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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715407

ABSTRACT

The overall impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on our society is unprecedented. The identification of small natural ligands that could prevent the entry and/or replication of the coronavirus remains a pertinent approach to fight the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Previously, we showed that the phenolic compounds corilagin and 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose (TGG) inhibit the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 target receptor on the cell membrane of the host organism. Building on these promising results, we now assess the effects of these phenolic ligands on two other crucial targets involved in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and replication, respectively: transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLpro) inhibitors. Since corilagin, TGG, and tannic acid (TA) share many physicochemical and structural properties, we investigate the binding of TA to these targets. In this work, a combination of experimental methods (biochemical inhibition assays, surface plasmon resonance, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring) confirms the potential role of TA in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity through the inhibition of extracellular RBD/ACE2 interactions and TMPRSS2 and 3CLpro activity. Moreover, molecular docking prediction followed by dynamic simulation and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MMPBSA) free energy calculation also shows that TA binds to RBD, TMPRSS2, and 3CLpro with higher affinities than TGG and corilagin. Overall, these results suggest that naturally occurring TA is a promising candidate to prevent and inhibit the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology , Algorithms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/metabolism , Glucosides/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/metabolism , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Kinetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Tannins/chemistry , Tannins/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542586

ABSTRACT

Compounds of natural origin, an infinite treasure of bioactive chemical entities, persist as an inexhaustible resource for discovering new medicines. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring ellagitannins, sanguiins, which are bioactive constituents of various traditional medicinal plants, especially from the Rosaceae family. In-depth studies of sanguiin H-6 as an antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and osteoclastogenesis inhibitory agent have led to potent drug candidates. In addition, recently, virtual screening studies have suggested that sanguiin H-6 might increase resistance toward SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages of infection. Further experimental investigations on ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) supplemented with molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation are still needed to fully understand sanguiins' mechanism of action. In sum, sanguiins appear to be promising compounds for additional studies, especially for their application in therapies for a multitude of common and debilitating ailments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Animals , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pharmacokinetics , Rosaceae/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348647

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite the development of vaccines, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and the absence of effective therapeutics demand the continual investigation of COVID-19. Natural products containing active ingredients may be good therapeutic candidates. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of geraniin, the main ingredient in medical plants Elaeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus and Nephelium lappaceum, for treating COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor to initiate virus entry into cells; viral entry may be an important target of COVID-19 therapeutics. Geraniin was found to effectively block the binding between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and hACE2 receptor in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting that geraniin might inhibit the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human epithelial cells. Geraniin also demonstrated a high affinity to both proteins despite a relatively lower equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the spike protein (0.63 µM) than hACE2 receptor (1.12 µM), according to biolayer interferometry-based analysis. In silico analysis indicated geraniin's interaction with the residues functionally important in the binding between the two proteins. Thus, geraniin is a promising therapeutic agent for COVID-19 by blocking SARS-CoV-2's entry into human cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Glucosides/pharmacology , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Glucosides/chemistry , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Ligands , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
4.
Antiviral Res ; 190: 105075, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290345

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 infection is the cause of the global COVID-19 pandemic. To date, there are limited therapeutic options available to fight this disease. Here we examined the inhibitory abilities of two broad-spectrum antiviral natural products chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) against SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Both CHLA and PUG reduced virus-induced plaque formation in Vero-E6 monolayer at noncytotoxic concentrations, by targeting the enzymatic activity of viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) as allosteric regulators. Our study demonstrates the potential use of CHLA and PUG as novel COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucosides/pharmacology , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Allosteric Site , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzopyrans/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Glucosides/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3908-3913, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has now been declared as a worldwide pandemic. Currently, no drugs have been endorsed for its treatment; in this manner, a pressing need has been developed for any antiviral drugs that will treat COVID-19. Coronaviruses require the SARS-CoV-2 3CL-Protease (3CL-protease) for cleavage of its polyprotein to yield a single useful protein and assume a basic role in the disease progression. In this study, we demonstrated that punicalagin, the fundamental active element of pomegranate in addition to the combination of punicalagin with zinc (Zn) II, appear to show powerful inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 3CL protease assay kit was used to quantify 3CL protease action. The tetrazolium dye, MTS, was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Punicalagin showed inhibitory action against the 3CL-protease in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 was found to be 6.192 µg/ml for punicalagin. Punicalagin (10 µg/mL) demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity toward 3CL-protease activity (p < 0.001), yet when punicalagin is combined with zinc sulfate monohydrate (punicalagin/Zn-II) extremely strong 3CL-protease activity (p < 0.001) was obtained. The action of 3CL-protease with punicalagin/Zn-II was decreased by approximately 4.4-fold in contrast to only punicalagin (10 µg/mL). Likewise, we did not notice any significant cytotoxicity caused by punicalagin, Zn-II, or punicalagin/Zn-II. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that these compounds could be used as potential antiviral drugs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Zinc Sulfate/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Synergism , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/metabolism , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Zinc Sulfate/metabolism , Zinc Sulfate/pharmacology
6.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153591, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease caused more than 100,000,000 people get infected and over 2,200,000 people being killed worldwide. However, the current developed vaccines or drugs may be not effective in preventing the pandemic of COVID-19 due to the mutations of coronavirus and the severe side effects of the newly developed vaccines. Chinese herbal medicines and their active components play important antiviral activities. Corilagin exhibited antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, whether it blocks the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and hACE2 has not been elucidated. PURPOSE: To characterize an active compound, corilagin derived from Phyllanthus urinaria as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors for its possible preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products. METHODS: Computational docking coupled with bio-layer interferometry, BLI were adopted to screen more than 1800 natural compounds for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD inhibitors. Corilagin was confirmed to have a strong binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2-RBD or human ACE2 (hACE2) protein by the BLI, ELISA and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of viral infection of corilagin was assessed by in vitro pseudovirus system. Finally, the toxicity of corilagin was examined by using MTT assay and maximal tolerated dose (MTD) studies in C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS: Corilagin preferentially binds to a pocket that contains residues Cys 336 to Phe 374 of spike-RBD with a relatively low binding energy of -9.4 kcal/mol. BLI assay further confirmed that corilagin exhibits a relatively strong binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2-RBD and hACE2 protein. In addition, corilagin dose-dependently blocks SARS-CoV-2-RBD binding and abolishes the infectious property of RBD-pseudotyped lentivirus in hACE2 overexpressing HEK293 cells, which mimicked the entry of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human host cells. Finally, in vivo studies revealed that up to 300 mg/kg/day of corilagin was safe in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings suggest that corilagin could be a safe and potential antiviral agent against the COVID-19 acting through the blockade of the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD to hACE2 receptors. CONCLUSION: Corilagin could be considered as a safe and environmental friendly anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent for its potential preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/toxicity , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/toxicity , Lentivirus Infections/drug therapy , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 591: 130-136, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009316

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, resulting from human-to-human transmission of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a global health crisis. Given that the 3 chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays an indispensable role in viral polyprotein processing, its successful inhibition halts viral replication and thus constrains virus spread. Therefore, developing an effective SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor to treat COVID-19 is imperative. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based method was used to assess the proteolytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro using intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic peptide substrates corresponding to the cleavage sequence of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Molecular modeling with GEMDOCK was used to simulate the molecular interactions between drugs and the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. This study revealed that the Vmax of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro was about 2-fold higher than that of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. Interestingly, the proteolytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro is slightly more efficient than that of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. Meanwhile, natural compounds PGG and EGCG showed remarkable inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro than against SARS-CoV 3CLpro. In molecular docking, PGG and EGCG strongly interacted with the substrate binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, forming hydrogen bonds with multiple residues, including the catalytic residues C145 and H41. The activities of PGG and EGCG against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro demonstrate their inhibition of viral protease activity and highlight their therapeutic potentials for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Binding Sites , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/metabolism , Catechin/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/metabolism , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
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