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2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e106, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947130

ABSTRACT

This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 97(1): 22-29, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To face the rapid spread of SARS-CoV2 coronavirus pandemic, home lockdown in Spain was decreed on 15th March 2020. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of this constraint on glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational, retrospective study in children and adolescents with T1D users of interstitial glucose monitoring systems. The following information corresponding to the last 2 weeks of lockdown was collected for subsequent comparison with data of 2 weeks prior to quarantine: daily insulin needs, mean interstitial glucose, estimated HbA1c, coefficient of variation (CV), time in range (70-180mg/dl), hypoglycemia (<70 and <54mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (>180 and> 250mg/dl), sensor use and number of blood glucose measurements. Data about meal routines, physical exercise, need for adjustments in therapy, acute complications and lockdown of caregivers were assessed via a survey. RESULTS: 80 patients were studied (mean age 12.61±3.32 years, mean time of evolution of the disease 5.85±3.92 years), 66.2% treated with an insulin pump, users of following glucose monitoring systems: Guardian 3 (65%), FreeStyle Libre (18.8%) and Dexcom G6 (16.2%). Time in range in the cohort increased significantly during confinement (72.1±10.5 vs 74.8±10.5%; P=0.011) with lower time in hypoglycemia both <70mg/dl (4.6±3.2 vs 3.2±2.7%; P<0.001) and <54mg/dl (1.2±1.6 vs 0.7±1.2%; P<0.001) and hyperglycemia >250mg/dl (4.6±3.9 vs 3.7±3.7%; P=0.038). CV also decreased (35.8±6.3 vs 33.1±6.1%; P<0.001). Patients treated with multiple doses of insulin and poorer baseline glycemic control experienced greatest improvement. Daily insulin requirements remained stable. Regular practice of physical exercise and caregivers' confinement did not have a significant impact. CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic control in children and adolescents with T1D improved during quarantine, particularly in those with worse baseline control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 23(1): 29, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. ACE2 is expressed on human airway epithelial cells. Increased ACE2 expression may be associated with potentially high risk of COVID-19. However, the factors responsible for the regulation of ACE2 expression in human airway epithelial cells are unknown. Furthermore, hyperglycemia is a risk factor for poor disease prognosis. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the effects of D-glucose on ACE2 mRNA and protein expressions in Calu-3 bronchial submucosal cells. The cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing different D-glucose concentrations. After 48 and 72 h of high D-glucose (1000 mg/dL) treatment, ACE2 mRNA expressions were significantly increased. ACE2 protein expressions were significantly increased after 24 h of high D-glucose treatment. ACE2 mRNA expression was enhanced by a D-glucose concentration of 550 mg/dL or more after 72 h of treatment. In addition, we investigated the role of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in Calu-3 cells. ACE2 mRNA and protein expressions were suppressed by the GLUT1 inhibitor BAY-876 in high D-glucose-treated Calu-3 cells. GLUT-1 siRNA was also used and ACE2 mRNA expressions were suppressed in high D-glucose-treated Calu-3 cells with GLUT-1 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report indicating that high D-glucose levels induced ACE2 expression via GLUT1 in bronchial submucosal cells in vitro. As hyperglycemia can be treated appropriately, these findings could help reduce the risk of worsening of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Glucose Transporter Type 1/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 50(297): 155-159, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929363

ABSTRACT

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is released into the circulation after apoptosis, necrosis, and active secretion from cells. In a healthy individual, cfDNA is present in small amounts, has a short half-life, and is predominantly derived from circulating hematopoietic cells. The composition and quantity of cfDNA dramatically changes during pathological conditions. Indeed, several studies reported elevated cfDNA concentration as a potential noninvasive biomarker in many diseases. AIM: The aim of the study was evaluation of the circulating cell-free DNA in patients with severe Covid-19 in comparison with patients with hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia (with and without hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus) to determine the specificity, sensitivity and cutoff value of cfDNA for each nosology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studies were carried out on the basis of city and regional hospitals in the Luhansk region between 2015 to 2021. Were examined in the study 28 patients with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 according to PCR analysis (14 women and 14 men), 60 patients with community- acquired pneumonia (CAP) (30 women and 30 men), 101 patients with community-acquired pneumonia and hyperglicemia (CAP+HH) (44 women and 57 men), 70 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (37 women and 33 men), 42 patients with community-acquired pneumonia in combination with type 2 diabetes mellitus (CAP+T2DM) (27 women and 15 men). The control group consisted of 81 healthy volunteer donor (46 women and 35 men). DNA fragmentation was measured with the diphenylamine assay. Statistical and graphical analyses were done using Statistica 7.0 StatSoft software and using GraphPad Prism version 9.0 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA) software. RESULTS: We found 3-4-fold higher concentration of serum cfDNA levels in COVID-19 patients (womens and mens) compared with healthy controls. Similarly, the levels of cfDNA were 1,5- to 2-fold higher in pneumoniawomens and pneumonia-mens, pneumonia+hyperglycemia-womens and pneumonia+hyperglycemia-mens pneumonia+Type2 Diabetes-womens and pneumonia+Type2 Diabetes-mens, compared with healthy controls. Our results indicate cfDNA profiles on admission can discriminate between patients with COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia at risk of severe disease and death with better performance than previously reported inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating cell-free nucleic acids (cfDNA) are novel potential biomarkers of COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia identified. Our study is one of the first to analyze cfDNA level (the cutoff value of cfDNA concentration) for prediction of COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (with and without complications and comorbidity diseases).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Community-Acquired Infections , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Male , Pneumonia/diagnosis
6.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 10(4)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923212

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review was to quantify the association between diabetes, hyperglycemia, and outcomes in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) prior to the COVID-19 pandemic by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Two investigators independently screened records identified in the PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. Cohort and case-control studies quantitatively evaluating associations between diabetes and in-hospital hyperglycemia with outcomes in adults admitted to hospital with CAP were included. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, effect size using random-effects models, and heterogeneity using I2 statistics. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Hyperglycemia was associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.50) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (crude OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.84). There was no association between diabetes status and in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.51), 30-day mortality (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.67), or ICU admission (crude OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.74 to 4.95). Diabetes was associated with increased mortality in all studies reporting >90-day postdischarge mortality and with longer length of stay only for studies reporting crude (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.01) results. In adults hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital hyperglycemia but not diabetes alone is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and ICU admission. Diabetes status is associated with increased >90-day postdischarge mortality. Implications for management are that in-hospital hyperglycemia carries a greater risk for in-hospital morbidity and mortality than diabetes alone in patients admitted with non-COVID-19 CAP. Evaluation of strategies enabling timely and effective management of in-hospital hyperglycemia in CAP is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Pneumonia , Adult , Aftercare , Community-Acquired Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia/complications
7.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(4): 389-394, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922398

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a complex bidirectional relationship between critical illness and disordered glucose metabolism. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence focused on the relationship between critical illness and disordered glucose metabolism through the distinct phases of prior to, during, and after an acute illness that requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data suggest that preexisting glucose metabolism affects the optimal blood glucose target during critical illness, with preliminary data suggesting that glucose targets should be 'personalized' based on preexisting glycemia. Because of the close association between critical illness and disordered glucose metabolism, there is a need to optimize glucose monitoring in the ICU with rapid, precise, and cost-efficient measurements at the bedside. Recent studies have evaluated the use of various methodologies, with a focus on the use of near-continuous glucose monitoring. For those patients with preexisting diabetes who survive ICU, nocturnal hypoglycemia may be an unrecognized and important issue when discharged to the ward. There is increasing evidence that patients with high blood glucose during their acute illness, so called 'stress hyperglycemia', are at increased risk of developing diabetes in the years following recovery from the inciting event. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 appear at greater risk. SUMMARY: There have been important recent insights in the approach to glucose monitoring and glucose targets during critical illness, monitoring and administration of glucose-lowering drugs on discharge from the ICU, and longitudinal follow-up of patients with stress hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Acute Disease , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/adverse effects , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Insulin , Intensive Care Units
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917516

ABSTRACT

People with diabetes are more likely to have severe COVID-19 compared to the general population. Moreover, diabetes and COVID-19 demonstrate a certain parallelism in the mechanisms and organ damage. In this work, we applied bioinformatics analysis of associative molecular networks to identify key molecules and pathophysiological processes that determine SARS-CoV-2-induced disorders in patients with diabetes. Using text-mining-based approaches and ANDSystem as a bioinformatics tool, we reconstructed and matched networks related to hyperglycemia, diabetic complications, insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction with networks of SARS-CoV-2-targeted proteins. The latter included SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors (ACE2 and DPP4), SARS-CoV-2 entry associated proteases (TMPRSS2, CTSB, and CTSL), and 332 human intracellular proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2. A number of genes/proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2 (ACE2, BRD2, COMT, CTSB, CTSL, DNMT1, DPP4, ERP44, F2RL1, GDF15, GPX1, HDAC2, HMOX1, HYOU1, IDE, LOX, NUTF2, PCNT, PLAT, RAB10, RHOA, SCARB1, and SELENOS) were found in the networks of vascular diabetic complications and insulin resistance. According to the Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, the defined molecules are involved in the response to hypoxia, reactive oxygen species metabolism, immune and inflammatory response, regulation of angiogenesis, platelet degranulation, and other processes. The results expand the understanding of the molecular basis of diabetes and COVID-19 comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/genetics , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(11): 4117-4122, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most patients with a severe COVID-19 infection have underlying diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disorders, and diabetes, and the mortality rate in these patients is higher than in other patients. Reasonable glycemic control is a practical approach to prevent the progression of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. In this study, we aimed at demonstrating that glycemic control status can be used as a biomarker in predicting the severity of the disease in the early period in diabetic patients with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our retrospective study consisted of 122 patients who referred to Sinop Ayancik State Hospital between April 1, 2020, and April 1, 2021. 40 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1C above 7), 40 diabetic patients with reasonable glycemic control (HgA1c below 7), and 42 patients without diabetes were included in the study. The patients' data included in the study were obtained by scanning the retrospective files. These patients' demographic characteristics, clinical features, age, gender, length of stay, hemogram, biochemical, hormonal parameters, HgA1c levels, and atherogenic indexes were calculated and recorded. Study groups were compared in terms of disease severity and mortality. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between mild/severe conditions (p-value < 0.001). 72.5% of those with poor glycemic control, 57.5% of those with reasonable glycemic control, and 26.2% without diabetes had severe diseases. Also, a statistically significant difference was found between the distributions of death rate (p = 0.008). 17.5% of those with poor glycemic control, 5% of those with reasonable glycemic control, and 0% of patients without diabetes died. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that poor glycemic control was an effective indicator of disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 and could predict disease progression and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(9): 3576-3586, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The clinical efficacy of corticosteroids remains unclear. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the use of high-dose versus low- dose corticosteroids on the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Electronic search for randomized controlled trials and observational studies (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL). PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized adults ≥ 18 years old who were SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive. INTERVENTIONS: High-dose and low-dose corticosteroids. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of twelve studies (n=2759 patients) were included in this review. The pooled analysis demonstrated no significant difference in mortality rate between the high-dose and low-dose corticosteroids groups (n=2632; OR: 1.07 [95%CI 0.67, 1.72], p=0.77, I2=76%, trial sequential analysis=inconclusive). No significant differences were observed in the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate (n=1544; OR: 0.77[95%CI 0.43, 1.37], p=0.37, I2= 72%), duration of hospital stay (n=1615; MD: 0.53[95%CI -1.36, 2.41], p=0.58, I2=87%), respiratory support (n=1694; OR: 1.51[95%CI 0.77, 2.96], p=0.23, I2=84%), duration of mechanical ventilation (n=419; MD: -1.44[95%CI -4.27, 1.40], p=0.32, I2=93%), incidence of hyperglycemia (n=516, OR: 0.91[95%CI 0.58, 1.43], p=0.68, I2=0%) and infection rate (n=1485, OR: 0.86[95%CI 0.64, 1.16], p=0.33, I2=29%). CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis demonstrated high-dose corticosteroids did not reduce mortality rate. However, high-dose corticosteroids did not pose higher risk of hyperglycemia and infection rate for COVID-19 patients. Due to the inconclusive trial sequential analysis, substantial heterogeneity and low level of evidence, future large-scale randomized clinical trials are warranted to improve the certainty of evidence for the use of high-dose compared to low-dose corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(5): 2180-2189, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895952

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore and describe the adverse reaction signals in the safety reporting for alpelisib. METHODS: We performed a disproportionality analysis of the World Health Organization's VigiBase pharmacovigilance database from 1 January 2019 to 30 June 2021. Disproportionality analysis by information components (ICs) were used to evaluate the potential association between adverse events (AEs) and alpelisib. RESULTS: A total of 33 327 reports were extracted, 5695 of them were chosen with alpelisib as the suspected drug. After combining the same ID, 687 cases remained. The 45-64-years group had the most cases (n = 203, 29.55%). There were 129 Preferred Terms with significant signals. Hyperglycaemia (IC025 = 6.74), breast cancer metastatic (IC025 = 5.85) and metastases to liver (IC025 = 4.70) were the AEs with the strongest signal. AEs with the most cases were hyperglycaemia (n = 595), rash (n = 535) and diarrhoea (n = 475). CONCLUSION: We established a comprehensive list of AEs potentially associated with alpelisib. AEs with the most significant signals were hyperglycaemia, breast cancer metastatic, metastases to liver. The AEs with the most cases were hyperglycaemia, rash, diarrhoea, blood glucose increase and nausea.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Exanthema , Hyperglycemia , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Databases, Factual , Diarrhea , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Pharmacovigilance , Thiazoles , World Health Organization
12.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(4): 555-561, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878340

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim was to describe the demographics, comorbidities and outcomes of care for patients with diabetes at primary care facilities in the Western Cape, South Africa, between 2015 and 2020. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the diabetes cascade database. RESULTS: The database included 116726 patients with mean age of 61.4 years and 63.8 % were female. The mean age at death was 66.0 years. Co-morbidities included hypertension (69.5 %), mental health disorders (16.2 %), HIV (6.4 %) and previous TB (8.2 %). Sixty-three percent had at least one previous hospital admission and 20.2 % of all admissions were attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Coronavirus was the third highest reason for admission over a 10-year period. Up to 70% were not receiving an annual HbA1c test. The mean value for the last HBA1c taken was 9.0%. Three-quarters (75.5 %) of patients had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7 %) and a third (33.7 %) were very poorly controlled (HbA1c>10 %). Glycaemic control was significantly different between urban sub-districts and rural areas. Renal disease was prevalent in 25.5 %. CONCLUSION: Diabetes was poorly controlled with high morbidity and mortality. There was poor compliance with guidelines for HbA1c and eGFR measurement. At least 7% of diabetic patients were being admitted for complications annually.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , South Africa/epidemiology
13.
Endocr Pract ; 28(8): 780-786, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study cardiovascular events and clinical outcomes in patients with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and/or admission hyperglycemia and those with type 2 diabetes hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective study of 1645 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia required a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction result for SARS-CoV-2, presence of new or worsening pulmonary infiltrates on computed tomography scan or chest x-ray, and at least one of following: (1) new or increased cough, (2) temperature of >37.8 °C, or (3) dyspnea. Outcomes included in-hospital cardiovascular events, intensive care unit admission, and mortality. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association of elevated HbA1c levels and/or admission hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes for individual outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1645 adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 18 with type 1 diabetes were excluded from the analysis. Of 1627 adults, 634 (39%) had known diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and among 993 patients with no diabetes, 107 (10.8%) patients were identified with elevated HbA1c levels and/or admission hyperglycemia. Patients with elevated HbA1c levels and/or admission hyperglycemia had increased odds of developing acute in-hospital cardiovascular events (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.07-2.80), intensive care unit admissions (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10-2.34), and mortality (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.02-3.07) compared to patients with type 2 diabetes and no diabetes. CONCLUSION: Patients with elevated HbA1c levels and/or admission hyperglycemia hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia have increased risk of developing acute in-hospital cardiovascular complications and overall poor clinical outcomes compared with patients with type 2 diabetes and no diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 19(3): 14791641221095091, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868975

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of COVID-19 drugs and biologicals on hyperglycemia. A literature search with key terms, such as "COVID-19 drugs and hyperglycemia" and "COVID-19 vaccines and hyperglycemia," was conducted using PubMed through September 2021. The CDC data were referenced for current COVID-19 profile and statistics. The NIH COVID-19 guidelines were referenced for updated treatment recommendations. Micromedex and UpToDate were used for drug and disease information. Current results suggested that corticosteroids (dexamethasone), remdesivir and antivirals (lopinavir and ritonavir) all have the potential to significantly raise blood glucose levels putting patients at elevated risk for severe complications. In contrary, hydroxychloroquine is associated with hypoglycemia, and tocilizumab decreases inflammation which is associated with improving glucose levels. Other anti-cytokine bioactive molecules are correlated with lower blood glucose in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Ivermectin, used for mild COVID-19 disease, possesses the potential for lowering blood glucose. Covishield, Pfizer-BioNTech, and Moderna have all been associated with hyperglycemia after the first dose. Individualized /personalized patient care is required for diabetic mellitus patients with COVID-19 infection. Improper drug therapy aggravates hyperglycemic conditions and other comorbid conditions, leading to increased morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(7): 867-873, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lockdown during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic generated uncertainty regarding its effects on the control of type 1 diabetes (DM1). Our study aims to evaluate the influence of the pandemic on the control of paediatric patients with DM1. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective, observational study in patients with DM1 attended between 15/10/2019 and 15/03/2020. Data were collected at that visit and at the three subsequent visits. The second was remote in 50% of cases. The variables analysed were: type of insulin therapy, time in range (TIR), time in hypoglycaemia (THypo), time in hyperglycaemia (THyper), coefficient of variation (CV), glycosylated haemoglobin, insulin requirements and anthropometric data. RESULTS: 157 patients were recruited. At the post-lockdown visit, the TIR increased and the THyper decreased with respect to the first (p<0.00) and second (p<0.00) visits. Patients treated with subcutaneous infusion showed a higher TIR at the third visit (p=0.03) and lower insulin requirements at the fourth visit (p=0.03) compared to patients treated with multiple doses. Patients with a remote visit presented a higher TIR (p<0.00), a lower THyper (p=0.00) and lower insulin requirements (p=0.01) at the next visit. Patients aged less than 6 years presented a lower glycosylated haemoglobin (p=0.01) and insulin requirements at the third (p=0.03) and fourth (p=0.01) visits, and a lower increase in body mass index (p=0.03) over the year. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic control improved at the post-lockdown visit. Patients treated with subcutaneous infusion, those who had a remote visit during strict lockdown and those aged less than 6 years had a better evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 68(2): 56-65, 2022 02 22.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on the features of dysglycemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) confirmed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). AIM: to study the glycemic profile in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus by continuous glucose monitoring and the role of steroid therapy in dysglycemiadevelopment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 21 patients with COVID-19 and DM 2 and 21 patients with DM 2 without COVID-19 (control group) using a professional 4-7-day CGM. We also compared two subgroups of patients with COVID-19 and DM 2: 1) patients received systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCS) during CGM and 2) patients in whomCGMwas performed after discontinuation of GCS. RESULTS: Compared with controls, patients with COVID-19 and DM2 had lesser values of glycemic «time in range¼ (32.7 ± 20.40 vs 48.0 ± 15.60%, p = 0.026) andhigher parameters of mean glycemia (p <0.05) but similar proportion of patients with episodes of hypoglycemia (33.3% vs 38.1%, p = 0.75). Patients who received dexamethasone during CGM were characterized by higher hyperglycemia and the absence of episodes of hypoglycemia. In patients who hadCGM after dexamethasone discontinuation, hyperglycemia was less pronounced, but 60% of them had episodes of hypoglycemia, often nocturnal, clinically significant and not detected by routine methods. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 and DM 2had severe and persistent hyperglycemia but a third of them hadalso episodes of hypoglycemia. During therapy with dexamethasone, they had the most pronounced hyperglycemia without episodes of hypoglycemia. In patients who underwent CGM after discontinuation of dexamethasone, hyperglycemia was less pronounced but 60% of them have episodes of hypoglycemia, often nocturnal, clinically significant and not diagnosed by routine methods. It would be advisable to recommend at least a 5-6-fold study of the blood glucose level (with its obligatory assessment at night) even for stable patients with COVID-19 and DM 2after the end of GCS treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Steroids
17.
Diabetes ; 71(7): 1579-1590, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834217

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may induce metabolic distress, leading to hyperglycemia in patients affected by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We investigated the potential indirect and direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 on human pancreatic islets in 10 patients who became hyperglycemic after COVID-19. Although there was no evidence of peripheral anti-islet autoimmunity, the serum of these patients displayed toxicity on human pancreatic islets, which could be abrogated by the use of anti-interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), anti-IL-6, and anti-tumor necrosis factor α, cytokines known to be highly upregulated during COVID-19. Interestingly, the receptors of those aforementioned cytokines were highly expressed on human pancreatic islets. An increase in peripheral unmethylated INS DNA, a marker of cell death, was evident in several patients with COVID-19. Pathology of the pancreas from deceased hyperglycemic patients who had COVID-19 revealed mild lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets and pancreatic lymph nodes. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific viral RNA, along with the presence of several immature insulin granules or proinsulin, was detected in postmortem pancreatic tissues, suggestive of ß-cell-altered proinsulin processing, as well as ß-cell degeneration and hyperstimulation. These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 may negatively affect human pancreatic islet function and survival by creating inflammatory conditions, possibly with a direct tropism, which may in turn lead to metabolic abnormalities observed in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Islets of Langerhans , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/virology , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/virology , Proinsulin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 536, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815583

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of the combination of linagliptin and insulin on metabolic control and prognosis in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hyperglycemia. A parallel double-blind randomized clinical trial including hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia, randomized to receive 5 mg linagliptin + insulin (LI group) or insulin alone (I group) was performed. The main outcomes were the need for assisted mechanical ventilation and glucose levels during hospitalization. Subjects were screened for eligibility at hospital admission if they were not with assisted mechanical ventilation and presented hyperglycemia, and a total of 73 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia were randomized to the LI group (n = 35) or I group (n = 38). The average hospital stay was 12 ± 1 vs 10 ± 1 days for the I and LI groups, respectively (p = 0.343). There were no baseline clinical differences between the study groups, but the percentage of males was higher in the LI group (26 vs 18, p = 0.030). The improvements in fasting and postprandial glucose levels were better in the LI group that the I group (122 ± 7 vs 149 ± 10, p = 0.033; and 137 ± 7 vs 173 ± 12, p = 0.017, respectively), and insulin requirements tended to be lower in the LI group than the I group. Three patients in the LI group and 12 in the I group required assisted mechanical ventilation (HR 0.258, CI 95% 0.092-0.719, p = 0.009); 2 patients in the LI group and 6 in the I group died after a follow-up of 30 days (p = 0.139). No major side effects were observed. The combination of linagliptin and insulin in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia reduced the relative risk of assisted mechanical ventilation by 74% and improved better pre and postprandial glucose levels with lower insulin requirements, and no higher risk of hypoglycemia.This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT04542213 on 09/03/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Linagliptin/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(4): 271-277, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the incidence of health problems increases during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using the health examination data (April 2018-March 2021) of Japanese workers aged 15 to 64 years, the 1-year incidence of five health problems (overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and liver damage) and four unhealthy habits (snacking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, and sleep deprivation) were compared before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The 1-year incidence of overweight, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and liver damage increased by 15% to 65% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased weight gain, related to decrease physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, was significantly associated with increased incidence of health problems. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic have deteriorated workers' health even without the COVID-19 infection. Lifestyle interventions should be promptly started particularly targeting workers with gained weight to avoid more serious consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Weight Gain
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 187: 109880, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803865

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim was to report the prevalence of diabetes status in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and assess the association between the glucometabolic status at admission and 90-day mortality. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were included in the study. All participants included had an HbA1c measurement 60 days prior to or within 7 days after admission. We studied the association between diabetes status, the glycemic gap (difference between admission and habitual status), admission plasma-glucose, and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Of 674 patients included, 114 (17%) had normal glucose level, 287 (43%) had pre-diabetes, 74 (11%) had new-onset, and 199 (30%) had diagnosed diabetes. No association between diabetes status, plasma-glucose at admission, and mortality was found. Compared to the 2nd quartile (reference) of glycemic-gap, those with the highest glycemic gap had increased mortality (3rd (HR 2.38 [1.29-4.38], p = 0.005) and 4th quartile (HR 2.48 [1.37-4.52], p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Abnormal glucose metabolism was highly prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Diabetes status per se or admission plasma-glucose was not associated with a poorer outcome. However, a high glycemic gap was associated with increased risk of mortality, suggesting that, irrespective of diabetes status, glycemic stress serves as an important prognostic marker for mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies
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