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1.
Respir Care ; 66(1): 113-119, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low airway surface pH is associated with many airway diseases, impairs antimicrobial host defense, and worsens airway inflammation. Inhaled Optate is designed to safely raise airway surface pH and is well tolerated in humans. Raising intracellular pH partially prevents activation of SARS-CoV-2 in primary normal human airway epithelial (NHAE) cells, decreasing viral replication by several mechanisms. METHODS: We grew primary NHAE cells from healthy subjects, infected them with SARS-CoV-2 (isolate USA-WA1/2020), and used clinical Optate at concentrations used in humans in vivo to determine whether Optate would prevent viral infection and replication. Cells were pretreated with Optate or placebo prior to infection (multiplicity of infection = 1), and viral replication was determined with plaque assay and nucleocapsid (N) protein levels. Healthy human subjects also inhaled Optate as part of a Phase 2a safety trial. RESULTS: Optate almost completely prevented viral replication at each time point between 24 h and 120 h, relative to placebo, on both plaque assay and N protein expression (P < .001). Mechanistically, Optate inhibited expression of major endosomal trafficking genes and raised NHAE intracellular pH. Optate had no effect on NHAE cell viability at any time point. Inhaled Optate was well tolerated in 10 normal subjects, with no change in lung function, vital signs, or oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled Optate may be well suited for a clinical trial in patients with pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is vitally important for patient safety that formulations designed for inhalation with regard to pH, isotonicity, and osmolality be used. An inhalational treatment that safely prevents SARS-CoV-2 viral replication could be helpful for treating patients with pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Glycine/pharmacology , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Glycine/administration & dosage , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009706, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305581

ABSTRACT

Many viruses utilize the host endo-lysosomal network for infection. Tracing the endocytic itinerary of SARS-CoV-2 can provide insights into viral trafficking and aid in designing new therapeutic strategies. Here, we demonstrate that the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is internalized via the pH-dependent CLIC/GEEC (CG) endocytic pathway in human gastric-adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells expressing undetectable levels of ACE2. Ectopic expression of ACE2 (AGS-ACE2) results in RBD traffic via both CG and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Endosomal acidification inhibitors like BafilomycinA1 and NH4Cl, which inhibit the CG pathway, reduce the uptake of RBD and impede Spike-pseudoviral infection in both AGS and AGS-ACE2 cells. The inhibition by BafilomycinA1 was found to be distinct from Chloroquine which neither affects RBD uptake nor alters endosomal pH, yet attenuates Spike-pseudovirus entry. By screening a subset of FDA-approved inhibitors for functionality similar to BafilomycinA1, we identified Niclosamide as a SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitor. Further validation using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 in AGS-ACE2 and Vero cells confirmed its antiviral effect. We propose that Niclosamide, and other drugs which neutralize endosomal pH as well as inhibit the endocytic uptake, could provide broader applicability in subverting infection of viruses entering host cells via a pH-dependent endocytic pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Ammonium Chloride/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Clathrin/metabolism , Drug Synergism , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endocytosis/physiology , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Macrolides/pharmacology , Niclosamide/administration & dosage , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Vero Cells
4.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1707-1715, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732653

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase the risk for enteric infections that is likely related to PPI-induced hypochlorhydria. Although the impact of acid suppression on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is unknown thus far, previous data revealed that pH ≤3 impairs the infectivity of the similar severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1. Thus, we aimed to determine whether use of PPIs increases the odds for acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among community-dwelling Americans. METHODS: From May 3 to June 24, 2020, we performed an online survey described to participating adults as a "national health survey." A multivariable logistic regression was performed on reporting a positive COVID-19 test to adjust for a wide range of confounding factors and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of 53,130 participants, 3,386 (6.4%) reported a positive COVID-19 test. In regression analysis, individuals using PPIs up to once daily (aOR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.90-2.44) or twice daily (aOR 3.67; 95% CI, 2.93-4.60) had significantly increased odds for reporting a positive COVID-19 test when compared with those not taking PPIs. Individuals taking histamine-2 receptor antagonists were not at elevated risk. DISCUSSION: We found evidence of an independent, dose-response relationship between the use of antisecretory medications and COVID-19 positivity; individuals taking PPIs twice daily have higher odds for reporting a positive test when compared with those using lower-dose PPIs up to once daily, and those taking the less potent histamine-2 receptor antagonists are not at increased risk. These findings emphasize good clinical practice that PPIs should only be used when indicated at the lowest effective dose, such as the approved once-daily label dosage of over-the-counter and prescription PPIs. Further studies examining the association between PPIs and COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gastric Acid/metabolism , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Heartburn/drug therapy , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Autophagy ; 16(12): 2260-2266, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593676

ABSTRACT

During the last week of December 2019, Wuhan (China) was confronted with the first case of respiratory tract disease 2019 (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the rapid outbreak of the transmission (~3.64 million positive cases and high mortality as of 5 May 2020), the world is looking for immediate and better therapeutic options. Still, much information is not known, including origin of the disease, complete genomic characterization, mechanism of transmission dynamics, extent of spread, possible genetic predisposition, clinical and biological diagnosis, complete details of disease-induced pathogenicity, and possible therapeutic options. Although several known drugs are already under clinical evaluation with many in repositioning strategies, much attention has been paid to the aminoquinoline derivates, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). These molecules are known regulators of endosomes/lysosomes, which are subcellular organelles central to autophagy processes. By elevating the pH of acidic endosomes/lysosomes, CQ/HCQ inhibit the autophagic process. In this short perspective, we discuss the roles of CQ/HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and propose new ways of possible treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the molecules that selectivity target autophagy.Abbreviation: ACE2: angiotensin I converting enzyme 2; CoV: coronavirus; CQ: chloroquine; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
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