Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.605
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(12): 1493-1502, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine is still controversial, it has been demonstrated in vitro to control SARS-CoV-2 multiplication on Vero E6 cells. In this study, we tested the possibility that some patients with prolonged virus excretion could be infected by less susceptible strains. METHOD: Using a high-content screening method, we screened 30 different selected isolates of SARS-CoV-2 from different patients who received azithromycin ± hydroxychloroquine. We focused on patients with viral persistence, i.e., positive virus detection in a nasopharyngeal sample ≥10 days, and who were tested during two French epidemic waves, late winter-spring of 2020 and the summer of 2020. Dose-response curves in single-molecule assays with hydroxychloroquine were created for isolates with suspected reduced susceptibility. Genome clustering was performed for all isolates. RESULTS: Of 30 tested strains, three were detected as replicating in the presence of azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine, each at 5 µM. The dose-response model showed a decrease in susceptibility of these three strains to hydroxychloroquine. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these three strains are all from the second epidemic wave and two cluster with isolates from Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced susceptibility to hydroxychloroquine was not associated with viral persistence in naso-pharyngeal samples. Rather, it was associated with occurring during the second epidemic wave, which began in the summer and with strains clustering with those with a common genotype in Africa, where hydroxychloroquine was the most widely used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 796855, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607033

ABSTRACT

Since its appearance, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents a global problem for human health that involves the host lipid homeostasis. Regarding, lipid rafts are functional membrane microdomains with highly and tightly packed lipid molecules. These regions enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol recruit and concentrate several receptors and molecules involved in pathogen recognition and cellular signaling. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts have multiple functions for viral replication; however, their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. In this review, we discussed the novel evidence on the cholesterol-rich lipid rafts as a platform for SARS-CoV-2 entry, where receptors such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), human Toll-like receptors (TLRs), transmembrane serine proteases (TMPRSS), CD-147 and HDL-scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) are recruited for their interaction with the viral spike protein. FDA-approved drugs such as statins, metformin, hydroxychloroquine, and cyclodextrins (methyl-ß-cyclodextrin) can disrupt cholesterol-rich lipid rafts to regulate key molecules in the immune signaling pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, better knowledge on cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in the SARS-CoV-2-host interactions will provide valuable insights into pathogenesis and the identification of novel therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Membrane Microdomains/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , beta-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology
4.
Clin Med Res ; 19(4): 179-182, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581437

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) having mild to moderate symptoms.Methods: This blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Pak Emirates Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from June 1-15, 2020. A total of 150 hospitalized patients were enrolled after diagnoses with COVID-19 through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). They were divided into three groups: hydroxychloroquine plus general care (HGC, n=50), chloroquine plus general care (CGC, n=50); and only general care (OGC, n=50). The HGC group received treatment with hydroxychloroquine 400 mg every 12 hours for day one and 200 mg for the next 4 days. The CGC group received treatment with chloroquine 250 mg every 12 hours for 7 days. The OGC group was kept as a control with only general care. After 12 days, the patients were screened for development of CRS through detection of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in serum samples by using Roche cobas e411 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer.Results: The mean duration from onset of symptoms to randomization was 7.65 days (SD = 3.287 days; range, 2-15 days). The mean age of patients was 37.57 (range 19-63) years. Results showed that out of a total 150 patients, only 10 patients (6%, mean=1.93; CI=1.89-1.97, P=0.651) developed CRS in all study groups. Four patients (8%) developed CRS in the HGC group, 2 patients (4%) in the CGC group, and 4 patients (8%) in the OGC group. There was no significant difference in the mean level of CRS among study groups.Conclusion: Administration of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine has no effect in reducing the development of CRS in patients with COVID-19 having mild to moderate symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580701

ABSTRACT

Using drugs to treat COVID-19 symptoms may induce adverse effects and modify patient outcomes. These adverse events may be further aggravated in obese patients, who often present different illnesses such as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease. In Rennes University Hospital, several drug such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used in the clinical trial HARMONICOV to treat COVID-19 patients, including obese patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether HCQ metabolism and hepatotoxicity are worsened in obese patients using an in vivo/in vitro approach. Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with untargeted screening and molecular networking were employed to study drug metabolism in vivo (patient's plasma) and in vitro (HepaRG cells and RPTEC cells). In addition, HepaRG cells model were used to reproduce pathophysiological features of obese patient metabolism, i.e., in the condition of hepatic steatosis. The metabolic signature of HCQ was modified in HepaRG cells cultured under a steatosis condition and a new metabolite was detected (carboxychloroquine). The RPTEC model was found to produce only one metabolite. A higher cytotoxicity of HCQ was observed in HepaRG cells exposed to exogenous fatty acids, while neutral lipid accumulation (steatosis) was further enhanced in these cells. These in vitro data were compared with the biological parameters of 17 COVID-19 patients treated with HCQ included in the HARMONICOV cohort. Overall, our data suggest that steatosis may be a risk factor for altered drug metabolism and possibly toxicity of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Correlation of Data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580692

ABSTRACT

Although blood-heart-barrier (BHB) leakage is the hallmark of congestive (cardio-pulmonary) heart failure (CHF), the primary cause of death in elderly, and during viral myocarditis resulting from the novel coronavirus variants such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome novel corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as COVID-19, the mechanism is unclear. The goal of this project is to determine the mechanism of the BHB in CHF. Endocardial endothelium (EE) is the BHB against leakage of blood from endocardium to the interstitium; however, this BHB is broken during CHF. Previous studies from our laboratory, and others have shown a robust activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) during CHF. MMP-9 degrades the connexins leading to EE dysfunction. We demonstrated juxtacrine coupling of EE with myocyte and mitochondria (Mito) but how it works still remains at large. To test whether activation of MMP-9 causes EE barrier dysfunction, we hypothesized that if that were the case then treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could, in fact, inhibit MMP-9, and thus preserve the EE barrier/juxtacrine signaling, and synchronous endothelial-myocyte coupling. To determine this, CHF was created by aorta-vena cava fistula (AVF) employing the mouse as a model system. The sham, and AVF mice were treated with HCQ. Cardiac hypertrophy, tissue remodeling-induced mitochondrial-myocyte, and endothelial-myocyte contractions were measured. Microvascular leakage was measured using FITC-albumin conjugate. The cardiac function was measured by echocardiography (Echo). Results suggest that MMP-9 activation, endocardial endothelial leakage, endothelial-myocyte (E-M) uncoupling, dyssynchronous mitochondrial fusion-fission (Mfn2/Drp1 ratio), and mito-myocyte uncoupling in the AVF heart failure were found to be rampant; however, treatment with HCQ successfully mitigated some of the deleterious cardiac alterations during CHF. The findings have direct relevance to the gamut of cardiac manifestations, and the resultant phenotypes arising from the ongoing complications of COVID-19 in human subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart/virology , Animals , Blood/virology , Blood Physiological Phenomena/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomegaly/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium/metabolism , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Failure/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
8.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572567

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the name of the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that occurred in 2019. The virus-host-specific interactions, molecular targets on host cell deaths, and the involved signaling are crucial issues, which become potential targets for treatment. Spike protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), cathepsin L-cysteine peptidase, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), open reading frame 7a (ORF7a), viral main protease (3C-like protease (3CLpro) or Mpro), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (Nsp12), non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) helicase, and papain-like proteinase (PLpro) are molecules associated with SARS-CoV infection and propagation. SARS-CoV-2 can induce host cell death via five kinds of regulated cell death, i.e., apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy, and PANoptosis. The mechanisms of these cell deaths are well established and can be disrupted by synthetic small molecules or natural products. There are a variety of compounds proven to play roles in the cell death inhibition, such as pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) for apoptosis, necrostatin-1 for necroptosis, MCC950, a potent and specific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome in pyroptosis, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, which can mitigate the corresponding cell death pathways. However, NF-κB signaling is another critical anti-apoptotic or survival route mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Such signaling promotes viral survival, proliferation, and inflammation by inducing the expression of apoptosis inhibitors such as Bcl-2 and XIAP, as well as cytokines, e.g., TNF. As a result, tiny natural compounds functioning as proteasome inhibitors such as celastrol and curcumin can be used to modify NF-κB signaling, providing a responsible method for treating SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The natural constituents that aid in inhibiting viral infection, progression, and amplification of coronaviruses are also emphasized, which are in the groups of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, diarylheptanoids, and anthraquinones. Natural constituents derived from medicinal herbs have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, as well as inhibitory effects, on the viral life cycle, including viral entry, replication, assembly, and release of COVID-19 virions. The phytochemicals contain a high potential for COVID-19 treatment. As a result, SARS-CoV-2-infected cell death processes and signaling might be of high efficacy for therapeutic targeting effects and yielding encouraging outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Death/drug effects , Drug Discovery/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Necroptosis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544344

ABSTRACT

Due to current advances and growing experience in the management of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the outcome of COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness would be expected to be better in the second wave compared with the first wave. As our hospitalization criteria changed in the second wave, we aimed to investigate whether a favorable outcome occurred in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with only severe/critical illness. Among 642 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the first wave and 1121 in the second wave, those who met World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for severe or critical illness on admission or during follow-up were surveyed. Data on demographics, comorbidities, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on admission, and outcomes were obtained from an electronic hospital database. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of patients in the first and second waves. There were 228 (35.5%) patients with severe/critical illness in the first wave and 681 (60.7%) in the second wave. Both groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities, other than chronic kidney disease. Median serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the second wave compared with those in the first wave [109 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-157) vs. 87 mg/L (IQR: 39-140); p < 0.001]. However, intensive care unit admission and mortality rates were similar among the waves. Even though a lower mortality rate in the second wave has been reported in previous studies, including all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we found similar demographics and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness in the first and second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 382, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547778

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major concern and a new threat to immunocompromised patients. Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are at increased risk of infections, in particular when they have active disease and are on immunosuppressive treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and radiological features of three patients with COVID-19 associated with chronic IBD as well as their management and outcomes. The study was conducted at the Hassan II University Teaching Hospital in Fes, Morocco over a 3-month period. We assessed all patients with disease onset. All patients had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic. No changes or delays in treatment regimens occurred and none of patients developed severe COVID-19. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results were positive in all patients. Radiological examinations were conducted. Chest scanner showed ground-glass opacities in one case. Treatment was based on hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. Outcome was good in all cases. This preliminary report suggests that patients with chronic IBD aren't at higher risk of developing COVID-19 compared to the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1261-1269, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New treatment modalities are urgently needed for patients with COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) Solidarity trial showed no effect of remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on mortality, but the antiviral effects of these drugs are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of remdesivir and HCQ on all-cause, in-hospital mortality; the degree of respiratory failure and inflammation; and viral clearance in the oropharynx. DESIGN: NOR-Solidarity is an independent, add-on, randomized controlled trial to the WHO Solidarity trial that included biobanking and 3 months of clinical follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04321616). SETTING: 23 hospitals in Norway. PATIENTS: Eligible patients were adults hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTION: Between 28 March and 4 October 2020, a total of 185 patients were randomly assigned and 181 were included in the full analysis set. Patients received remdesivir (n = 42), HCQ (n = 52), or standard of care (SoC) (n = 87). MEASUREMENTS: In addition to the primary end point of WHO Solidarity, study-specific outcomes were viral clearance in oropharyngeal specimens, the degree of respiratory failure, and inflammatory variables. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between treatment groups in mortality during hospitalization. There was a marked decrease in SARS-CoV-2 load in the oropharynx during the first week overall, with similar decreases and 10-day viral loads among the remdesivir, HCQ, and SoC groups. Remdesivir and HCQ did not affect the degree of respiratory failure or inflammatory variables in plasma or serum. The lack of antiviral effect was not associated with symptom duration, level of viral load, degree of inflammation, or presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at hospital admittance. LIMITATION: The trial had no placebo group. CONCLUSION: Neither remdesivir nor HCQ affected viral clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Clinical Therapy Research in the Specialist Health Services, Norway.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Oropharynx/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6760-6764, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544331

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than a hundred million individuals and caused more than three million deaths worldwide. Specific risk groups were defined for increased risk of mortality and morbidity in COVID-19, and renal transplant recipients are at a significantly increased risk regarding outcomes due to their immunosuppressed conditions. This study evaluated the general characteristics of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection. Among 1257 transplant cases, 56 had COVID-19 infection, and 23 (41%) were hospitalized during the 9-month study period. Among all COVID-19 cases, 58% were male with a mean age of 45.5 (±13.2, 19-71) years, and the most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (70.9%) and diabetes (23.6%). Hospitalized patients were older (p = 0.03) and had higher rates of hypertension (p = 0.008), diabetes (p = 0.002), and ischemic heart disease (p = 0.03). Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal and prednisolone increase in 71%, calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal in 8% and decrease in 58%, hydroxychloroquine in 17%, tocilizumab in 3%, and antivirals in 67% of patients. Acute kidney injury and respiratory failure developed in 34% and 85%, respectively. The mortality rate was 23%. These results emphasized that the COVID-19 infection in renal transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, these patients should be intervened earlier and monitored closely to prevent poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Young Adult
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6737-6749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544327

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine or its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) combined with or without azithromycin (AZ) have been widely investigated in observational studies as a treatment option for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. The network meta-analysis aims to summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if AZ or HCQ is associated with improved clinical outcomes. PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to March 7, 2021. We included published RCTs that investigated the efficacy of AZ, HCQ, or its combination among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. The outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality and the use of mechanical ventilation. The pooled odds ratio was calculated using a random-effect model. A total of 10 RCTs were analyzed. Participant's mean age ranged from 40.4 to 66.5 years. There was no significant effect on mortality associated with AZ plus HCQ (odds ratio [OR] = 0.562 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.168-1.887]), AZ alone (OR = 0.965 [95% CI: 0.865-1.077]), or HCQ alone (OR = 1.122 [95% CI: 0.995-1.266]; p = 0.06). Similarly, based on pooled effect sizes derived from direct and indirect evidence, none of the treatments had a significant benefit in decreasing the use of mechanical ventilation. No heterogeneity was identified (Cochran's Q = 1.68; p = 0.95; τ2 = 0; I2 = 0% [95% CI: 0%-0%]). Evidence from RCTs suggests that AZ with or without HCQ was not associated with a significant effect on the mortality or mechanical ventilation rates in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. More research is needed to explore therapeutics agents that can effectively reduce the mortality or severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Network Meta-Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/methods
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 572, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used for hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients because of their antiviral and anti-inflammatory function. However, little research has been published on the impact of the immunomodulatory effect of (hydroxy)chloroquine on humoral immunity. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reinfection, diagnosed 141 days after the first episode, in a 56-year-old man of Black African origin treated with hydroxychloroquine for lupus erythematosus. No anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG antibodies could be detected 127 days after the initial episode of coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with hydroxychloroquine probably explains the decreased immune response with negative serology and subsequent reinfection in our patient. As humoral immunity is crucial to fight a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine is likely to have a detrimental effect on the spread of the virus. This case emphasizes that more needs to be learned about the role of antibodies in protecting against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (re)infection and the role of (hydroxy)chloroquine on humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 832, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study is designed to evaluate the main hypothesis that nafamostat mesilate with standard therapy improves the severity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We conduct a randomized, open type, multi-institute/center, 2-group clinical trial with COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Korea. Eighty four patients with COVID-19 pneumonia are randomly assigned to intervention group or control group. Patients in intervention group receive the standard therapy with a dose of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/h (2.4 to 4.8 mg/kg/day) of nafamostat mesilate. Patients in control group receive the standard therapy such as lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, oxygen therapy, non-invasive and invasive ventilator, antibiotic therapy, renal-replacement therapy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The primary outcome is proportion of patients with clinical improvement as defined by live discharge from hospital or a decline of 2 categories on the seven-category ordinal scale of clinical status, as well as secondary outcome comprised change in National Early Warning Score, duration of hospitalization, incidence of new-non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen use or ventilator, mortality at day 28, viral load change, and adverse events. DISCUSSION: Our study contributes to the establishment of therapeutic strategy in COVID-19 pneumonia by evaluating the therapeutic effect and safety of nafamostat mesilate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04418128. Registered on 5 June 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Benzamidines , Guanidines/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...