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1.
J Food Prot ; 85(1): 85-97, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810930

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A group of experts from all Canadian federal food safety partners was formed to monitor the potential issues relating to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) food contamination, to gather and consider all of the relevant evidence and to determine the impact for Canadian food safety. A comprehensive risk pathway was generated to consider the likelihood of a SARS-CoV-2 contamination event at any of the relevant steps of the food processing and handling chain and the potential for exposure and transmission of the virus to the consumer. The scientific evidence was reviewed and assessed for each event in the pathway, taking into consideration relevant elements that could increase or mitigate the risk of contamination. The advantage of having an event-wise contextualization of the SARS-CoV-2 transmission pathway through the food chain is that it provides a systematic and consistent approach to evaluate any new data and communicate its importance and impact. The pathway also increases the objectivity and consistency of the assessment in a rapidly evolving and high-stakes situation. Based on our review and analysis, there is currently no comprehensive epidemiological evidence of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2, or its known variants, causing coronavirus disease 2019 from transmission through food or food packaging. Considering the remote possibility of exposure through food, the likelihood of exposure by ingestion or contact with mucosa is considered negligible to very low, and good hygiene practices during food preparation should continue to be followed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Canada , Food Chain , Humans , Hygiene
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(4): 286-288, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793123
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 749774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789370

ABSTRACT

The immune system is an efficiently toned machinery that discriminates between friends and foes for achieving both host defense and homeostasis. Deviation of immune recognition from foreign to self and/or long-lasting inflammatory responses results in the breakdown of tolerance. Meanwhile, educating the immune system and developing immunological memory are crucial for mounting defensive immune responses while protecting against autoimmunity. Still to elucidate is how diverse environmental factors could shape autoimmunity. The emergence of a world pandemic such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) not only threatens the more vulnerable individuals including those with autoimmune conditions but also promotes an unprecedented shift in people's dietary approaches while urging for extraordinary hygiene measures that likely contribute to the development or exacerbation of autoimmunity. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand how environmental factors modulate systemic autoimmunity to better mitigate the incidence and or severity of COVID-19 among the more vulnerable populations. Here, we discuss the effects of diet (macronutrients and micronutrients) and hygiene (the use of disinfectants) on autoimmunity with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diet/methods , Hygiene , Immune Tolerance , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogota) ; 19(Especial de pandemias): 1-18, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1780282

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia de covid-19 ha suscitado un nuevo interés en la historia de la salud. Tanto en Chile como en otras partes del mundo, la búsqueda de respuestas en torno a cómo las sociedades pasadas han enfrentado la llegada de alguna epidemia ha hecho recordar que el contagio forma parte de nuestra historia y la estrecha relación que existe entre enfermedad y Estado. Desarrollo: se estudia la dimensión pública de la salud en Santiago de Chile entre los años 1810 y 1842, indagando, principalmente, en las respuestas que el Estado y sus instituciones entregaron en materia sanitaria frente a la aparición de brotes epidémicos. Se revisan las epidemias generadas por escarlatina, viruela y erisipela, dado que fueron las enfermedades que desencadenaron una respuesta de carácter institucional. Conclusión: la aparición de dichos brotes epidémicos se tradujo en que el Estado, a través de instituciones como el Protomedicato, la Junta de Sanidad, la Junta de Beneficencia o la Junta de Vacuna, articuló una respuesta sanitaria que se centró en mejorar las condiciones de higiene de la ciudad. A su vez, dio cuenta de dimensión pública de la enfermedad y de la capacidad que el Estado tuvo de poner en marcha medidas concretas que permitieran frenar los estragos de las epidemias


Introduction: The covid-19 pandemic has generated a new interest in the history of health. In Chile and other parts of the world, search for answers regarding societies that have dealt with epidemics reminds us that contagions have been a part of our history and that there is a close relationship between disease and the State. Development: We studied the public dimension of health in Santiago de Chile between 1810 and 1842, mainly considering the responses of the State and its institutions toward epidemic out-breaks. In addition, we reviewed the scarlet fever, smallpox, and erysipelas epidemics, as these were the diseases that triggered an institutional response. Conclusion: The appearance of these epidemic out-breaks signified that the State, through institutions such as the Protomedicato, Junta de Sanidad, Junta de Beneficencia, or Junta de Vacuna, articulated a sanitary response that focused on improving the hygienic conditions of the city. At the same time, epidemic outbreaks also showed the public dimension of a dis-ease and the State's capacity to implement specific measures to cope with the ravages of epidemics


Introdução: a pandemia que vivemos de covid-19 despertou um novo interesse na história da saúde. Tanto no Chile como em outras partes do mundo, a busca por respostas sobre como as sociedades do passado enfrentaram a chegada de uma epidemia nos lembrou que o contágio faz parte da nossa história e da estreita relação que existe entre a doença e o Estado. Desenvolvimento: estuda-se a dimensão pública da saúde em Santiago do Chile entre os anos 1810 e 1842, investigando principalmente as respostas que o Estado e suas instituições deram em matéria de saúde ante o aparecimento de surtos epidêmicos. Revisamos as epidemias geradas pela escarlatina, varíola e erisipela, por serem as doenças que desen-cadearam uma resposta institucional. Conclusão: o surgimento desses surtos epidêmicos fez com que o Estado, por meio de instituições como o Protomedicato, o Conselho de Saúde, o Conselho de Caridade ou o Conselho de Vacinas, articulasse uma resposta sanitária centrada na melhoria das condições de higiene da cidade. Ao mesmo tempo, deu conta da dimensão pública da doença e da capacidade de que dispõe o Estado para implementar medidas concretas que permitiram conter a devastação das epidemias


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks , Unified Health System , Chile , Hygiene , Epidemics , COVID-19 , History
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 746399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775919

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-therapeutic hysterectomy has been performed to this day in Mexican women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), but the rationale for performing the procedure has been rarely submitted to clinical ethics committees. The objectives of the present research were to determine the frequency of hysterectomy and the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics that associated to the indication of hysterectomy in girls and young females with IDs and to analyse the emerging ethical issues related to the procedure. Materials and Methods: A medical chart review was conducted to identify female patients aged ≤ 25 years who had IDs based on anatomical pathologies and hospital records and underwent hysterectomy between January 2014 and December 2019 in nine high-concentration hospitals in Mexico City. Data were collected using a questionnaire developed ex professo and validated through a pilot study and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 21.0 software. Results: Information of 234 female patients with or without ID who were ≤ 25 years of age was reported by the departments of anatomical pathology and paediatrics. Of the patients, 184 (79%) were excluded because the information reported was found to be erroneous or incomplete during the medical records review. Most of the 50 emales included in the study had moderate ID (n = 23, 46%) followed by those with severe ID (n = 17, 34%). The mean age at hysterectomy was 15 ± 2.9 years. Prophylactic-total abdominal hysterectomy was the most frequently performed (n = 42, 84%). A concurrence was observed between the parental and medical reasons justifying hysterectomy. The most frequent reasons were fertility control (parents vs. physicians: 46 vs. 42%), management of menstrual hygiene (28 vs. 30%) and risk of sexual abuse (6 vs. 6%). Conclusion: This study showed that performing non-therapeutic hysterectomy is subject to the clinical judgement of physicians according to their perception of the patient's quality of life. Therefore, the ethical quality of the decision to perform the procedure in girls and young females resides in the ethical value of its consequences.


Subject(s)
Intellectual Disability , Adult , Child , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hygiene , Hysterectomy/methods , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Menstruation , Mexico/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life
6.
Int Marit Health ; 73(1): 20-31, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776531

ABSTRACT

This study aims to realise hygienic contactless logistic activities to ensure more secure sustainability of logistic movements, in order to protect global logistics from pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which was first seen in Wuhan, China in the first quarter of 2020. The Industry 4.0 and hygienic contactless logistics has been examined and defined for hygiene-based contactless logistics, a concept that is considered new in logistics literature. During the COVID-19 pandemic, contactless logistics and the eighth right of logistics called "right hygiene" practices will reduce the risk of human-induced diseases and support the sustainability of logistics activities with physical distance between machine and human as the concept of social distance. In the study, the terms of hygiene-based contactless logistics has been introduced into the literature and in addition to the accepted '7 Right Principles of Logistics', an eighth right one called "right hygiene" has been proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 862816, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776095

ABSTRACT

Background: Changing daily habits such as diet, hygiene and physical activity may be some of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of this pandemic on lifestyle, physical activity, eating and hygiene habits among students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 171 students from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Serbia. Data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test, Marginal homogeneity test and Chi-square test. The differences were considered statistically significant when p ≤ 0.05. Results: In this study, it was observed that the most common physical activity before the pandemic was walking, while during the pandemic was home exercising. Compared to the period before the pandemic, there was no difference in the time spent engaging in daily physical activity (p = 0.334). However, there was a significant increase in sitting time during the pandemic (p = 0.005). Difference was noticed in the use of breakfast, the number of meals, and the type of fat in the diet before and during the pandemic (p = 0.000). During the pandemic, there was an increase in the use of fruits (p = 0.000), vegetables, and nuts (p = 0.001), while the use of fast food and alcohol have decreased. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant increase in the use of dietary supplements was observed (40.2%), (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Given that the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, certain changes in lifestyle observed in this study should be confirmed in more extensive population studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Habits , Humans , Hygiene , Life Style , Students
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 6, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To protect the health and safety of healthcare workers (HCWs), it is essential to ensure the provision of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and standard precautions in healthcare facilities (HCF). The objectives of this short communication were 1) to assess the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs in seven provinces in Afghanistan before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) to elucidate the relevance of these patterns with the number of reported HCW infections from COVID-19 in the mentioned provinces. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data from the 2018-19 Afghanistan Service Provision Assessment survey, which included 142 public and private HCFs in seven major provinces in Afghanistan. Data on COVID-19 cases were obtained from the Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health Data Warehouse. Weighted prevalence of WASH services and standard precautions were calculated using frequencies and percentages. ArcGIS maps were used to visualize the distribution of COVID-19 cases, and scatter plots were created to visualize the relevance of WASH services and standard precautions to COVID-19 cases in provinces. RESULTS: Of the 142 facilities surveyed, about 97% had improved water sources, and over 94% had improved toilet for clients. Overall, HCFs had limited availability of hygiene services and standard precautions, which was lower in private than public facilities. More than half of the facilities had safe final disposal and appropriate storage of sharps and medical waste. Of the seven provinces, Herat province had the highest cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population and reported lower availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs compared to other provinces. CONCLUSION: Our findings show disparities in the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in public and private facilities. Private facilities had a lower availability of hygiene services and standard precautions than public facilities. Provinces with higher availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs had a lower cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population. Pre-pandemic preparation of adequate WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs could be potentially important in combating infectious disease emergence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Water , Water Supply
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 554, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to affordable and effective menstrual hygiene products (MHP) is critical to the menstrual health of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). In this mixed-methods analysis, we use data from a programme delivering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to describe access to MHP and how COVID-19-related closures affected access to MHP; we use qualitative data to understand AGYW's experience accessing products during the study. METHODS: Between September 2019-January 2021, we used data routinely collected from ten Yathu Yathu hubs offering community-based, peer-led SRH services to adolescents and young people aged 15-24. Hubs offered free MHP (primarily disposable pads) as a service. To incentivise service access, a "loyalty" card system was embedded within Yathu Yathu, allowing individuals to gain points for services accessed and redeem rewards using these points. Branded pads, tampons and reusable pads were among available rewards. We describe access to service pads and to reward MHP, and use logistic regression to investigate factors associated with accessing pads and reward products before (Sept 2019-March 2020) and after (July 2020-Jan 2021) COVID-19-related closures. Focus group discussions explored accessibility of offering MHP through hubs. RESULTS: Between September 2019-January 2021, 6374 AGYW made 34,116 hub visits to access an SRH service and/or redeem a reward. At 30% of these visits, AGYW accessed any MHP. Before COVID19-closures, an average of 17% of monthly visits were for freely-available disposable pads compared to 34% after hubs reopened (p < 0.001). Results were similar for reward visits. Overall, 63% of 6374 AGYW collected pads as a service at least once. Prior to COVID19-closures, AGYW aged 18-24 were more likely to access service pads than adolescents (15-17-years). After reopening, access was lower among older AGYW. Prior to hub closures, uptake of reward MHP was higher among AGYW with some secondary education but not after reopening. Discussions revealed that, for adolescents aged 15-19, COVID-19-related hub closures required reverting to using ineffective materials to manage menstruation. CONCLUSION: Availability of MHP through Yathu Yathu provided a large number of AGYW with access to these products. Hubs seemed particularly important for adolescent girls. Community-based, peer-led hubs should be considered as spaces to provide AGYW access to affordable and effective MHP.


Subject(s)
Menstrual Hygiene Products , Reproductive Health Services , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Community Health Services , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Menstruation , Pandemics , Young Adult
11.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 35(1): 27-35, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740731

ABSTRACT

Objective: The restrictions imposed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have caused significant changes in people's lives. This study aimed to investigate anxiety levels and changes in health and hygiene behaviors in mothers of children with asthma in early COVID-19 lockdown in Turkey. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted on children with asthma, 6 to 11 years of age, between June 1 and 30, 2020, in Turkey. A sociodemographic data form, health and hygiene behavior form, childhood asthma control test, and state-trait anxiety inventory were administered to the mothers of the children. Results: The asthma group included 123 children (Female: 39.0%) and median age, interquartile range (IQR) [minimum-maximum]: 8.0 (6) [6-12] years; the control group included 88 children (Female: 47.7%) median age, IQR [minimum-maximum]: 8.0 (7) [5-12] years. Increased hygiene behaviors and high compliance with social isolation measures were recorded in the early lockdown, with no difference between the groups. Before the pandemic, the most frequently used cleaning products were general-purpose cleaners. During the early lockdown, however, the most frequently used product was disinfectants and was similar in both groups. In both groups, the rate of using nutritional supplements increased during the pandemic period, but the rate was higher in children with asthma both before and during the early lockdown (P < 0.001). The anxiety levels of the mothers in asthma and control groups were similar. Conclusion: This study is the first in Turkey demonstrating that, in mothers of children with asthma, lifestyle changes related to health and hygiene and anxiety levels are similar to those of other children and their mothers during the early lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Mothers , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 488, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736403

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, countries have adopted various degrees of restrictive measures on people to reduce COVID-19 transmission. These measures have had significant social and economic costs. In the absence of therapeutics, and low vaccination coverage, strategies for a safe exit plan from a lockdown are required to mitigate the transmission and simultaneously re-open societies. Most countries have outlined or have implemented lockdown exit plans. The objective of this scoping review is to (a) identify and map the different strategies for exit from lockdowns, (b) document the effects of these exit strategies, and (c) discuss features of successful exit strategies based on the evidence. METHODS: A five-step approach was used in this scoping review: (a) identifying the research question and inclusion/exclusion criteria; (b) searching the literature using keywords within PubMed and WHO databases; (c) study selection; (d) data extraction; (e) collating results and qualitative synthesis of findings. RESULTS: Of the 406 unique studies found, 107 were kept for full-text review. Studies suggest the post-peak period as optimal timing for an exit, supplemented by other triggers such as sufficient health system capacity, and increased testing rate. A controlled and step-wise exit plan which is flexible and guided by information from surveillance systems is optimal. Studies recommend continued use of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as physical distancing, use of facemasks, and hygiene measures, in different combinations when exiting from a lockdown, even after optimal vaccination coverage has been attained. CONCLUSION: Reviewed studies have suggested adopting a multi-pronged strategy consisting of different approaches depending on the context. Among the different exit strategies reviewed (phase-wise exit, hard exit, and constant cyclic patterns of lockdown), phase-wise exit appears to be the optimal exit strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732038

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the extent to which schools are struggling with the provision of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). To describe the WASH conditions in schools and discuss the implications for the safe reopening of schools during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on WASH in schools in low- and middle-income countries was performed. In April 2021, five databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, AJOL, and LILACS, were used to identify studies. Sixty-five papers met the inclusion criteria. We extracted and analyzed data considering the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) definitions and the normative contents of Human Rights to safe drinking water and sanitation. Publications included in this systematic review considered 18,465 schools, across 30 different countries. Results indicate a lack of adequate WASH conditions and menstrual hygiene management requirements in all countries. The largely insufficient and inadequate school infrastructure hampers students to practice healthy hygiene habits and handwashing in particular. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, being hindered to implement such a key strategy to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the school environment is of major concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drinking Water , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Humans , Hygiene , Menstruation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sanitation , Schools , Water Supply
14.
Med Humanit ; 48(1): 114-122, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703384

ABSTRACT

This article examines food hygiene campaigns in Britain between 1948 and 1967, using these as a way to explore the making of health citizenship and the relationship between state and citizen. The projection of hygienic citizenship amalgamated old concerns around morality, modernity and cleanliness, as well as new issues surrounding the changing position of women, the home and the rise of consumerism. Other ways of thinking about citizenship, such as social citizenship and consumer citizenship, were incorporated within food hygiene campaigns. The success or otherwise of such efforts points to a complex re-working of the connections between public health and its publics.


Subject(s)
Hygiene , Female , Health Education , Humans , Public Health , United Kingdom
15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(11): e763, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665606
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 104, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection control measures during the Covid-19 pandemic have focused on limiting physical contact and decontamination by observing cleaning and hygiene rituals. Breastfeeding requires close physical contact and observance of hygienic measures like handwashing. Worries around contamination increase during the perinatal period and can be expressed as increase in obsessive compulsive symptoms. These symptoms have shown to impact breastfeeding rates. This study attempts to explore any relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and perinatal obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and whether the Covid-19 pandemic has any impact on intent to breastfeed. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of perinatal women attending largest maternity centre in Qatar was carried out during the months of October to December 2020. Socio-demographic information, intent to breastfeed and information around obsessive compulsive thoughts around Covid-19 pandemic were collected using validated tools. RESULTS: 15.7% respondents report intent to not breastfeed. 21.4% respondents reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms. 77.3% respondents believed the biggest source of infection was from others while as only 12% of the respondents believed that the source of infection was through breastfeeding and 15.7% believed the vertical transmission as the main source of risk of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were increased and the rates of intent to breastfeed were decreased when compared with pre pandemic rates. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intent to not breastfeed were significantly associated with fear of infection to the new-born. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not significantly correlated with intent to breastfeed and can be seen as adaptive strategies utilized by women to continue breastfeeding in the context of fear of infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153398, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655143

ABSTRACT

This research examines water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) accessibility and opportunity in Kibera and Mathare during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Kibera and Mathare are two of the largest urban informal settlements in Nairobi (the capital city of Kenya) as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Accessibility indicates how easily a person can reach WASH facilities from their home by walking. Opportunity represents how many WASH options a person has near their home. We utilize the data on water and toilet facilities collected by GroundTruth Initiative in partnership with Map Kibera Trust (local community partners) between February and April 2021 - amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By conducting quantitative geospatial analysis, we illustrate WASH accessibility and related issues that were not evident in previous studies: (1) 77.4% of people living in Kibera have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (2) 60.6% of people living in Mathare have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (3) there is a clear geographic pattern in WASH facility accessibility and opportunity; and (4) overall accessibility and opportunity is better in Mathare than in Kibera. This study is one of the first studies to examine WASH accessibility and opportunity in urban informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing the current data and quantitative geospatial methods. Based on the results, we discuss important public health policy implications for people living in urban informal settlements to improve their WASH facility accessibility and opportunity during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , Water
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648359

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak represents a global public health emergency. National governments have gradually introduced restrictive measures. Using respiratory protective equipment (face masks) and gloves was essential practice without specific infection control measures or guidelines. This study aimed to assess hygiene indicators when using gloves by transport workers in Russia during the COVID-19 pandemic and to develop integral indicators and recommendations for wearing gloves for workers for whom this is a mandatory requirement. For this purpose, 1103 transport workers were surveyed using a questionnaire. We investigated the hygiene aspects of gloves and evaluated the bacterial contamination of the contact side of the gloves based on the wash results. We assessed the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, the duration of the work shift, the frequency of use of types of gloves, skin manifestations, the degree of comfort, and bacterial growth. We carried out the ranking according to comfort, the absence of adverse dermatological reactions when wearing gloves, and bacterial contamination of the inner surface of the gloves. It has been identified that it is necessary to use a comprehensive assessment of gloves to create a register of protective equipment, taking into account the frequency with which it was worn, the severity of the skin condition, comfort, and bacterial contamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Hygiene , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 169-178, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591240

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the association between individual-level adherence to social-distancing and personal hygiene behaviors recommended by public health experts and subsequent risk of COVID-19 diagnosis in the United States. Methods. Data are from waves 7 through 26 (June 10, 2020-April 26, 2021) of the Understanding America Study COVID-19 survey. We used Cox models to assess the relationship between engaging in behaviors considered high risk and risk of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results. Individuals engaging in behaviors indicating lack of adherence to social-distancing guidelines, especially those related to large gatherings or public interactions, had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis than did those who did not engage in these behaviors. Each additional risk behavior was associated with a 9% higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.13). Results were similar after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and local infection rates. Conclusions. Personal mitigation behaviors appear to influence the risk of COVID-19, even in the presence of social factors related to infection risk. Public Health Implications. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual behaviors for preventing COVID-19, which may be relevant in contexts with low vaccination. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):169-178. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306565).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Risk Behaviors , Hygiene , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
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