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1.
Ann Hematol ; 101(3): 513-520, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549412

ABSTRACT

Hyperferritinemia comes to light frequently in general practice. However, the characteristics of COVID-19-associated hyperferritinemia and the relationship with the prognosis were not well described. The retrospective study included 268 documented COVID-19 patients. They were divided into the hyperferritinemia group (≥ 500 µg/L) and the non-hyperferritinemia group (< 500 µg/L). The prevalence of fever and thrombocytopenia and the proportion of patients with mechanical ventilator support and in-hospital death were much higher in the hyperferritinemia group (P < 0.001). The hyperferritinemia patients showed higher median IL-6, D-dimer, and hsCRP (P < 0.001) and lowered FIB level (P = 0.036). The hyperferritinemia group had a higher proportion of patients with AKI, ARDS, and CSAC (P < 0.001). According to the multivariate analysis, age, chronic pulmonary disease, and hyperferritinemia were found to be significant independent predictors for in-hospital mortality [HR 1.041 (95% CI 1.015-1.068), P = 0.002; HR 0.427 (95% CI 0.206-0.882), P = 0.022; HR 6.176 (95% CI 2.447-15.587), P < 0.001, respectively]. The AUROC curve was 0.88, with a cut-off value of ≥ 971 µg/L. COVID-19 patients with hyperferritinemia had a high proportion of organ dysfunction, were more likely to show hyper-inflammation, progressed to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and indicated a higher proportion of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/etiology , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
4.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 19(6): 557-569, 2020 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068114

ABSTRACT

Several reports have determined that changes in white blood cell counts and inflammatory biomarkers are related to disease outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and they can be utilized as prognostic biomarkers. For introducing a factor as a diagnostic/prognostic biomarker, diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic review and meta-analysis are recommended. For the first time, we aimed to determine the accuracies of white blood cell counts and inflammatory biomarkers for prognosis of COVID-19 patient's outcome by a DTA meta-analysis. Until August24, 2020, we searched Web of Sciences, Scopus, and MEDLINE/PubMed databases to achieve related papers. Summary points and lines of included studies were calculated from 2×2 tables by bivariate/hierarchical models. Critical condition and mortality were considered as outcomes. A total of 13387 patients from 28 studies were included in this study. Six biomarkers containing leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, increased level of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT), and ferritin met the inclusion criteria. Analysis of the area under the curve (AUCHSROC) indicated that the PCT was the only applicable prognostic biomarker for critical condition and mortality (AUCHSROC=0.80 for both conditions). Pooled-diagnostic odds ratios were 6.78 (95% CI, 3.65-12.61) for prognosis of critical condition and 13.21 (95% CI, 3.95-44.19) for mortality. Other biomarkers had insufficient accuracies for both conditions (AUCHSROC< 0.80). Among evaluated biomarkers, only PCT has good accuracy for the prognosis of both critical condition and mortality in COVID-19 and it can be considered as a single prognostic biomarker for poor outcomes. Also, PCT has more accuracy for the prognosis of mortality in comparison to critical condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Procalcitonin/blood , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Leukocytosis/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Neutrophils , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621992128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063147

ABSTRACT

Hyperferritinemia is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), macrophage activation syndromes (MAS) and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Autopsies of hyperferritinemic patients that succumbed to either sepsis, HLH, MAS or COVID-19 have revealed disseminated microvascular thromboses with von Willebrand factor (VWF)-, platelets-, and/or fibrin-rich microthrombi. It is unknown whether high plasma ferritin concentration actively promotes microvascular thrombosis, or merely serves as a prognostic biomarker in these patients. Here, we show that secretion of VWF from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is significantly enhanced by 100,000 ng/ml of recombinant ferritin heavy chain protein (FHC). Ferritin fraction that was isolated by size exclusion chromatography from the plasma of critically ill HLH patients promoted VWF secretion from HUVEC, compared to similar fraction from non-critically ill control plasma. Furthermore, recombinant FHC moderately suppressed the activity of VWF cleaving metalloprotease ADAMTS-13. These observations suggest that a state of marked hyperferritinemia could promote thrombosis and organ injury by inducing endothelial VWF secretion and reducing the ADAMTS-13 activity.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins/metabolism , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/complications , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , ADAMTS13 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Ferritins/blood , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Oxidoreductases/blood , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/blood , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20420, 2021 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055196

ABSTRACT

The authors present the case of a 58-year-old man with the unique combination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and, later on, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis admitted to the intensive care unit. During his ICU stay the patient developed a variety of complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, right heart failure and suspected HLH leading to multiorgan failure and death. Despite the proven diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, the excessively high ferritin levels of the patient did not seem fully explained by this diagnosis. Therefore, the authors want to highlight different causes of hyperferritinaemia in critically ill patients and underline the importance of differential diagnoses when interpreting continuously rising ferritin levels.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine/blood , Disease Progression , Fatal Outcome , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/etiology , Liver Failure/blood , Liver Failure/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(7): 324-331, 2021 04 09.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate hyperferritinemia could be a predicting factor of mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 100 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled and classified into moderate (n=17), severe (n=40) and critical groups (n=43). Clinical information and laboratory results were collected and the concentrations of ferritin were compared among different groups. The association between ferritin and mortality was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Moreover, the efficiency of the predicting value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The amount of ferritin was significantly higher in critical group compared with moderate and severe groups. The median of ferritin concentration was about three times higher in death group than survival group (1722.25µg/L vs. 501.90µg/L, p<0.01). The concentration of ferritin was positively correlated with other inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ferritin was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Especially, high-ferritin group was associated with higher incidence of mortality, with adjusted odds ratio of 104.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.63-4185.89; p=0.013]. Moreover, ferritin had an advantage of discriminative capacity with the area under ROC (AUC) of 0.822 (95% CI 0.737-0.907) higher than procalcitonin and CRP. CONCLUSION: The ferritin measured at admission may serve as an independent factor for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 in ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision Rules , Ferritins/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 516-518, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A virally-induced cytokine storm syndrome, associated with a massive and overwhelming systemic inflammation, burdens a subgroup of patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which leads to pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage. These severe COVID-19 patients are characterized by high ferritin levels. These findings mirror what was previously reported about the prognostic role of this iron storage protein in other inflammatory diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome. The latter suggests that ferritin could be a further pathogenic mediator in enhancing the inflammatory process, stimulating inflammatory pathways, and thus perpetuating a vicious pathogenic loop. Considering its activity as an immune activator, a therapeutic approach targeting ferritin may be also postulated in these diseases. Considering these observations, high ferritin levels characterize severe COVID-19 and other diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome. Because ferritin could enhance the inflammatory process, it could be tested as a possible new therapeutic target to improve the outcome of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins/blood , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/virology , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 494-500, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ferritin, the cellular protein storage for iron, has emerged as a key molecule in the immune system, orchestrating the cellular defense against inflammation. At the end of 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread throughout China and other countries around the world, resulting in a viral pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between ferritin and disease severity in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained clinical and laboratory data regarding 39 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 from two hospitals in Israel. RESULTS: A significant increase in ferritin levels was demonstrated in patients with moderate and severe disease, compared to patients with mild disease (P = 0.006 and 0.005, respectively). Severe patients had significantly higher levels of ferritin (2817.6 ng/ml) than non-severe patients (708.6 ng/ml) P = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary cross-sectional study, elevated ferritin levels were shown to correlate with disease severity in 39 patients from Israel with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Our results further strengthen the hypothesis that severe COVID-19 disease might be due to an underlying dysregulated hyperimmune response. In order to identify these patients early and prioritized resources, we believe that all patients with COVID-19 should be screened for hyperferritinemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Ferritins/blood , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Patient Acuity , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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