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2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5096, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366815

ABSTRACT

Nearly all mass gathering events worldwide were banned at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, as they were suspected of presenting a considerable risk for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the risk of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 by droplets and aerosols during an experimental indoor mass gathering event under three different hygiene practices, and used the data in a simulation study to estimate the resulting burden of disease under conditions of controlled epidemics. Our results show that the mean number of measured direct contacts per visitor was nine persons and this can be reduced substantially by appropriate hygiene practices. A comparison of two versions of ventilation with different air exchange rates and different airflows found that the system which performed worst allowed a ten-fold increase in the number of individuals exposed to infectious aerosols. The overall burden of infections resulting from indoor mass gatherings depends largely on the quality of the ventilation system and the hygiene practices. Presuming an effective ventilation system, indoor mass gathering events with suitable hygiene practices have a very small, if any, effect on epidemic spread.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Hygiene/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods , Aerosols , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 48, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344547

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns and just recently, the COVID-19 vaccines, are amongst the disease containment measures instituted globally to check the spread of COVID-19. Prolonged lockdowns are however, not sustainable in low resource economies like Nigeria, where up to 70% of her population live on less than a dollar a day, with the majority, either unemployed, or working in the private/informal sector and depending on daily earnings for survival. If the lockdown remains sustained, it would not be long before the largely poor citizens starve to death. Also, spending over US $3.9 billion on COVID-19 vaccines for more than 200 million Nigerians, as intended by the Nigerian government, is not plausible, given that neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) like Lassa fever, and other more common causes of morbidity and mortality, continue to kill more Nigerians than COVID-19. Public enlightenment of the populace on the need to strictly adhere to non-pharmacologic preventive measures, including social distancing, use of face masks, good personal hygiene, covering of the mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, frequent hand washing and sanitizing with alcohol-based hand-sanitizers and disinfection of surfaces, is what is sustainable, feasible and compatible with the economic reality in our setting. As Sir Robert Hutchison, the highly revered doyen of medicine, wrote in his petition over 85 years ago, "And from making the cure of the disease more grievous than the endurance of the same, Good Lord, deliver us", we must be careful not to make the cure of COVID-19 worse than COVID-19 itself.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Developing Countries , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Masks , Nigeria , Physical Distancing
4.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296013

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the links between poor hygiene, unclean environments and human health cannot be overemphasised, particularly in South Africa with its high incidence of infectious diseases and overburdened health system. One very controllable factor that is often overlooked is the poor disposal of litter and waste management and its adverse effects on public health. By wearing masks, regular handwashing and sanitising, as well as making sure that neighbourhoods and public spaces are clean and safe, the spread of COVID-19 and other diseases can be prevented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Environmental Health/organization & administration , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Social Conditions , Social Determinants of Health , South Africa/epidemiology
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 293, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: following the global COVID-19 outbreak, the government of Benin implemented preventive measures to stall viral transmission. We sought to evaluate adherence of the Beninese people to these preventive measures, in order to identify predictors of poor adherence and adapt the national response to COVID-19. METHODS: two consecutive online surveys were conducted between May and August 2020. Four hundred and sixty two and 507 adult participants aged 18 years and above responded to the first and second survey respectively, with >70% being males. RESULTS: more than 98% of respondents reported wearing face masks. A five-point adherence score was constituted by scoring observance to key preventive measures (mask use, physical distancing, hand hygiene, coughing hygiene and avoiding to touch one´s face). We observed that the mean adherence scores were fairly stable over time, respectively 4.08 and 4.03 during the first and second survey (p=0.439). Increasing age (aOR=1.043, 95% CI: 1.026 - 1.061; p<0.001) and obtaining COVID-19 information from official sources (aOR=1.628, 95% CI: 1.275 - 2.081; p<0.001) were significantly associated with higher adherence scores in a multivariable model. CONCLUSION: these findings suggest that a wide dissemination of adequate information about COVID-19 would increase adherence, and that targeted efforts should be directed towards increasing the compliance to preventive measures among the younger age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Public Health , Adult , Age Factors , Benin/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Information Dissemination , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113756, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schools, depending on their access to and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and the implementation of healthy behaviours, can be critical for the control and spread of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Schools provide opportunities for pupils to learn about the importance of hygiene and WASH-related practice, and build healthy habits and skills, with beneficial medium- and long-term consequences particularly in low- and middle-income countries: reducing pupils' absenteeism due to diseases, promoting physical, mental and social health, and improving learning outcomes. WASH services alone are often not sufficient and need to be combined with educational programmes. As pupils disseminate their acquired health-promoting knowledge to their (extended) families, improved WASH provisions and education in schools have beneficial effects also on the community. International organisations frequently roll out interventions in schools to improve WASH services and, in some cases, train pupils and teachers on safe WASH behaviours. How such interventions relate to local school education on WASH, health promotion and disease prevention knowledge, whether and how such knowledge and school books are integrated into WASH education interventions in schools, are knowledge gaps we fill. METHODS: We analyzed how Kenyan primary school science text book content supports WASH and health education by a book review including books used from class 1 through class 8, covering the age range from 6 to 13 years. We then conducted a rapid literature review of combined WASH interventions that included a behaviour change or educational component, and a rapid review of international policy guidance documents to contextualise the results and understand the relevance of books and school education for WASH interventions implemented by international organisations. We conducted a content analysis based on five identified thematic categories, including drinking water, sanitation, hygiene, environmental hygiene & health promotion and disease risks, and mapped over time the knowledge about WASH and disease prevention. RESULTS: The books comprehensively address drinking water issues, including sources, quality, treatment, safe storage and water conservation; risks and transmission pathways of various waterborne (Cholera, Typhoid fever), water-based (Bilharzia), vector-related (Malaria) and other communicable diseases (Tuberculosis); and the importance of environmental hygiene and health promotion. The content is broadly in line with internationally recommended WASH topics and learning objectives. Gaps remain on personal hygiene and handwashing, including menstrual hygiene, sanitation education, and related health risks and disease exposures. The depth of content varies greatly over time and across the different classes. Such locally available education materials already used in schools were considered by none of the WASH education interventions in the considered intervention studies. CONCLUSIONS: The thematic gaps/under-representations in books that we identified, namely sanitation, hygiene and menstrual hygiene education, are all high on the international WASH agenda, and need to be filled especially now, in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Disconnects exist between school book knowledge and WASH education interventions, between policy and implementation, and between theory and practice, revealing missed opportunities for effective and sustainable behaviour change, and underlining the need for better integration. Considering existing local educational materials and knowledge may facilitate the buy-in and involvement of teachers and school managers in strengthening education and implementing improvements. We suggest opportunities for future research, behaviour change interventions and decision-making to improve WASH in schools.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water/standards , Health Education , Hygiene/standards , Sanitation/standards , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Behavior , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion , Humans , Kenya , Schools , Textbooks as Topic
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 502, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research investigating the confluence of risk factors in urban slums that may make them accelerators for respiratory, droplet infections like COVID-19. Our working hypothesis was that, even within slums, an inverse relationship existed between living density and access to shared or private WASH facilities. METHODS: In an exploratory, secondary analysis of World Bank, cross-sectional microdata from slums in Bangladesh we investigated the relationship between intra-household population density (crowding) and access to private or shared water sources and toilet facilities. RESULTS: The analysis showed that most households were single-room dwellings (80.4%). Median crowding ranged from 0.55 m2 per person up to 67.7 m2 per person. The majority of the dwellings (83.3%), shared both toilet facilities and the source of water, and there was a significant positive relationship between crowding and the use of shared facilities. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the practical constraints on implementing, in slums, the conventional COVID19 management approaches of social distancing, regular hand washing, and not sharing spaces. It has implications for the management of future respiratory epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Crowding , Family Characteristics/ethnology , Poverty Areas , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sanitation/standards , Toilet Facilities/standards , Urban Population
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e24804, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major challenge to people's everyday lives. In the context of hospitalization, the pandemic is expected to have a strong influence on affective reactions and preventive behaviors. Research is needed to develop evidence-driven strategies for coping with the challenges of the pandemic. Therefore, this survey study investigates the effects that personality traits, risk-taking behaviors, and anxiety have on medical service-related affective reactions and anticipated behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify key factors that are associated with individuals' concerns about hygiene in hospitals and the postponement of surgeries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey of 929 residents in Germany (women: 792/929, 85.3%; age: mean 35.2 years, SD 12.9 years). Hypotheses were tested by conducting a saturated path analysis. RESULTS: We found that anxiety had a direct effect on people's concerns about safety (ß=-.12, 95% CI -.20 to -.05) and hygiene in hospitals (ß=.16, 95% CI .08 to .23). Risk-taking behaviors and personality traits were not associated with concerns about safety and hygiene in hospitals or anticipated behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that distinct interventions and information campaigns are not necessary for individuals with different personality traits or different levels of risk-taking behavior. However, we recommend that health care workers should carefully address anxiety when interacting with patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Hospitals/standards , Hygiene/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(4): 378-387, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085196

ABSTRACT

Toilet hygiene is an important preventive measure for infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. This study explored public's opinions on improving toilet environment and hygiene practices in Hong Kong. A mixed-method approach was applied. We conducted 4 focus groups plus 3 individual interviews among the Hong Kong Chinese, followed by a questionnaire survey with 300 respondents recruited from various districts. Difference in response distributions between groups with different demographics was tested by Pearson χ2 test. Instead of advocating for advanced toilet facilities, respondents were mostly concerned about basic hygiene issues. Malfunctioning facilities resulting from poor toilet management, such as clogged toilets, stained facilities, and problematic flushing systems, were most cited as barriers to toilet hygiene practices. Three quarters of the survey respondents expressed concerns over worn and poorly maintained toilets, shortage of janitors, and cleansing supplies. However, respondents who were older (P < .001), less educated (P < .001), and had lower income (P = .001) were significantly more likely to find hygiene conditions in public toilets satisfactory. The findings reflected the substandard of the current provisions as a developed city in Asia. Enhanced efforts by the government to maintain basic toilet supplies and facilities is the key to improving public compliance to toilet hygiene practices.


Subject(s)
Hygiene/standards , Public Opinion , Toilet Facilities/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Focus Groups , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 196(12): 1096-1102, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus pandemic is affecting global health systems, endangering daily patient care. Hemato-oncological patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, requiring decisive recommendations on treatment and triage. The aim of this survey amongst experts on radiation therapy (RT) for lymphoma and leukemia is to delineate typical clinical scenarios and to provide counsel for high-quality care. METHODS: A multi-item questionnaire containing multiple-choice and free-text questions was developed in a peer-reviewed process and sent to members of the radiation oncology panels of the German Hodgkin Study Group and the German Lymphoma Alliance. Answers were assessed online and analyzed centrally. RESULTS: Omission of RT was only considered in a minority of cases if alternative treatment options were available. Hypofractionated regimens and reduced dosages may be used for indolent lymphoma and fractures due to multiple myeloma. Overall, there was a tendency to shorten RT rather than to postpone or omit it. Even in case of critical resource shortage, panelists agreed to start emergency RT for typical indications (intracranial pressure, spinal compression, superior vena cava syndrome) within 24 h. Possible criteria to consider for patient triage are the availability of (systemic) options, the underlying disease dynamic, and the treatment rationale (curative/palliative). CONCLUSION: RT for hemato-oncological patients receives high-priority and should be maintained even in later stages of the pandemic. Hypofractionation and shortened treatment schedules are feasible options for well-defined constellations, but have to be discussed in the clinical context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Multiple Myeloma/radiotherapy , Pandemics , Radiation Oncology/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Triage/standards , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Lymphoma/complications , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Osteolysis/etiology , Osteolysis/radiotherapy , Personal Protective Equipment , Radiation Oncology/methods , Radiation Pneumonitis/diagnosis , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/etiology , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/radiotherapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time-to-Treatment , Whole-Body Irradiation
14.
Saudi Med J ; 41(11): 1263-1269, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)  pandemic in improving personal hygiene in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We administered a questionnaire distributed online between 19 and 28 May 2020 to determine alterations in personal hygiene practices during this pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic phase. Results: We included 211 respondents from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in this study.  Improvement at different levels was detected in all examined personal hygiene items compared to the pre-pandemic stage. The percentages of respondents who always washed their hands after coming back home (34.1%), used soap to wash their hands (58.8%), used a hand sanitizer outside (5.2%), wore a face masks while outside (1.4%) and washed their hands before preparing and/or eating food (74.9%) was increased before the pandemic to 89.6%, 90%, 63.5%, 59.2% and 89.1% during the pandemic, respectively. The percentage of respondents who never shake hands with people they know increased from 0% before the pandemic to 62.6% during the pandemic. The mean duration of washing hands with soap significantly increased from 13.31 seconds before the pandemic to 28.01 seconds during the pandemic (p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a noticeable improvement in the personal hygiene habits in Saudi Arabia mainly those related to COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hygiene/standards , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Role , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol (Engl Ed) ; 39(6): 375-379, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899451

ABSTRACT

This publication presents criteria and bases for the work organization in the safe practice of Hospital Radiopharmacy, in order to minimize the risk of viral transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic, in a reference facility of the National Energy Commission Atomic of Argentina, while continuing to perform essential services for the health system. For this purpose, documents from the National Energy Commission Atomic, IAEA, WHO and other scientific publications were consulted as reference. These recommendations are under constant review and are permanently updated. Within this framework, the present model of work organization for this essential activity is proposed, including general and specific recommendations and its epidemiological and immunological basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nuclear Medicine/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Nuclear Medicine/standards , Organizational Objectives , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Radiopharmaceuticals/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/standards
16.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 345-351, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875390

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The recent Sars-CoV2 pandemic has dramatically slowed patients' access to our clinic for vascular pathology when the contagion curve peaked. The need to restore the assistance activity has led us to adopt new individual prophylaxis and hygiene measures. METHODS: Doctors and staff must wear dedicated clothes. Mask and gloves are mandatory for patients. A visit is scheduled every 60 minutes to allow the sanitation of the rooms. The day before the visit patients are contacted by telephone for the Covid-19 risk triage. In the presence of symptoms the visit is postponed. In the presence of other risk factors a IgG/IgM Rapid Test for Covid-19 is performed on admission to the clinic. In the presence of fever, if an extraordinary rapid test cannot be performed, the visit must be postponed. Rapid test positive patients cannot be visited: they are placed in solitary confinement at their home waiting for a nasopharyngeal swab for Covid-19. When the rapid test is positive, immediate room sanitation also occurs. The rooms dedicated to the outpatient clinic as well as medical and not medical instruments are disinfected. CONCLUSION: The one adopted can be a useful management model for any type of care activity in order to guarantee the safety of patients and all the staff. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Management, vascular, Outpatient clinic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiology/organization & administration , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Appointments and Schedules , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfection , Forms as Topic , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Thermometry , Triage/organization & administration
17.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8012, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To generate recommendations on the management of radiotherapeutic treatments during the pandemic, adapted to a country with limited health resources. METHODS: We did a rapid review of the literature, searching for papers that describe any measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection, as well as management guidelines to reduce the workload, in radiotherapy units. The following conditions were included in the scope of this review: gynecological tumors, breast cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tumors, head and neck tumors, skin cancer, tumors of the central nervous system, and lymphomas. An expert group discussed online the extracted data and drafted the recommendations. Using a modified Delphi method, the consensus was reached among 14 certificated radio-oncologists. The quality of the evidence that supported the recommendations on treatment schedules was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 57 documents were included. Of these, 25 provided strategies to reduce the risk of infection. Recommendations for each condiction were extracted from the remaining documents. The recommendations aim to establish specific parameters where treatments can be omitted, deferred, prioritized, and shortened. Treatment schemes are recommended for each condition, prioritizing hypo-fractionated schemes whenever possible. CONCLUSIONS: We propose strategies for the management of radiotherapy services to guarantee the continuity of high-quality treatments despite the health crisis caused by COVID-19.


OBJETIVO: Establecer recomendaciones para la toma de decisiones de manejo en radioterapia durante la pandemia de COVID-19, adaptadas a un país con recursos de salud limitados. MÉTODOS: A través de una revisión rápida de la literatura se buscaron publicaciones que describieran medidas para reducir el riesgo de infección por COVID-19, así como también pautas de manejo para reducir la carga de trabajo en las unidades de radioterapia. Se incluyeron en el alcance de esta revisión las siguientes patologías: tumores ginecológicos, cáncer de mama, tumores gastrointestinales, tumores genitourinarios, tumores de cabeza y cuello, cáncer de piel, tumores del sistema nervioso central y linfomas. Un grupo de expertos discutió en línea los datos extraídos y redactó las recomendaciones. Mediante un método Delphi modificado, se evaluó el consenso entre 14 radio-oncólogos certificados. Se evaluó la calidad de la evidencia que sustentó las recomendaciones sobre esquemas de tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron un total de 57 documentos. De 25 trabajos se extrajeron las estrategias para reducir el riesgo de infección. De los restantes, se obtuvieron las recomendaciones para cada patología. Las recomendaciones están orientadas a establecer escenarios específicos donde se pueden omitir, diferir, priorizar y acortar los tratamientos. En el ítem de acortar se recomiendan esquemas de tratamiento para cada patología, priorizando los esquemas hipofraccionados cuando fue posible. CONCLUSIÓN: Se plantean estrategias para la gestión de los servicios de radioterapia con el objetivo de garantizar que los tratamientos de alta calidad para pacientes oncológicos sigan entregándose, pese a la crisis sanitaria ocasionada por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiation Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Workload , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delphi Technique , Disinfection/methods , Health Physics , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/veterinary , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiation Oncology/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/organization & administration
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1090-1099, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738475

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to threaten global health. Although global and national AMR action plans are in place, infection prevention and control is primarily discussed in the context of health care facilities with home and everyday life settings barely addressed. As seen with the recent global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, everyday hygiene measures can play an important role in containing the threat from infectious microorganisms. This position paper has been developed following a meeting of global experts in London, 2019. It presents evidence that home and community settings are important for infection transmission and also the acquisition and spread of AMR. It also demonstrates that the targeted hygiene approach offers a framework for maximizing protection against colonization and infections, thereby reducing antibiotic prescribing and minimizing selection pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance. If combined with the provision of clean water and sanitation, targeted hygiene can reduce the circulation of resistant bacteria in homes and communities, regardless of a country's Human Development Index (overall social and economic development). Achieving a reduction of AMR strains in health care settings requires a mirrored reduction in the community. The authors call upon national and international policy makers, health agencies, and health care professionals to further recognize the importance of targeted hygiene in the home and everyday life settings for preventing and controlling infection, in a unified quest to tackle AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Health/standards , Hygiene/standards , Prescription Drug Overuse/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Sanitation/standards
19.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 44(4): 101359, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731731

ABSTRACT

AIM: Contact lens wearers need to maintain optimal hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimise contact-lens complications including microbial keratitis and corneal infiltrative events. This online survey (UK and Ireland) explored contact lens wearers' compliance behaviours, attitudes and concerns during the pandemic. METHOD: The 60-item anonymous online survey was distributed during a 1-month period via Qualtrics (starting on 14/04/20). The survey captured: a) demographic information, b) type of lenses worn and compliance with lens wear and care procedures, c) adherence to recommendations and d) concerns associated with contact lens wear during the pandemic. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty seven responses were received (34.3 ±â€¯11.7 years old, 79% female). Seventy nine percent of participants reported that they were self-isolating or rigorously following social distance advice. Fifty-six percent of participants reported using their lenses less during the pandemic. Eighty-seven percent of respondents reported following the recommended 20-second rule most times/every time and 96% used soap and water during handwashing. Eleven percent of respondents admitted not following recommendations regarding disposal of lenses and 18% would not consider ceasing lens wear if unwell (with flu/cold) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Respondents reported wearing their contact lenses less than usual. Good compliance with handwashing was observed but soft reusable lens wearers showed a statistically significant lower compliance with lens wear and care compared to daily disposable lens wearers (p=<0.001).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic/statistics & numerical data , Disposable Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/standards , Hygiene/standards , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Attitude to Health , Contact Lens Solutions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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