matrixes were tested: formulated recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (FCV) and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The samples were dried on stainless steel and exposed to HPV in an isolator. One biological indicator with population >106 Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores was used to validate the HPV decontamination cycle as standard. HPV exposure resulted in complete virus inactivation in FVC (≥5·03 log10 ) and API (≥6·40 log10 ), showing HPV efficacy for reducing chimpanzee adenovirus AZD1222 vaccine strain. However, the optimum concentration and contact time will vary depending on the type of application. Future decontamination studies scaling up the process to the recombinant COVID-19 vaccine manufacturing areas are necessary to evaluate if the HPV will have the same or better virucidal effectivity in each specific production area. In conclusion, HPV showed efficacy for reducing AZD1222 chimpanzee adenovirus strain and can be a good choice for pharmaceutical industries facilities disinfection during recombinant COVID-19 vaccine production.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Adenoviridae , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drug Industry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Manufacturing Industry , Pan troglodytes , Pharmaceutical Preparations
5.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9342748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, an outbreak of a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a world health concern leading to severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Virus transmission occurs through person-to-person contact, respiratory droplets, and contaminated hands or surfaces. Accordingly, we aim at reviewing the literature on all information available about the persistence of coronaviruses, including human and animal coronaviruses, on inanimate surfaces and inactivation strategies with biocides employed for chemical and physical disinfection. METHOD: A comprehensive search was systematically conducted in main databases from 1998 to 2020 to identify various viral disinfectants associated with HCoV and methods for control and prevention of this newly emerged virus. RESULTS: The analysis of 62 studies shows that human coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), canine coronavirus (CCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can be efficiently inactivated by physical and chemical disinfectants at different concentrations (70, 80, 85, and 95%) of 2-propanol (70 and 80%) in less than or equal to 60 s and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Additionally, glutaraldehyde (0.5-2%), formaldehyde (0.7-1%), and povidone-iodine (0.1-0.75%) could readily inactivate coronaviruses. Moreover, dry heat at 56°C, ultraviolet light dose of 0.2 to 140 J/cm2, and gamma irradiation could effectively inactivate coronavirus. The WHO recommends the use of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution or an ethanol-based disinfectant with an ethanol concentration between 62% and 71%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study can help researchers, policymakers, health decision makers, and people perceive and take the correct measures to control and prevent further transmission of COVID-19. Prevention and decontamination will be the main ways to stop the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/drug effects , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Gamma Rays , Glutaral/pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/drug effects , Ultraviolet Rays
6.
Int Orthod ; 19(4): 685-688, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In orthodontic patients using any chemical substances in oral environment could change the elastomeric properties of their appliances. Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, efforts have been devoted to explore methods of prevention including the use of antiviral mouthwashes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Povidone Iodine (PVP-I) and two other disinfecting solutions on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 130 elastomeric ligatures in five groups (three test groups and two control groups) were examined in laboratory conditions for a period of 28 days. In the control group, specimens were kept dry in a dark environment while all other ligatures were stored in artificial saliva. Elastomeric ligatures were immersed into PVP-I solution (1%) Chlorhexidine (0.02%), and hydrogen peroxide (5%) for one minute each day in three time intervals of one day, 7 days and 28 days. Next, the maximum tensile strength of elastomeric ligatures was tested by a universal testing machine (CN 1174, Germany). RESULTS: The results showed that the tensile strength of elastomeric ligatures was significantly decreased in all three test groups after 28 days (p-value<0.05). However, the difference between groups was not statistically significant. Between-subject ANOVA test showed that there were significant correlations between the time of exposure and type of disinfecting solutions. CONCLUSIONS: PVP-I has comparable effects on elastomeric ligatures as artificial saliva, chlorhexidine, and hydrogen peroxide.


Subject(s)
Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Orthodontic Appliances , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Tensile Strength/drug effects , COVID-19 , Elastomers , Humans , Materials Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva, Artificial
8.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393559

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically active species which are involved in maintaining cellular and signalling processes at physiological concentrations. Therefore, cellular components that regulate redox balance are likely to play a crucial role in viral life-cycle either as promoters of viral replication or with antiviral functions. Zinc is an essential micronutrient associated with anti-oxidative systems and helps in maintaining a balanced cellular redox state. Here, we show that zinc chelation leads to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in epithelial cells and addition of zinc restores ROS levels to basal state. Addition of ROS (H2O2) inhibited dengue virus (DENV) infection in a dose-dependent manner indicating that oxidative stress has adverse effects on DENV infection. ROS affects early stages of DENV replication as observed by quantitation of positive and negative strand viral RNA. We observed that addition of ROS specifically affected viral titres of positive strand RNA viruses. We further demonstrate that ROS specifically altered SEC31A expression at the ER suggesting a role for SEC31A-mediated pathways in the life-cycle of positive strand RNA viruses and provides an opportunity to identify drug targets regulating oxidative stress responses for antiviral development.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Virus Replication , Zinc/pharmacology , Adolescent , Aedes , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/physiology , Humans , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Viral
9.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(7): 955-965, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384775

ABSTRACT

The pandemic created by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a shortage in the supplies of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), disposable respirators with at least 95% efficiency to remove non-oily airborne particles, due to increasing cases all over the world. The current article reviewed various possible decontamination methods for FFR reuse including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV), microwave-generated steam (MGS), hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP), and 70% or higher ethanol solution. HPV decontamination was effective against bacterial spores (6 log10 reduction of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores) on FFRs and viruses (> 4 log10 reduction of various types of viruses) on inanimate surfaces, and no degradation of respirator materials and fit has been reported. 70% or higher ethanol decontamination showed high efficacy in inactivation of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces (> 3.9 log10 reduction) but it was lower on FFRs which filtration efficiency was also decreased. UVGI method had good biocidal efficacy on FFRs (> 3 log10 reduction of H1N1 virus) combined with inexpensive, readily available equipment; however, it was more time-consuming to ensure sufficient reduction in SARS-CoV-2. MGS treatment also provided good viral decontamination on FFRs (> 4 log10 reduction of H1N1 virus) along with less time-intensive process and readily available equipment while inconsistent disinfection on the treated surfaces and deterioration of nose cushion of FFRs were observed. HPGP was a good virucidal system (> 6 log10 reduction of Vesicular stomatitis virus) but filtration efficiency after decontamination was inconsistent. Overall, HPV appeared to be one of the most promising methods based on the high biocidal efficacy on FFRs, preservation of respirator performance after multiple cycles, and no residual chemical toxicity. Nonetheless, equipment cost and time of the HPV process and a suitable operating room need to be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decontamination/methods , N95 Respirators/microbiology , N95 Respirators/virology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/radiation effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Microwaves , Ultraviolet Rays , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/radiation effects
10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9919466, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358940

ABSTRACT

Thrombus is considered to be the pathological source of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease and thrombotic complications, while oxidative stress is regarded as an important factor in vascular endothelial injury and thrombus formation. Therefore, antioxidative stress and maintaining the normal function of vascular endothelial cells are greatly significant in regulating vascular tension and maintaining a nonthrombotic environment. Leonurine (LEO) is a unique alkaloid isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt (a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)), which has shown a good effect on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. In this study, we explored the protective effect and action mechanism of LEO on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The protective effects of LEO on H2O2-induced HUVECs were determined by measuring the cell viability, cell migration, tube formation, and oxidative biomarkers. The underlying mechanism of antioxidation of LEO was investigated by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Our results showed that LEO treatment promoted cell viability; remarkably downregulated the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and upregulated the nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in H2O2-induced HUVECs. At the same time, LEO treatment significantly promoted the phosphorylation level of angiogenic protein PI3K, Akt, and eNOS and the expression level of survival factor Bcl2 and decreased the expression level of death factor Bax and caspase3. In conclusion, our findings suggested that LEO can ameliorate the oxidative stress damage and insufficient angiogenesis of HUVECs induced by H2O2 through activating the PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1179-1185, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340729

ABSTRACT

This systematic review aims to evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of mouth rinses on SARS-CoV-2 from in vitro studies. Five electronic databases were searched up to February 2021; no language or time restrictions were used. Two independent reviewers conducted both selection and data extraction processes. The toxicological data reliability assessment tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias. Starting from 239 articles, retrieved by the electronic search, only eight studies were included in our systematic review. Povidone Iodine (PVP-I) was effective in killing SARS-CoV-2, demonstrated higher virucidal activity than other commonly used active ingredients. Conflicting results were found about the effectiveness of Chlorhexidine (CHX) while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) proved less effective than PVP-I. Other active ingredients, such as quaternary ammonium compounds and Ethanol (particularly when combined with essential oils), have also shown promising results in reducing viral load, with results comparable to PVP-I.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1227-1231, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for evidence-based approaches to decontamination and reuse of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). We sought to determine whether vapourized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) reduced SARS-CoV-2 bioburden on FFRs without compromising filtration efficiency. We also investigated coronavirus HCoV-229E as a surrogate for decontamination validation testing. METHODS: N95 FFRs were laced with SARS-CoV-2 or HCoV-229E and treated with VHP in a hospital reprocessing facility. After sterilization, viral burden was determined using viral outgrowth in a titration assay, and filtration efficiency of FFRs was tested against ATSM F2299 and NIOSH TEB-STP-APR-0059. RESULTS: Viable SARS-CoV-2 virus was not detected after VHP treatment. One replicate of the HCoV-229E laced FFRs yielded virus after processing. Unexpired N95 FFRs retained full filtration efficiency after VHP processing. Expired FFRs failed to meet design-specified filtration efficiency and therefore are unsuitable for reprocessing. DISCUSSION: In-hospital VHP is an effective decontaminant for SARS-CoV-2 on FFRs. Further, filtration efficiency of unexpired respirators is not affected by this decontamination process. CONCLUSIONS: VHP is effective in inactivating SARS-CoV-2 on FFRs without compromising filtration efficiency. HCoV-229E is a suitable surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 for disinfection studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Decontamination , Disinfection , Equipment Reuse , Hospitals , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , N95 Respirators , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1252-1255, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disinfection of contaminated or potentially contaminated surfaces has become an integral part of the mitigation strategies for controlling coronavirus disease 2019. Whilst a broad range of disinfectants are effective in inactivating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), application of disinfectants has a low throughput in areas that receive treatments. Disinfection of large surface areas often involves the use of reactive microbiocidal materials, including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, chlorine dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide vapor. Albeit these methods are highly effective in inactivating SARS-CoV-2, the deployment of these approaches creates unacceptable health hazards and precludes the treatment of occupied indoor spaces using existing disinfection technologies. In this study, the feasibility of using dry hydrogen peroxide (DHP) in inactivating SARS-CoV-2 on contaminated surfaces in large indoor spaces was evaluated. METHODS: Glass slides were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with DHP between 5 and 25 ppb for up to 24 hours. Residual infectious virus samples were eluted from three replicates at each time point and titrated in African green monkey VeroE6 cells. RESULTS: In comparison with the observed relatively high stability of SARS-CoV-2 on contaminated glass slides (control group), residual infectious titers of glass slides inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 were significantly reduced after receiving 120 minutes of DHP treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The accelerated decay of SARS-CoV-2 on contaminated glass slides suggests that treatment with DHP can be an effective surface disinfection method for occupied indoor spaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 83, 2021 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many healthcare facilities are lacking a steady supply of masks worldwide. This emergency situation warrants the taking of extraordinary measures to minimize the negative health impact from an insufficient supply of masks. The decontamination, and reuse of healthcare workers' N95/FFP2 masks is a promising solution which needs to overcome several pitfalls to become a reality. AIM: The overall aim of this article is to provide the reader with a quick overview of the various methods for decontamination and the potential issues to be taken into account when deciding to reuse masks. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), hydrogen peroxide, steam, ozone, ethylene oxide, dry heat and moist heat have all been methods studied in the context of the pandemic. The article first focuses on the logistical implementation of a decontamination system in its entirety, and then aims to summarize and analyze the different available methods for decontamination. METHODS: In order to have a clear understanding of the research that has already been done, we conducted a systematic literature review for the questions: what are the tested methods for decontaminating N95/FFP2 masks, and what impact do those methods have on the microbiological contamination and physical integrity of the masks? We used the results of a systematic review on the methods of microbiological decontamination of masks to make sure we covered all of the recommended methods for mask reuse. To this systematic review we added articles and studies relevant to the subject, but that were outside the limits of the systematic review. These include a number of studies that performed important fit and function tests on the masks but took their microbiological outcomes from the existing literature and were thus excluded from the systematic review, but useful for this paper. We also used additional unpublished studies and internal communication from the University of Geneva Hospitals and partner institutions. RESULTS: This paper analyzes the acceptable methods for respirator decontamination and reuse, and scores them according to a number of variables that we have defined as being crucial (including cost, risk, complexity, time, etc.) to help healthcare facilities decide which method of decontamination is right for them. CONCLUSION: We provide a resource for healthcare institutions looking at making informed decisions about respirator decontamination. This informed decision making will help to improve infection prevention and control measures, and protect healthcare workers during this crucial time. The overall take home message is that institutions should not reuse respirators unless they have to. In the case of an emergency situation, there are some safe ways to decontaminate them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , N95 Respirators/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Ethylene Oxide/pharmacology , Health Personnel , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Steam , Ultraviolet Rays
16.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic accelerates, the supply of personal protective equipment remains under strain. To combat shortages, re-use of surgical masks and filtering facepiece respirators has been recommended. Prior decontamination is paramount to the re-use of these typically single-use only items and, without compromising their integrity, must guarantee inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and other contaminating pathogens. AIM: We provide information on the effect of time-dependent passive decontamination (infectivity loss over time during room temperature storage in a breathable bag) and evaluate inactivation of a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate and a non-enveloped model virus as well as mask and respirator integrity following active multiple-cycle vaporised hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), and dry heat (DH) decontamination. METHODS: Masks and respirators, inoculated with infectious porcine respiratory coronavirus or murine norovirus, were submitted to passive decontamination or single or multiple active decontamination cycles; viruses were recovered from sample materials and viral titres were measured via TCID50 assay. In parallel, filtration efficiency tests and breathability tests were performed according to EN standard 14683 and NIOSH regulations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Infectious porcine respiratory coronavirus and murine norovirus remained detectable on masks and respirators up to five and seven days of passive decontamination. Single and multiple cycles of VHP-, UVGI-, and DH were shown to not adversely affect bacterial filtration efficiency of masks. Single- and multiple UVGI did not adversely affect respirator filtration efficiency, while VHP and DH induced a decrease in filtration efficiency after one or three decontamination cycles. Multiple cycles of VHP-, UVGI-, and DH slightly decreased airflow resistance of masks but did not adversely affect respirator breathability. VHP and UVGI efficiently inactivated both viruses after five, DH after three, decontamination cycles, permitting demonstration of a loss of infectivity by more than three orders of magnitude. This multi-disciplinal approach provides important information on how often a given PPE item may be safely reused.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Decontamination/methods , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Norovirus/drug effects , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hot Temperature , Humans , Masks/microbiology , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , Ultraviolet Therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical/microbiology , Volatilization
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 561: 14-18, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225147

ABSTRACT

In spite of numerous studies, many details of SARS-Cov-2 interaction with human cells are still poorly understood. The 674-685 fragment of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein is homologous to the fragment of α-cobratoxin underlying its interaction with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The interaction of 674-685 peptide with α7 nAChR has been predicted in silico. In the present paper we confirm this prediction experimentally and investigate the effect of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein peptide on mitochondria, which express α7 nAChRs to regulate apoptosis-related events. We demonstrate that SARS-Cov-2 spike protein peptide 674-685 competes with the antibody against 179-190 fragment of α7 nAChR subunit for the binding to α7-expressing cells and mitochondria and prevents the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria in response to 0.5 mM H2O2 but does not protect intact U373 cells against apoptogenic effect of H2O2. Our data suggest that the α7 nAChR-binding portion of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein prevents mitochondria-driven apoptosis when the virus is uncoated inside the cell and, therefore, supports the infected cell viability before the virus replication cycle is complete.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Computer Simulation , Female , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitochondria/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism
18.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 30-43, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185067

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, so ACE2-expressing cells can act as target cells and are susceptible to infection. ACE2 receptors are highly expressed in the oral cavity, so this may be a potential high-risk route for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the virus can be detected in saliva, even before COVID-19 symptoms appear, with the consequent high risk of virus transmission in asymptomatic/presymptomatic patients. Reducing oral viral load could lead to a lower risk of transmission via salivary droplets or aerosols and therefore contribute to the control of the pandemic. Our aim was to evaluate the available evidence testing the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of oral antiseptics to inactivate or eradicate coronaviruses. The criteria used were those described in the PRISMA declaration for performing systematic reviews. An electronic search was conducted in Medline (via PubMed) and in Web of Sciences, using the MeSH terms: 'mouthwash' OR 'oral rinse' OR 'mouth rinse' OR 'povidone iodine' OR 'hydrogen peroxide' OR 'cetylpyridinium chloride' AND 'COVID-19' OR 'SARS-CoV-2' OR 'coronavirus' OR 'SARS' OR 'MERS'. The initial search strategy identified 619 articles on two electronic databases. Seventeen articles were included assessing the virucidal efficacy of oral antiseptics against coronaviruses. In conclusion, there is sufficient in-vitro evidence to support the use of antiseptics to potentially reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. However, in-vivo evidence for most oral antiseptics is limited. Randomized clinical trials with a control group are needed to demonstrate its clinical efficacy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Viral Load/drug effects , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mouth , Pandemics , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/virology
19.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(1): 45-47, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global shortages of N95 respirators. Reprocessing of used N95 respirators may provide a higher filtration crisis alternative, but whether effective sterilization can be achieved for a virus without impairing respirator function remains unknown. We evaluated the viricidal efficacy of Bioquell vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) on contaminated N95 respirators and tested the particulate particle penetration and inhalation and exhalation resistance of respirators after multiple cycles of VHP. METHODS: For this study, 3M 1870 N95 respirators were contaminated with 3 aerosolized bacteriophages: T1, T7, and Pseudomonas phage phi-6 followed by 1 cycle of VHP decontamination using a BQ-50 system. Additionally, new and unused respirators were sent to an independent laboratory for particulate filter penetration testing and inhalation and exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP. RESULTS: A single VHP cycle resulted in complete eradication of bacteriophage from respirators (limit of detection 10 PFU). Respirators showed acceptable limits for inhalation/exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP. Respirators demonstrated a filtration efficiency >99 % after 3 cycles, but filtration efficiency fell below 95% after 5 cycles of HPV. CONCLUSION: Bioquell VHP demonstrated high viricidal activity for N95 respirators inoculated with aerosolized bacteriophages. Bioquell technology can be scaled for simultaneous decontamination of a large number of used but otherwise intact respirators. Reprocessing should be limited to 3 cycles due to concerns both about impact of clinical wear and tear on fit, and to decrement in filtration after 3 cycles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 320-328, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic increased global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) and resulted in shortages. The study evaluated the re-use of surgical masks and respirators by analysing their performance and safety before and after reprocessing using the following methods: oven, thermal drying, autoclave, and hydrogen peroxide plasma vapour. METHODS: In total, 45 surgical masks and 69 respirators were decontaminated. Visual integrity, air permeability, burst resistance, pressure differential and particulate filtration efficiency of new and decontaminated surgical masks and respirators were evaluated. In addition, 14 used respirators were analysed after work shifts before and after decontamination using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culturing. Finally, reprocessed respirators were evaluated by users in terms of functionality and comfort. RESULTS: Oven decontamination (75 °C for 45 min) was found to be the simplest decontamination method. Physical and filtration assays indicated that all reprocessing methods were safe after one cycle. Oven decontamination maintained the characteristics of surgical masks and respirators for at least five reprocessing cycles. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in two of the 14 used respirators. Four respirators submitted to viral culture were PCR-negative and culture-negative. Reprocessed respirators used in work shifts were evaluated positively by users, even after three decontamination cycles. CONCLUSION: Oven decontamination is a safe method for reprocessing surgical masks and respirators for at least five cycles, and is feasible in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Masks/virology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hospitals , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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